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  • Recherches Historiques Sur Saint-Léonard-Des-Bois Et Saint-Paul-Le-Gaultier, Canton de Fresnay-Sur-Sarthe (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Recherches Historiques sur Saint-Leonard-des-Bois Et Saint-Paul-le-Gaultier, Canton de Fresnay-sur-Sarthe

    La physionomie de cette contree a un cachet saisissant de sauvagerie, surtout dans les jours brumeux de l'arriere saison et de l'hiver. Les plaines des pays environnants tranchent sur cette nature heurtee, avec ses montagnes, ses murailles de rochers surplombant sur des gorges, des ravins, des precipices. Au sommet, des arbres rabougris, des pierres menacantes; sur les flancs, des masses ro cheuses, et, par intervalles, de maigres sillons ou pous sent plus ou moins bien le ble, le seigle et le sarrazin. La, on peut se rendre Compte de l'energie du cultivateur qui lutte avec courage contre la nature et feconde, avec des eliorts penibles, un sol ingrat.

    Le voyageur, arrive au sommet de Narbonne, peut jeter un coup d'oeil sur le manoir de Linthe, sur la vallee de la Sarthe qui serpente au milieu des prairies assez resserrees par les rochers et les buttes; s'il tourne ses regards sur le vallon au flanc duquel s'attache le bourg de saint-leonard, un peu au - dessus de la riviere qui decrit un demi-cercle, il les arrete sur la butte de Haut - Fourche dont l'incli naison vers la Sarthe ressemble a un ravin lave par les eaux. Aux roches de La Barre, on a fraye jadis un passage dans le roc vif, nomme l'engouloir. Plus loin, aupres du chemin tournant qui, autrefois, conduisait a Villaines-la J nhel, se presente un panorama enchanteur, avec des plaines, des eaux, des rochers, des bois et des moissons, avec les buttes du Deluge, de Saint - Laurent et, dans le lointain, celle de Chaumont.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Game Theory & the Social Contract V 1 - Playing Fair

    In Game Theory and the Social Contract, Ken Binmore argues that game theory provides a systematic tool for investigating ethical matters. His reinterpretation of classical social contract ideas within a game-theoretic framework generates new insights into the fundamental questions of social philosophy. He clears the way for this ambitious endeavor by first focusing on foundational issues -- paying particular attention to the failings of recent attempts to import game -- theoretic ideas into social and political philosophy.

    Binmore shows how ideas drawn from the classic expositions of Harsanyi and Rawls produce a synthesis that is consistent with the modern theory of noncooperative games. In the process, he notes logical weaknesses in other analyses of social cooperation and coordination, such as those offered by Rousseau, Kant, Gauthier, and Nozick. He persuasively argues that much of the current literature elaborates a faulty analysis of an irrelevant game.

    Game Theory and the Social Contract makes game-theoretic ideas more widely accessible to those with only a limited knowledge of the field. Instructional material is woven into the narrative, which is illustrated with many simple examples, and the mathematical content has been reduced to a minimum.

  • Alternative Histories - New York Art Spaces, 1960-2010

    A groundbreaking history of pioneering alternative art venues in New York where artists experimented, exhibited, and performed outside the white cube and the commercial mainstream.

    This groundbreaking book--part exhibition catalogue, part cultural history--chronicles alternative art spaces in New York City since the 1960s. Developed from an exhibition of the same name at Exit Art, Alternative Histories documents more than 130 alternative spaces, groups, and projects, and the significant contributions these organizations have made to the aesthetic and social fabric of New York City. Alternative art spaces offer sites for experimentation for artists to innovate, perform, and exhibit outside the commercial gallery-and-museum circuit. In New York City, the development of alternative spaces was almost synonymous with the rise of the contemporary art scene. Beginning in the 1960s and early 1970s, it was within a network of alternative sites--including 112 Greene Street, The Kitchen, P.S.1, FOOD, and many others--that the work of young artists like Yvonne Rainer, Vito Acconci, Gordon Matta-Clark, Ana Mendieta, David Wojnarowicz, David Hammons, Adrian Piper, Martin Wong, Jimmie Durham, and dozens of other now familiar names first circulated.

    Through interviews, photographs, essays, and archival material, Alternative Histories tells the story of such famous sites and organizations as Judson Memorial Church, Anthology Film Archives, A.I.R. Gallery, El Museo del Barrio, Franklin Furnace, and Eyebeam, as well as many less well-known sites and organizations. Essays by the exhibition curators and scholars, and excerpts of interviews with alternative space founders and staff, provide cultural and historical context.

    Contributors
    Jacki Apple, Papo Colo, Jeanette Ingberman, Melissa Rachleff, Lauren Rosati, Mary Anne Staniszewski, Herb Tam

    Interviewees
    Steve Cannon, Rhys Chatham, Peter Cramer and Jack Waters, Carol Goodden, Alanna Heiss, Bob Lee, Joe Lewis, Inverna Lockpez,
    Ann Philbin, Anne Sherwood Pundyk and Karen Yama, Irving Sandler, Adam Simon, Martha Wilson

  • Charles Lamb: Sa Vie Et Ses Oeuvres (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Charles Lamb: Sa Vie Et Ses OEuvres

    Un monde brillant et divers disparaissait. Il pouvait laisser des regrets meme a qui n'avait pas d'yeux pour le pittoresque. Il y a dans l'adoption par Lamb de a la livree du clerc le noir. Comme un retour au costume des professions encore en usage au milieu du XVIII? siecle. Il resta quelque peu refractaire aux modes nouvelles. Que l'on regarde le croquis trace de lui en 1893 par son collegue Brook Pulham. La guetre qui monte jusqu'au genou imite le bas du precedent siecle.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Dictionnaire Des Ventes d'Art Faites En France Et À l'Étranger Pendant Les Xviiie Et Xixe Siécles, Vol. 5: Ouvrage Honore d'Une Souscription Du ... Dessins, Estampes, Aquarelles, Miniature

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire des Ventes d'Art Faites en France Et a l'Etranger Pendant les Xviiie Et Xixe Siecles, Vol. 5: Ouvrage Honore d'une Souscription du Mininistere de l'Instruction Publique Et des Beaux-Arts; Tableaux, Dessins, Estampes, Aquarelles, Miniatures, Pastels, Gouaches, Sepias, Fusains, Emaux, Eventails Peints Et Vitraux

    Lady Elisabeth Montagu, lille de Georges, comte de Cardigan, d'apres Reynolds. Epreuve a petites marges 30 fr.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Oeuvres Complètes d'Apulée Traduites En Français, Vol. 1: Les Métamorphoses Ou l'Ane d'Or (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Completes d'Apulee Traduites en Francais, Vol. 1: Les Metamorphoses ou l'Ane d'Or

    Nous possedions d'ailleurs cette fois des ressources qui n avaient manque precedemment. (l'etaient, en premiere ligne, conseils, et surtout les corrections, que l'illustre secretaire honora de l'academie des inscriptions et belles - lettres, M. Kaudel, av consignes dans un remarquable article du Journal' des saran Il nous est donne d'utiliser enfin ces precieux conseils, dont fluence a porte sur l'ouvrage entier, mais principalement sur l logic. Nous avons en, de plus, constamment sous les veux divers travaux faits depuis vingt-cinq ans sur les oeuvres d'a lee. Entin, nous avons revu le texte de plus pres encore, et n nous sommes attache a en reproduire plus fidelement la phy nomie.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Subtitles - On the Foreignness of Film

    Translating the experience of film: filmmakers, writers, and artists explore the elements of film that make us feel outside and inside at the same time.

    Every film is a foreign film, Atom Egoyan and Ian Balfour tell us in their introduction to Subtitles. How, then, to translate the experience of film--which, as Egoyan says, makes us feel outside and inside at the same time? Taking subtitles as their point of departure, the thirty-two contributors to this unique collection consider translation, foreignness, and otherness in film culture. Their discussions range from the mechanics and aesthetics of subtitles themselves to the xenophobic reaction to translation to subtitles as a metaphor for the distance and intimacy of film. The essays, interviews, and visuals include a collaboration by Russell Banks and Atom Egoyan, which uses quotations from Banks's novel The Sweet Hereafter as subtitles for publicity stills from Egoyan's film of the book; three early film reviews by Jorge Luis Borges; an interview with filmmaker Claire Denis about a scene in her film Friday Night that should not have been subtitled; and Eric Cazdyn's reading of the running subtitles on CNN's post-9/11 newscasts as a representation of new global realities. Several writers deal with translating cultural experience for an international audience, including Frederic Jameson on Balkan cinema, John Mowitt on the history of the foreign film category in the Academy Awards, and Ruby Rich on the marketing of foreign films and their foreign languages--Somehow, I'd like to think it's harder to kill people when you hear their voices, she writes. And Slavoj Zizek considers the foreign gaze (seen in films by Hitchcock, Lynch, and others), the misperception that sees too much. Designed by Egoyan and award-winning graphic designer Gilbert Li, the book includes many color images and ten visual projects by artists and filmmakers. The pages are horizontal, suggesting a movie screen; they use the cinematic horizontal aspect ratio of 1.66:1. Subtitles gives us not only a new way to think about film but also a singular design object.Subtitles is being copublished by The MIT Press and Alphabet City Media (John Knechtel, Director). Subtitles has been funded in part by grants from The Canada Council for the Arts, The Henry N.R. Jackman Foundation, and the Toronto Arts Council, and the Ontario Arts Council.

  • Dictionnaire de l'Ancienne Langue Française Et de Tous Ses Dialectes Du Ixe Au Xve Siècle, Vol. 1: Composé d'Après Le Dépouillement de Tous Les Plus ... Trouvent Dans Les Grandes Bibliothèques de la

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire de l'Ancienne Langue Francaise Et de Tous Ses Dialectes du Ixe au Xve Siecle, Vol. 1: Compose d'Apres le Depouillement de Tous les Plus Importants Documents Manuscrits ou Imprimes Qui Se Trouvent dans les Grandes Bibliotheques de la France Et de l'Europe; A-Castaigneux

    Si ai jure le devant dit chastel a rendre a grant force et a petite vers totes gens. (1262, Cart. De Champ, Richel. L. 5993.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Traite de la Vie Intérieure, Vol. 1: Petite Somme de Théologie Ascétique Et Mystique d'Aprés l'Esprit Et Les Principes de Saint Thomas d'Aquin; Théologie Ascétique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traite de la Vie Interieure, Vol. 1: Petite Somme de Theologie Ascetique Et Mystique d'Apres l'Esprit Et les Principes de Saint Thomas d'Aquin; Theologie Ascetique

    On comprendra facilement a quelle classe de les teurs nous nous adressons. Notre premiere partie, la Theologie ascetique, convient generalement, croyons nous, a toutes les ames qui s'occupent serieusement de leur perfection; la seconde partie, la T.'1e0l0gie mystique, s'adresse plus particulierement aux ames avancees dans les voies Spirituelles, ou bien encore a ceux qui les dirigent. Au reste, il ne faut pas oublier que les livres de spiritualite ne sont pas commune ment propres a toutes sortes de personnes, et que roux - memes a qui ils peuvent etre utiles y trouvent quelquefois des passages obscurs et d'une pratique dif ficile. C'est surtout alors qu'on doit se laisser conduire par l'avis d'un sage directeur, si l'on veut eviter les ecueils et les indiscretions d'une fausse piete (l.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Les Apologistes Grecs Du IIe Siècle de Notre Ère (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Apologistes Grecs du Iie Siecle de Notre Ere

    Beaucoup jugeront certainement que j'ai tr0p restreint lmfluence de la philosophie sur la theologie naissante; je n'ai pourtant aucunement l'intention de la nier, ni meme de la dimi nuer. Mais j'ai eu le plus vif souci d'en expliquer la nature veri table, et de ramener toujours les idees des Apologistes leur principe ce principe n'est pas dans la phi1050phie. Pour la doctrine du Verbe en particulier, ils n'ont pu l'eclaircir et la developper qu'avec l'aide de la phi1080phie; mais ils l'ont trouvee. Justin meme deja, dans le prologue du Evangile. La demarche decisive a ete faite avant eux par le mvsterieux auteur de ce prologue; il est plus que douteux qu'aucun d'entre eux eut ose prendre, de lui - meme. Une initiative aussi hardie.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Practice of Light - A Genealogy of Visual Technologies from Prints to Pixels

    An account of Western visual technologies since the Renaissance traces a history of the increasing control of light's intrinsic excess.

    Light is the condition of all vision, and the visual media are our most important explorations of this condition. The history of visual technologies reveals a centuries-long project aimed at controlling light. In this book, Sean Cubitt traces a genealogy of the dominant visual media of the twenty-first century--digital video, film, and photography--through a history of materials and practices that begins with the inventions of intaglio printing and oil painting. Attending to the specificities of inks and pigments, cathode ray tubes, color film, lenses, screens, and chips, Cubitt argues that we have moved from a hierarchical visual culture focused on semantic values to a more democratic but value-free numerical commodity.

    Cubitt begins with the invisibility of black, then builds from line to surface to volume and space. He describes Rembrandt's attempts to achieve pure black by tricking the viewer and the rise of geometry as a governing principle in visual technology, seen in Durer, Hogarth, and Disney, among others. He finds the origins of central features of digital imaging in nineteenth-century printmaking; examines the clash between the physics and psychology of color; explores the representation of space in shadows, layers, and projection; discusses modes of temporal order in still photography, cinema, television, and digital video; and considers the implications of a political aesthetics of visual technology.

  • Systemic Risk, Crises, and Macroprudential Regulation

    A framework for macroprudential regulation that defines systemic risk and macroprudential policy, describes macroprudential tools, and surveys the effectiveness of existing macroprudential regulation.

    The recent financial crisis has shattered all standard approaches to banking regulation. Regulators now recognize that banking regulation cannot be simply based on individual financial institutions' risks. Instead, systemic risk and macroprudential regulation have come to the forefront of the new regulatory paradigm. Yet our knowledge of these two core aspects of regulation is still limited and fragmented. This book offers a framework for understanding the reasons for the regulatory shift from a microprudential to a macroprudential approach to financial regulation. It defines systemic risk and macroprudential policy, cutting through the generalized confusion as to their meaning; contrasts macroprudential to microprudential approaches; discusses the interaction of macroprudential policy with macroeconomic policy (monetary policy in particular); and describes macroprudential tools and experiences with macroprudential regulation around the world.

    The book also considers the remaining challenges for establishing effective macroprudential policy and broader issues in regulatory reform. These include the optimal size and structure of the financial system, the multiplicity of regulatory bodies in the United States, the supervision of cross-border financial institutions, and the need for international cooperation on macroprudential policies.

  • Auditions - Architecture and Aurality

    A radical rethinking of architectural space in terms of its acoustic dimensions, exploring aural-architecture moments ranging from silent cinema to the sound of water.

    In Auditions, Rob Stone proposes a new and transformative view of architecture and sound. He offers a radical rethinking of the inhabitation of architectural space in terms of its acoustic dimensions, presenting a concept of aurality as an active, speculative, yet conditional understanding of the complexity of social spaces. The aural architectures he discusses are assembled from elements of architecture and music--including works by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and John Cage--but also from imagined spaces and other kinds of less obviously musical sounds.

    Stone presents a series of aural-architecture moments, each of which brings architectural space into conversational relationships with extra-architectural concepts and perceptions, often suggested by other art forms and social practices. He considers, for example, the acoustic themes of a silent movie; Greg Louganis's failed dive at the Seoul Olympics and the moral values attached to water in architecture; the custodianship of high culture at a second-hand classical record shop in London; and hair (as in the conductor's hairstyle) as a mediating form between music and architectural space.

    In Auditions, Stone brings together and revises the canonical instances of sound's relationships with architectural spaces, and he does so by granting new kinds of spatial agency to sound. Sound is not only a portal into otherwise imperceptible aspects of architecture but also a reflection on the concepts that produce our expectations of architecture.

  • Robot-Proof: Higher Education in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

    How to educate the next generation of college students to invent, to create, and to discover--filling needs that even the most sophisticated robot cannot.Driverless cars are hitting the road, powered by artificial intelligence. Robots can climb stairs, open doors, win Jeopardy, analyze stocks, work in factories, find parking spaces, advise oncologists. In the past, automation was considered a threat to low-skilled labor. Now, many high-skilled functions, including interpreting medical images, doing legal research, and analyzing data, are within the skill sets of machines. How can higher education prepare students for their professional lives when professions themselves are disappearing? In Robot-Proof, Northeastern University president Joseph Aoun proposes a way to educate the next generation of college students to invent, to create, and to discover--to fill needs in society that even the most sophisticated artificial intelligence agent cannot.A "robot-proof" education, Aoun argues, is not concerned solely with topping up students' minds with high-octane facts. Rather, it calibrates them with a creative mindset and the mental elasticity to invent, discover, or create something valuable to society--a scientific proof, a hip-hop recording, a web comic, a cure for cancer. Aoun lays out the framework for a new discipline, humanics, which builds on our innate strengths and prepares students to compete in a labor market in which smart machines work alongside human professionals. The new literacies of Aoun's humanics are data literacy, technological literacy, and human literacy. Students will need data literacy to manage the flow of big data, and technological literacy to know how their machines work, but human literacy--the humanities, communication, and design--to function as a human being. Life-long learning opportunities will support their ability to adapt to change.The only certainty about the future is change. Higher education based on the new literacies of humanics can equip students for living and working through change.

  • Lette de Ciceron a Atticus, Vol. 6: Avec Des Remarques, Et Le Texte Latin de l'Edition de Grævius (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lette de Ciceron A Atticus, Vol. 6: Avec des Remarques, Et le d104e Latin de l'Edition de Graevius

    Les affaires ne peuvent s'accommoder. En eeer difoit-il [i un aufii grand genie que-cefar n'a pu_ reue qui ell - ce qui reuffira? Enfin il pretend qu'il n'y a rien a efperer. Je ne fai s'il a raifon mais il m'affuroic avec un air de farisfa&ion qu'avant v_ingt jours'les'gaules (croient foulei liber XIV. Epist. I. Dieem XX tzzmaltzem G.: llzmm in.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable

    Why our human brains are awesome, and how we left our cousins, the great apes, behind: a tale of neurons and calories, and cooking.

    Humans are awesome. Our brains are gigantic, seven times larger than they should be for the size of our bodies. The human brain uses 25% of all the energy the body requires each day. And it became enormous in a very short amount of time in evolution, allowing us to leave our cousins, the great apes, behind. So the human brain is special, right? Wrong, according to Suzana Herculano-Houzel. Humans have developed cognitive abilities that outstrip those of all other animals, but not because we are evolutionary outliers. The human brain was not singled out to become amazing in its own exclusive way, and it never stopped being a primate brain. If we are not an exception to the rules of evolution, then what is the source of the human advantage?

    Herculano-Houzel shows that it is not the size of our brain that matters but the fact that we have more neurons in the cerebral cortex than any other animal, thanks to our ancestors' invention, some 1.5 million years ago, of a more efficient way to obtain calories: cooking. Because we are primates, ingesting more calories in less time made possible the rapid acquisition of a huge number of neurons in the still fairly small cerebral cortex -- the part of the brain responsible for finding patterns, reasoning, developing technology, and passing it on through culture.

    Herculano-Houzel shows us how she came to these conclusions -- making "brain soup" to determine the number of neurons in the brain, for example, and bringing animal brains in a suitcase through customs. The Human Advantage is an engaging and original look at how we became remarkable without ever being special.

  • Introduction to Industrial Organization

    This book provides an issue-driven introduction to industrial organization.

    Over the past twenty years, the study of industrial organization--the analysis of imperfectly competitive markets--has grown from a niche area of microeconomics to a key component of economics and of related disciplines such as finance, strategy, and marketing. This book provides an issue-driven introduction to industrial organization. It includes a vast array of examples, from both within and outside the United States. While formal in its approach, the book is written in a way that requires only basic mathematical training. Supplemental materials posted on the Web make more extensive use of algebra and calculus.

  • Play Matters

    Why play is a productive, expressive way of being, a form of understanding, and a fundamental part of our well-being.

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human.

    We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design. Sicart proposes a theory of play that doesn't derive from a particular object or activity but is a portable tool for being--not tied to objects but brought by people to the complex interactions that form their daily lives. It is not separated from reality; it is part of it. It is pleasurable, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive.

    Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play -- instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty, the aesthetics of play through action; political play -- from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well.

  • Surveillance or Security? - The Risks Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies

    How, in the name of greater security, our current electronic surveillance policies are creating major security risks.

    Digital communications are the lifeblood of modern society. We "meet up" online, tweet our reactions millions of times a day, connect through social networking rather than in person. Large portions of business and commerce have moved to the Web, and much of our critical infrastructure, including the electric power grid, is controlled online. This reliance on information systems leaves us highly exposed and vulnerable to cyberattack. Despite this, U.S. law enforcement and national security policy remain firmly focused on wiretapping and surveillance. But, as cybersecurity expert Susan Landau argues in Surveillance or Security?, the old surveillance paradigms do not easily fit the new technologies. By embedding eavesdropping mechanisms into communication technology itself, we are building tools that could be turned against us and opting for short-term security and creating dangerous long-term risks.

    How can we get communications security right? Landau offers a set of principles to govern wiretapping policy that will allow us to protect our national security as well as our freedom.

  • Parentonomics - An Economist Dad Looks at Parenting

    Like any new parent, Joshua Gans felt joy mixed with anxiety upon the birth of his first child. Who was this blanket-swaddled small person and what did she want? Unlike most parents, however, Gans is an economist, and he began to apply the tools of his trade to raising his children. He saw his new life as one big economic management problem -- and if economics helped him think about parenting, parenting illuminated certain economic principles. Parentonomics is the entertaining, enlightening, and often hilarious fruit of his "research."

    Incentives, Gans shows us, are as risky in parenting as in business. An older sister who is recruited to help toilet train her younger brother for a share in the reward given for each successful visit to the bathroom, for example, could give the trainee drinks of water to make the rewards more frequent. (Economics later offered another, better toilet training solution: outsourcing. For their third child, Gans and his wife put it in the hands of professionals--the day care providers.) Gans gives us the parentonomic view of delivery (if the mother shares her pain by yelling at the father, doesn't it really create more aggregate pain?), sleep (the screams of a baby are like an offer: "I'll stop screaming if you give me attention"), food (a question of marketing), travel ("the best thing you can say about traveling with children is that they are worse than baggage"), punishment (and threat credibility), birthday party time management, and more.

    Parents: if you're reading Parentonomics in the presence of other people, you'll be unable to keep yourself from reading the funny parts out loud. And if you're reading it late at night and wake a child with your laughter -- well, you'll have some guidelines for negotiating a return to bed.

  • The Architecture of Red Vienna, 1914-1934

    In 1919 the Social Democrat city council of Vienna initiated a radical program of reforms designed to reshape the city's infrastructure along socialist lines. The centerpiece and most enduring achievement of "Red" Vienna was the construction of the Wiener Gemeindebauten, 400 communal housing blocks, distributed throughout the city, in which workers' dwellings were incorporated with kindergartens, libraries, medical clinics, theaters, cooperative stores, and other public facilities. The 64,000 units housed one tenth of the city's population. Throughout this socialist building campaign, however, Austria was ruled by a conservative, clerical, and antisocialist political majority. Thus the architecture of Red Vienna took shape in the midst of highly charged, and often violent, political conflict between left and right.

    In this book, Eve Blau looks at how that ideological conflict shaped the buildings of Red Vienna--in terms of their program, spatial conception, language, and use--as well as how political meaning itself is manifested in architecture. She shows how the architecture of Red Vienna constructed meaning in relation to the ideological conflicts that defined Austrian politics in the interwar period--how it was shaped by the conditions of its making, and how it engaged its own codes, practices, and history to stake out a political position in relation to those conditions. Her investigation sheds light both on the complex relationship among political program, architectural practice, and urban history in interwar Vienna, and on the process by which architecture can generate a collective discourse that includes all members of society.

    Published withthe assistance of the Getty Grant Program.

  • Chips and Change - How Crisis Reshapes the Semiconductor Industry

    For decades the semiconductor industry has been a driver of global economic growth and social change. Semiconductors, particularly the microchips essential to most electronic devices, have transformed computing, communications, entertainment, and industry. In Chips and Change, Clair Brown and Greg Linden trace the industry over more than twenty years through eight technical and competitive crises that forced it to adapt in order to continue its exponential rate of improved chip performance. The industry's changes have in turn shifted the basis on which firms hold or gain global competitive advantage.

    These eight interrelated crises do not have tidy beginnings and ends. Most, in fact, are still ongoing, often in altered form. The U.S. semiconductor industry's fear that it would be overtaken by Japan in the 1980s, for example, foreshadows current concerns over the new global competitors China and India. The intersecting crises of rising costs for both design and manufacturing are compounded by consumer pressure for lower prices. Other crises discussed in the book include the industry's steady march toward the limits of physics, the fierce competition that keeps its profits modest even as development costs soar, and the global search for engineering talent.

    Other high-tech industries face crises of their own, and the semiconductor industry has much to teach about how industries are transformed in response to such powerful forces as technological change, shifting product markets, and globalization. Chips and Change also offers insights into how chip firms have developed, defended, and, in some cases, lost global competitive advantage.

  • Now the Chips Are Down: The BBC Micro

    The story of a pioneering microcomputer: its beginnings as part of a national Computer Literary Project, its innovative hardware, and its creative uses.

    In 1982, the British Broadcasting Corporation launched its Computer Literacy Project, intended "to introduce interested adults to the world of computers and computing." The BBC accompanied this initiative with television programs, courses, books, and software--an early experiment in multi-platform education. The BBC, along with Acorn Computers, also introduced the BBC Microcomputer, which would be at the forefront of the campaign. The BBC Micro was designed to meet the needs of users in homes and schools, to demystify computing, and to counter the general pessimism among the media in Britain about technology. In this book, Alison Gazzard looks at the BBC Micro, examining the early capabilities of multi-platform content generation and consumption and the multiple literacies this approach enabled--not only in programming and software creation, but also in accessing information across a range of media, and in "do-it-yourself" computing. She links many of these early developments to current new-media practices.

    Gazzard looks at games developed for the BBC Micro, including Granny's Garden, an educational game for primary schools, and Elite, the seminal space-trading game. She considers the shift in focus from hardware to peripherals, describing the Teletext Adapter as an early model for software distribution and the Domesday Project (which combined texts, video, and still photographs) as a hypermedia-like experience.

    Gazzard's account shows the BBC Micro not only as a vehicle for various literacies but also as a user-oriented machine that pushed the boundaries of what could be achieved in order to produce something completely new.

  • Learning Machine Translation (OISC)

    The Internet gives us access to a wealth of information in languages we don't understand. The investigation of automated or semi-automated approaches to translation has become a thriving research field with enormous commercial potential. This volume investigates how Machine Learning techniques can improve Statistical Machine Translation, currently at the forefront of research in the field. The book looks first at enabling technologies--technologies that solve problems that are not Machine Translation proper but are linked closely to the development of a Machine Translation system. These include the acquisition of bilingual sentence-aligned data from comparable corpora, automatic construction of multilingual name dictionaries, and word alignment. The book then presents new or improved statistical Machine Translation techniques, including a discriminative training framework for leveraging syntactic information, the use of semi-supervised and kernel-based learning methods, and the combination of multiple Machine Translation outputs in order to improve overall translation quality.

    Contributors
    Srinivas Bangalore, Nicola Cancedda, Josep M. Crego, Marc Dymetman, Jakob Elming, George Foster, Jesus Gimenez, Cyril Goutte, Nizar Habash, Gholamreza Haffari, Patrick Haffner, Hitoshi Isahara, Stephan Kanthak, Alexandre Klementiev, Gregor Leusch, Pierre Mahe, Lluis Marquez, Evgeny Matusov, I. Dan Melamed, Ion Muslea, Hermann Ney, Bruno Pouliquen, Dan Roth, Anoop Sarkar, John Shawe-Taylor, Ralf Steinberger, Joseph Turian, Nicola Ueffing, Masao Utiyama, Zhuoran Wang, Benjamin Wellington, Kenji Yamada

  • Paléontologie Française, Vol. 9: Description Des Animaux Invertébré; Terrain Jurassique, Échnides Irréguliers (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Paleontologie Francaise, Vol. 9: Description des Animaux Invertebre; Terrain Jurassique, Echnides Irreguliers

    Le systeme nerveux apparait sous la forme de filets blancs et delies qui tapissent et la paroi interne du test et les principaux organes. On a constate egalement, entre les py ramides de l'appareil masticatoire, l'existence d'un cercle nerveux ou anneau pentagonal. C'est de ce centre que partent, au nombre de cinq, les nerfs ocellaires qui vien nent aboutir exterieurement a de petites plaques perforees, placees au sommet de chacune des aires ambulacraires et faisant partie de l'appareil apical Bien que l'extremite de ces nerfs ocellaires ne presente, suivant M. Valentin, ni cristallin, ni corps lenticulaire, ils sont cependant consi deres par tous les auteurs, comme representant, chez les Echinides, les organes de la vision.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Ethics in Everyday Places: Mapping Moral Stress, Distress, and Injury

    An exploration of moral stress, distress, and injuries inherent in modern society through the maps that pervade academic and public communications worlds.

    In Ethics in Everyday Places, ethicist and geographer Tom Koch considers what happens when, as he puts it, "you do everything right but know you've done something wrong. The resulting moral stress and injury, he argues, are pervasive in modern Western society. Koch makes his argument from the ground up, from the perspective of average persons, and through a revealing series of maps in which issues of ethics and morality are embedded.

    The book begins with a general grounding in both moral stress and mapping as a means of investigation. The author then examines the ethical dilemmas of mapmakers and others in the popular media and the sciences, including graphic artists, journalists, researchers, and social scientists. Koch expands from the particular to the general, from mapmaker and journalist to the readers of maps and news. He explores the moral stress and injury in educational funding, poverty, and income inequality (Why aren't we angry that one in eight fellow citizens lives in federally certified poverty?), transportation modeling (seen in the iconic map of the London transit system and the hidden realities of exclusion), and U.S. graft organ transplantation.

    This uniquely interdisciplinary work rewrites our understanding of the nature of moral stress, distress and injury, and ethics in modern life. Written accessibly and engagingly, it transforms how we think of ethics--personal and professional--amid the often conflicting moral injunctions across modern society.

    Copublished with Esri Press

  • Vaccination Ethics and Policy: An Introduction with Readings

    A comprehensive overview of important and contested issues in vaccination ethics and policy by experts from history, science, policy, law, and ethics.

    Vaccination has long been a familiar, highly effective form of medicine and a triumph of public health. Because vaccination is both an individual medical intervention and a central component of public health efforts, it raises a distinct set of legal and ethical issues--from debates over their risks and benefits to the use of government vaccination requirements--and makes vaccine policymaking uniquely challenging. This volume examines the full range of ethical and policy issues related to the development and use of vaccines in the United States and around the world. Forty essays, articles, and reports by experts in the field look at all aspects of the vaccine life cycle. After an overview of vaccine history, they consider research and development, regulation and safety, vaccination promotion and requirements, pandemics and bioterrorism, and the frontier of vaccination.

    The texts cover such topics as vaccine safety controversies; the ethics of vaccine trials; vaccine injury compensation; vaccine refusal and the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases; equitable access to vaccines in emergencies; lessons from the eradication of smallpox; and possible future vaccines against cancer, malaria, and Ebola.

    The volume intentionally includes texts that take opposing viewpoints, offering readers a range of arguments. The book will be an essential reference for professionals, scholars, and students.

    Contributors
    Jeffrey P. Baker, Seth Berkley, Luciana Borio, Arthur L. Caplan, R. Alta Charo, Dave A. Chokshi, James Colgrove, Katherine M. Cook, Louis Z. Cooper, Edward Cox, Douglas S. Diekema, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Claudia I. Emerson, Geoffrey Evans, Ruth R. Faden, Chris Feudtner, David P. Fidler, Fiona Godlee, D. A. Henderson, Alan R. Hinman, Peter Hotez, Robert M. Jacobson, Aaron S. Kesselheim, Heidi J. Larson, Robert J. Levine, Donald W. Light, Adel Mahmoud, Edgar K. Marcuse, Howard Markel, Michelle M. Mello, Paul A. Offit, Saad B. Omer, Walter A. Orenstein, Gregory A. Poland, Lance E. Rodewald, Daniel A. Salmon, Anne Schuchat, Jason L. Schwartz, Peter A. Singer, Michael Specter, Alexandra Minna Stern, Jeremy Sugarman, Thomas R. Talbot, Robert Temple, Stephen P. Teret, Alan Wertheimer, Tadataka Yamada

  • Sustainable Urban Metabolism

    A unified framework for analyzing urban sustainability in terms of cities' inflows and outflows of matter and energy.

    Urbanization and globalization have shaped the last hundred years. These two dominant trends are mutually reinforcing: globalization links countries through the networked communications of urban hubs. The urban population now generates more than eighty percent of global GDP. Cities account for enormous flows of energy and materials--inflows of goods and services and outflows of waste. Thus urban environmental management critically affects global sustainability. In this book, Paulo Ferrao and John Fernandez offer a metabolic perspective on urban sustainability, viewing the city as a metabolism, in terms of its exchanges of matter and energy. Their book provides a roadmap to the strategies and tools needed for a scientifically based framework for analyzing and promoting the sustainability of urban systems.

    Using the concept of urban metabolism as a unifying framework, Ferrao and Fernandez describe a systems-oriented approach that establishes useful linkages among environmental, economic, social, and technical infrastructure issues. These linkages lead to an integrated information-intensive platform that enables ecologically informed urban planning. After establishing the theoretical background and describing the diversity of contributing disciplines, the authors sample sustainability approaches and tools, offer an extended study of the urban metabolism of Lisbon, and outline the challenges and opportunities in approaching urban sustainability in both developed and developing countries.

  • Forgetting the Art World

    The work of art's mattering and materialization in a globalized world, with close readings of works by Takahashi Murakami, Andreas Gursky, Thomas Hirschhorn, and others.

    It may be time to forget the art world--or at least to recognize that a certain historical notion of the art world is in eclipse. Today, the art world spins on its axis so quickly that its maps can no longer be read; its borders blur. In Forgetting the Art World, Pamela Lee connects the current state of this world to globalization and its attendant controversies. Contemporary art has responded to globalization with images of movement and migration, borders and multitudes, but Lee looks beyond iconography to view globalization as a world process. Rather than think about the "global art world" as a socioeconomic phenomenon, or in terms of the imagery it stages and sponsors, Lee considers "the work of art's world" as a medium through which globalization takes place. She argues that the work of art is itself both object and agent of globalization.

    Lee explores the ways that art actualizes, iterates, or enables the processes of globalization, offering close readings of works by artists who have come to prominence in the last two decades. She examines the "just in time" managerial ethos of Takahashi Murakami; the production of ethereal spaces in Andreas Gursky's images of contemporary markets and manufacture; the logic of immanent cause dramatized in Thomas Hirschhorn's mixed-media displays; and the "pseudo-collectivism" in the contemporary practice of the Atlas Group, the Raqs Media Collective, and others.

    To speak of "the work of art's world," Lee says, is to point to both the work of art's mattering and its materialization, to understand the activity performed by the object as utterly continuous with the world it at once inhabits and creates.

  • Helvetica and the New York City Subway System - The True (Maybe) Story

    How New York City subways signage evolved from a "visual mess" to a uniform system with Helvetica triumphant.

    For years, the signs in the New York City subway system were a bewildering hodge-podge of lettering styles, sizes, shapes, materials, colors, and messages. The original mosaics (dating from as early as 1904), displaying a variety of serif and sans serif letters and decorative elements, were supplemented by signs in terracotta and cut stone. Over the years, enamel signs identifying stations and warning riders not to spit, smoke, or cross the tracks were added to the mix. Efforts to untangle this visual mess began in the mid-1960s, when the city transit authority hired the design firm Unimark International to create a clear and consistent sign system. We can see the results today in the white-on-black signs throughout the subway system, displaying station names, directions, and instructions in crisp Helvetica. This book tells the story of how typographic order triumphed over chaos.

    The process didn't go smoothly or quickly. At one point New York Times architecture writer Paul Goldberger declared that the signs were so confusing one almost wished that they weren't there at all. Legend has it that Helvetica came in and vanquished the competition. Paul Shaw shows that it didn't happen that way--that, in fact, for various reasons (expense, the limitations of the transit authority sign shop), the typeface overhaul of the 1960s began not with Helvetica but with its forebear, Standard (AKA Akzidenz Grotesk). It wasn't until the 1980s and 1990s that Helvetica became ubiquitous. Shaw describes the slow typographic changeover (supplementing his text with more than 250 images--photographs, sketches, type samples, and documents). He places this signage evolution in the context of the history of the New York City subway system, of 1960s transportation signage, of Unimark International, and of Helvetica itself.

  • Computability - Turing, Gödel, Church, and Beyond

    In the 1930s a series of seminal works published by Alan Turing, Kurt Gdel, Alonzo Church, and others established the theoretical basis for computability. This work, advancing precise characterizations of effective, algorithmic computability, was the culmination of intensive investigations into the foundations of mathematics. In the decades since, the theory of computability has moved to the center of discussions in philosophy, computer science, and cognitive science. In this volume, distinguished computer scientists, mathematicians, logicians, and philosophers consider the conceptual foundations of computability in light of our modern understanding. Some chapters focus on the pioneering work by Turing, Gdel, and Church, including the Church-Turing thesis and Gdel's response to Church's and Turing's proposals. Other chapters cover more recent technical developments, including computability over the reals, Gdel's influence on mathematical logic and on recursion theory and the impact of work by Turing and Emil Post on our theoretical understanding of online and interactive computing; and others relate computability and complexity to issues in the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of science, and the philosophy of mathematics. Contributors:Scott Aaronson, Dorit Aharonov, B. Jack Copeland, Martin Davis, Solomon Feferman, Saul Kripke, Carl J. Posy, Hilary Putnam, Oron Shagrir, Stewart Shapiro, Wilfried Sieg, Robert I. Soare, Umesh V. Vazirani

  • Histoire de l'Église, Vol. 3 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Histoire de l'Eglise, Vol. 3

    Il y avait la un curieux melange de coutumes paiennes, juives et chretiennes. L'arabie du Nord renfermait une secte analogue a celle des esseniens, les hanyfes, precurseurs de Mahomet, qui se donnait lui-meme le nom de hanyfe. Il y avait aussi, des ce temps, des chants et des poesies arabes, meles d'idees monotheistes et chretiennes. Il est probable que ces idees chretiennes servirent plus d'une fois a combattre les pro gres de l'idolatrie, avant que Mahomet se presentat comme l'auteur d'une nouvelle loi politique et religieuse et le fondateur d'un empire universel etabli sur cette loi.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Social Media Archeology and Poetics

    First person accounts by pioneers in the field, classic essays, and new scholarship document the collaborative and creative practices of early social media.

    Focusing on early social media in the arts and humanities and on the core role of creative computer scientists, artists, and scholars in shaping the pre-Web social media landscape, Social Media Archeology and Poetics documents social media lineage, beginning in the 1970s with collaborative ARPANET research, Community Memory, PLATO, Minitel, and ARTEX and continuing into the 1980s and beyond with the Electronic Cafe, Art Com Electronic Network, Arts Wire, The THING, and many more.

    With first person accounts from pioneers in the field, as well as papers by artists, scholars, and curators, Social Media Archeology and Poetics documents how these platforms were vital components of early social networking and important in the development of new media and electronic literature. It describes platforms that allowed artists and musicians to share and publish their work, community networking diversity, and the creation of footholds for the arts and humanities online. Anditinvites comparisons of social media in the past and present, asking: What can we learn from early social media that will inspire us to envision a greater cultural presence on contemporary social media?

    Contributors
    Madeline Gonzalez Allen, James Blustein, Hank Bull, Annick Bureaud, J. R. Carpenter, Paul E. Ceruzzi, Anna Couey, Amanda McDonald Crowley, Steve Dietz, Judith Donath, Steven Durland, Lee Felsenstein, Susanne Gerber, Ann-Barbara Graff, Dene Grigar, Stacy Horn, Antoinette LaFarge, Deena Larsen, Gary O. Larson, Alan Liu, Geert Lovink, Richard Lowenberg, Judy Malloy, Scott McPhee, Julianne Nyhan, Howard Rheingold, Randy Ross, Wolfgang Staehle, Fred Truck, Rob Wittig, David R. Woolley

  • Privacy on the Line - The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption Updated and Expanded Edition

    Telecommunication has never been perfectly secure, as the Cold War culture of wiretaps and international spying taught us. Yet many of us still take our privacy for granted, even as we become more reliant than ever on telephones, computer networks, and electronic transactions of all kinds. So many of our relationships now use telecommunication as the primary mode of communication that the security of these transactions has become a source of wide public concern and debate. Whitfield Diffie and Susan Landau argue that if we are to retain the privacy that characterized face-to-face relationships in the past, we must build the means of protecting that privacy into our communication systems. Diffie and Landau examine the national-security, law-enforcement, commercial, and civil-liberties issues. They discuss privacy's social function, how it underlies a democratic society, and what happens when it is lost. They also explore how intelligence and law-enforcement organizations work, how they intercept communications, and how they use what they intercept.

  • The Rhythmic Event - Art, Media, and the Sonic

    An investigation into the affective modes of perception, temporality, and experience enabled by experimental new media sonic art.

    The sonic has come to occupy center stage in the arts and humanities. In the age of computational media, sound and its subcultures can offer more dynamic ways of accounting for bodies, movements, and events. In The Rhythmic Event, Eleni Ikoniadou explores traces and potentialities prompted by the sonic but leading to contingent and unknowable forces outside the periphery of sound. She investigates the ways in which recent digital art experiments that mostly engage with the virtual dimensions of sound suggest alternate modes of perception, temporality, and experience. Ikoniadou draws on media theory, digital art, and philosophical and technoscientific ideas to work toward the articulation of a media philosophy that rethinks the media event as abstract and affective.

    The Rhythmic Event seeks to define the digital media artwork as an assemblage of sensations that outlive the space, time, and bodies that constitute and experience it. Ikoniadou proposes that the notion of rhythm--detached, however, from the idea of counting and regularity--can unlock the imperceptible, aesthetic potential enveloping the artwork. She speculates that addressing the event on the level of rhythm affords us a glimpse into the nonhuman modalities of thought proper to the digital and hidden in the gaps between strict definitions (e.g., human/sonic/digital) and false dichotomies (e.g., virtual/real). Operating at the margins of perception, the rhythmic artwork summons an obscure zone of sonic thought, which considers the event according to its power to become.

  • Active Matter

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    The first book on active matter, an emerging field focused on programming physical materials to assemble themselves, transform autonomously, and react to information.

    The past few decades brought a revolution in computer software and hardware; today we are on the cusp of a materials revolution. If yesterday we programmed computers and other machines, today we program matter itself. This has created new capabilities in design, computing, and fabrication, which allow us to program proteins and bacteria, to generate self-transforming wood products and architectural details, and to create clothing from "intelligent textiles" that grow themselves. This book offers essays and sample projects from the front lines of the emerging field of active matter.

    Active matter and programmable materials are at the intersection of science, art, design, and engineering, with applications in fields from biology and computer science to architecture and fashion. These essays contextualize current work and explore recent research. Sample projects, generously illustrated in color, show the range of possibilities envisioned by their makers. Contributors explore the design of active material at scales from nano to micro, kilo, and even planetary. They investigate processes of self-assembly at a microscopic level; test new materials that can sense and actuate themselves; and examine the potential of active matter in the built environment and in living and artificial systems. Active Matter is an essential guide to a field that could shape the future of design.

  • Czech Photographic Avant-Garde 1918-1948

    The first comprehensive survey of Czech avant-garde photography of the first half of the twentieth century.

    Not until the fall of the communist regime in 1989 and the end of Czechoslovakia's cultural isolation did the world begin to appreciate the Czech avant-garde photographers of the first half of the twentieth century. This first survey of Czech avant-garde photography introduces the important work of Frantisek Drtikol, Jaromir Funke, Jaroslav Rossler, Jindoich Styrsky, Josef Sudek, and numerous others whose work made Czech photography synonymous with visions of modernity. The essays introduce the period and explore the background and connections among the photographers. Biographical profiles are also included. But the book's main attraction is its outstanding collection of duotone and color images, many published here for the first time.

    The Czech edition of this book received the Best Photographic Publication of 1999-2000 award from Primavera Fotografica in Barcelona and from Month of Photography in Bratislava and was one of six finalists for the 2001 Kraszna-Krausz Photography Book Award.

  • Tax Systems

    An approach to taxation that goes beyond an emphasis on tax rates to consider such aspects as administration, compliance, and remittance.

    Despite its theoretical elegance, the standard optimal tax model has significant limitations. In this book, Joel Slemrod and Christian Gillitzer argue that tax analysis must move beyond the emphasis on optimal tax rates and bases to consider such aspects of taxation as administration, compliance, and remittance.

    Slemrod and Gillitzer explore what they term a tax-systems approach, which takes tax evasion seriously; revisits the issue of remittance, or who writes the check to cover tax liability (employer or employee, retailer or consumer); incorporates administrative and compliance costs; recognizes a range of behavioral responses to tax rates; considers nonstandard instruments, including tax base breadth and enforcement effort; and acknowledges that tighter enforcement is sometimes a more socially desirable way to raise revenue than an increase in statutory tax rates. Policy makers, Slemrod and Gillitzer argue, would be well advised to recognize the interrelationship of tax rates, bases, enforcement, and administration, and acknowledge that tax policy is really tax-systems policy.

  • The Connectives

    A comprehensive investigation of the sentence connectives--and, or, if, not--with special attention to their logical properties.

    In The Connectives, Lloyd Humberstone examines the semantics and pragmatics of natural language sentence connectives (and, or, if, not), giving special attention to their formal behavior according to proposed logical systems and the degree to which such treatments capture their intuitive meanings. It will be an essential resource for philosophers, mathematicians, computer scientists, linguists, or any scholar who finds connectives, and the conceptual issues surrounding them, to be a source of interest.
    This landmark work offers both general material on sentence connectives in formal logic, such as truth-functionality and unique characterization by rules, and information on specific connectives (including conjunction and disjunction), considering their pragmatic and semantic properties in natural language as well as various attempts to simulate the latter in the formal languages of different systems of propositional logic. Chapters are divided into sections, and each section ends with notes and references for material covered in that section. If a section covers numerous topics separately, the notes and references are divided into parts, each with its own topic-indicating heading. When topics are not covered in detail but are relevant to matters under discussion, the notes and references provide pointers to the literature. Readers may find it useful to browse through a topic of interest and then follow the references within it forward and backward on the topic in question, or those to the extensive literature outside it.

  • Category Theory for the Sciences

    An introduction to category theory as a rigorous, flexible, and coherent modeling language that can be used across the sciences.

    Category theory was invented in the 1940s to unify and synthesize different areas in mathematics, and it has proven remarkably successful in enabling powerful communication between disparate fields and subfields within mathematics. This book shows that category theory can be useful outside of mathematics as a rigorous, flexible, and coherent modeling language throughout the sciences. Information is inherently dynamic; the same ideas can be organized and reorganized in countless ways, and the ability to translate between such organizational structures is becoming increasingly important in the sciences. Category theory offers a unifying framework for information modeling that can facilitate the translation of knowledge between disciplines.

    Written in an engaging and straightforward style, and assuming little background in mathematics, the book is rigorous but accessible to non-mathematicians. Using databases as an entry to category theory, it begins with sets and functions, then introduces the reader to notions that are fundamental in mathematics: monoids, groups, orders, and graphs--categories in disguise. After explaining the "big three" concepts of category theory--categories, functors, and natural transformations--the book covers other topics, including limits, colimits, functor categories, sheaves, monads, and operads. The book explains category theory by examples and exercises rather than focusing on theorems and proofs. It includes more than 300 exercises, with solutions.

    Category Theory for the Sciences is intended to create a bridge between the vast array of mathematical concepts used by mathematicians and the models and frameworks of such scientific disciplines as computation, neuroscience, and physics.

  • Positive Computing - Technology for Well-Being and Human Potential

    On the eve of Google's IPO in 2004, Larry Page and Sergey Brin vowed not to be evil. Today, a growing number of technologists would go further, trying to ensure that their work actively improves people's lives. Technology, so pervasive and ubiquitous, has the capacity to increase stress and suffering; but it also has the less-heralded potential to improve the well-being of individuals, society, and the planet. In this book, Rafael Calvo and Dorian Peters investigate what they term "positive computing" -- the design and development of technology to support psychological well-being and human potential.

    Calvo and Peters explain that technologists' growing interest in social good is part of a larger public concern about how our digital experience affects our emotions and our quality of life -- which itself reflects an emerging focus on humanistic values in many different disciplines. Synthesizing theory, knowledge, and empirical methodologies from a variety of fields, they offer a rigorous and coherent foundational framework for positive computing. Sidebars by experts from psychology, neuroscience, human--computer interaction, and other disciplines supply essential context. Calvo and Peters examine specific well-being factors, including positive emotions, self-awareness, mindfulness, empathy, and compassion, and explore how technology can support these factors. Finally, they offer suggestions for future research and funding.

    SidebarsTimothy N. Bickmore, Jeremy Bailenson, danah boyd, Jane Burns, David R. Caruso, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Felicia Huppert, Mary-Helen Immordino-Yang, Adele Krusche and J. Mark G. Williams, Jane McGonigal, Jonathan Nicholas, Don Norman, Yvonne Rogers

  • The Technology of Nonviolence - Social Media and Violence Prevention

    How technology and community organizing can combine to help prevent violence, with examples from Chicago to Sri Lanka.

    Tunisian and Egyptian protestors famously made use of social media to rally supporters and disseminate information as the "Arab Spring" began to unfold in 2010. Less well known, but with just as much potential to bring about social change, are ongoing local efforts to use social media and other forms of technology to prevent deadly outbreaks of violence. In The Technology of Nonviolence, Joseph Bock describes and documents technology-enhanced efforts to stop violence before it happens in Africa, Asia, and the United States.

    Once peacekeeping was the purview of international observers, but today local citizens take violence prevention into their own hands. These local approaches often involve technology--including the use of digital mapping, crowdsourcing, and mathematical pattern recognition to identify likely locations of violence--but, as Bock shows, technological advances are of little value unless they are used by a trained cadre of community organizers.

    After covering general concepts in violence prevention and describing technological approaches to tracking conflict and cooperation, Bock offers five case studies that range from "low-tech" interventions to prevent ethnic and religious violence in Ahmedebad, India, to an anti-gang initiative in Chicago that uses Second Life to train its "violence interrupters." There is solid evidence of success, Bock concludes, but there is much to be discovered, developed, and, most important, implemented.

  • A Semantic Web Primer

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this still emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a textbook or for self-study by professionals, it concentrates on undergraduate-level fundamental concepts and techniques that will enable readers to proceed with building applications on their own and includes exercises, project descriptions, and annotated references to relevant online materials. A Semantic Web Primer provides a systematic treatment of the different languages (XML, RDF, OWL, and rules) and technologies (explicit metadata, ontologies, and logic and inference) that are central to Semantic Web development as well as such crucial related topics as ontology engineering and application scenarios. This substantially revised and updated second edition reflects recent developments in the field, covering new application areas and tools. The new material includes a discussion of such topics as SPARQL as the RDF query language; OWL DLP and its interesting practical and theoretical properties; the SWRL language (in the chapter on rules); OWL-S (on which the discussion of Web services is now based). The new final chapter considers the state of the art of the field today, captures ongoing discussions, and outlines the most challenging issues facing the Semantic Web in the future. Supplementary materials, including slides, online versions of many of the code fragments in the book, and links to further reading, can be found at http://www.semanticwebprimer.org.Grigoris Antoniou is Professor at the Institute for Computer Science, FORTH (Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas), Heraklion, Greece. Frank van Harmelen is Professor in the Department of Artificial Intelligence at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

  • Le Corbusier and the Occult

    Revealing the secret sources of Le Corbusier's architecture -- concealed by the architect and undiscovered by scholars until now.

    When Charles-Edouard Jeanneret reinvented himself as Le Corbusier in Paris, he also carefully reinvented the first thirty years of his life by highlighting some events and hiding others. As he explained in a letter: "Le Corbusier is a pseudonym. Le Corbusier creates architecture recklessly. He pursues disinterested ideas; he does not wish to compromise himself... He is an entity free of the burdens of carnality." Le Corbusier grew up in La Chaux-de-Fonds in Switzerland, a city described by Karl Marx as "one unified watchmaking industry." Among the unifying social structures of La Chaux-de-Fonds was the Loge L'Amitie, the Masonic lodge with its francophone moral, social, and philosophical ideas, including the symbolic iconography of the right angle (rectitude) and the compass (exactitude). Le Corbusier would later describe these as "my guide, my choice" and as his "time-honored ideas, ingrained and deep-rooted in the intellect, like entries from a catechism." Through exhaustive research that challenges long-held beliefs, J. K. Birksted's Le Corbusier and the Occult traces the structure of Le Corbusier's brand of modernist spatial and architectural ideas based on startling new documents in hitherto undiscovered family and local archives. Le Corbusier and the Occult thus answers the conundrum set by Reyner Banham (Birksted's predecessor at the Bartlett School of Architecture) who, fifty years ago, wrote that Le Corbusier's book Towards a New Architecture "was to prove to be one of the most influential, widely read and least understood of all the architectural writings of the twentieth century."

  • Laurier: Sa Vie, Ses Oeuvres (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Laurier: Sa Vie, Ses Oeuvres

    Il fut baptise sous le nom de Wilfrid Laurier. Son pere. Carolus Laurier, etait arpenteur il vivait gaiement. Avait beaucoup d'amis et pratiquait peu l'economie; c'etait un homme intelligent. De belle taille. A l'air energique.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Fabric of Interface: Mobile Media, Design, and Gender

    Tracing the genealogy of our physical interaction with mobile devices back to textile and needlecraft culture.

    For many of our interactions with digital media, we do not sit at a keyboard but hold a mobile device in our hands. We turn and tilt and stroke and tap, and through these physical interactions with an object we make things: images, links, sites, networks. In The Fabric of Interface, Stephen Monteiro argues that our everyday digital practice has taken on traits common to textile and needlecraft culture. Our smart phones and tablets use some of the same skills--manual dexterity, pattern making, and linking--required by the handloom, the needlepoint hoop, and the lap-sized quilting frame. Monteiro goes on to argue that the capacity of textile metaphors to describe computing (weaving code, threaded discussions, zipped files, software patches, switch fabrics) represents deeper connections between digital communication and what has been called "homecraft" or "women's work."

    Connecting networked media to practices that seem alien to media technologies, Monteiro identifies handicraft and textile techniques in the production of software and hardware, and cites the punched cards that were read by a loom's rods as a primitive form of computer memory; examines textual and visual discourses that position the digital image as a malleable fabric across its production, access, and use; compares the digital labor of liking, linking, and tagging to such earlier forms of collective production as quilting bees and piecework; and describes how the convergence of intimacy and handiwork at the screen interface, combined with needlecraft aesthetics, genders networked culture and activities in unexpected ways.

  • Traité Théorique Et Pratique d'Économie Politique, Vol. 1: Partie Théorique Ou Ploutologie (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traite Theorique Et Pratique d'Economie Politique, Vol. 1: Partie Theorique ou Ploutologie

    A separer la science de l'art, de maniere a donner a la premiere plus de clarte et, partant, plus d'autorite, au se cond, plus de surete dans sa marche et plus de liberte.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Multicellularity: Origins and Evolution

    Scholars consider the origins and consequences of the evolution of multicellularity, addressing a range of organisms, experimental protocols, theoretical concepts, and philosophical issues.

    The evolution of multicellularity raises questions regarding genomic and developmental commonalities and discordances, selective advantages and disadvantages, physical determinants of development, and the origins of morphological novelties. It also represents a change in the definition of individuality, because a new organism emerges from interactions among single cells. This volume considers these and other questions, with contributions that explore the origins and consequences of the evolution of multicellularity, addressing a range of topics, organisms, and experimental protocols.

    Each section focuses on selected topics or particular lineages that present a significant insight or challenge. The contributors consider the fossil record of the paleontological circumstances in which animal multicellularity evolved; cooptation, recurrent patterns, modularity, and plausible pathways for multicellular evolution in plants; theoretical approaches to the amoebozoa and fungi (cellular slime molds having long provided a robust model system for exploring the evolution of multicellularity), plants, and animals; genomic toolkits of metazoan multicellularity; and philosophical aspects of the meaning of individuality in light of multicellular evolution.

    Contributors
    Maja Adamska, Argyris Arnellos, Juan A. Arias, Eugenio Azpeitia, Mariana Benitez, Adriano Bonforti, John Tyler Bonner, Peter L. Conlin, A. Keith Dunker, Salva Duran-Nebreda, Ana E. Escalante, Valeria Hernandez-Hernandez, Kunihiko Kaneko, Andrew H. Knoll, Stephan G. Konig, Daniel J. G. Lahr, Ottoline Leyser, Alan C. Love, Raul Montanez, Emilio Mora van Cauwelaert, Alvaro Moreno, Vidyanand Nanjundiah, Aurora M. Nedelcu, Stuart A. Newman, Karl J. Niklas, William C. Ratcliff, Inaki Ruiz-Trillo, Ricard Sole

  • L'Intellectualisme de Saint Thomas (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from L'Intellectualisme de Saint Thomas

    Il nous semble que ce dernier principe est plus pro fond, plus simple, plus central. C'est en partant de la qu'on arrivera le plus aisement au coeur de la metaphy sique thomiste, parce qu'on ne peut etudier ce principe sans le voir s'etendre, se developper, s'epanouir enfin dans l'affirmation de la valeur absolue de l'acte intellec tuel. Arrive la, on tient la pensee maitresse qui met l'unite partout, et qui joint la philosophie et la theologie dans une synthese indissoluble. Elle peut se formuler ainsi l'intelligence, pour 8. Thomas, est essentielle ment le sens du reel, mais elle n'est le sens du reel que parce qu'elle est le sens du divin. Voila, en peu de mots, la conception de la doctrine thomiste qu'on tentera ici, d'exposer.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Certified Programming with Dependent Types - A Pragmatic Introduction to the Coq Proof Assistant

    A handbook to the Coq software for writing and checking mathematical proofs, with a practical engineering focus.

    The technology of mechanized program verification can play a supporting role in many kinds of research projects in computer science, and related tools for formal proof-checking are seeing increasing adoption in mathematics and engineering. This book provides an introduction to the Coq software for writing and checking mathematical proofs. It takes a practical engineering focus throughout, emphasizing techniques that will help users to build, understand, and maintain large Coq developments and minimize the cost of code change over time.

    Two topics, rarely discussed elsewhere, are covered in detail: effective dependently typed programming (making productive use of a feature at the heart of the Coq system) and construction of domain-specific proof tactics. Almost every subject covered is also relevant to interactive computer theorem proving in general, not just program verification, demonstrated through examples of verified programs applied in many different sorts of formalizations. The book develops a unique automated proof style and applies it throughout; even experienced Coq users may benefit from reading about basic Coq concepts from this novel perspective. The book also offers a library of tactics, or programs that find proofs, designed for use with examples in the book. Readers will acquire the necessary skills to reimplement these tactics in other settings by the end of the book. All of the code appearing in the book is freely available online.

  • Communications Policy in Transition - The Internet & Beyond

    A collection of research reports on policy issues involving telecommunications, particularly the Internet.

    Until the 1980s, it was presumed that technical change in most communications services could easily be monitored from centralized state and federal agencies. This presumption was long outdated prior to the commercialization of the Internet. With the Internet, the long-forecast convergence of voice, video, and text bits became a reality. Legislation, capped by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, created new quasi-standards such as "fair" and "reasonable" for the FCC and courts to apply, leading to nonstop litigation and occasional gridlock. This book addresses some of the many telecommunications areas on which public policy makers, corporate strategists, and social activists must reach agreement. Topics include the regulation of access, Internet architecture in a commercial era, communications infrastructure development, the Digital Divide, and information policy issues such as intellectual property and the retransmission of TV programming via the Internet.

  • L'Heptaméron Des Nouvelles de Très Haute Et Très Illustre Princesse Marguerite d'Angouléme, Reine de Navarre, Vol. 2: Publié Sur Les Manuscrits Par Les Soins Et Avec Les Notes (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from L'Heptameron des Nouvelles de Tres Haute Et Tres Illustre Princesse Marguerite d'Angouleme, Reine de Navarre, Vol. 2: Publie sur les Manuscrits par les Soins Et Avec les Notes

    Ceste pauvre femme, qui estoyt si pressee que a peine eut elle le loisir de lever sa robbe pour se mettre sur l'anneau, de fortune s'alla asseoir sur le plus ord salle endroit qui fut en tout le retraiet, ou elle se trouva prinse mieulx que a la gluz, toutes ses pauvres fesses, habillemens piedz si merveilleusement gastez qu'elle n'osoit marcher ne se tourner de nul conste, de paout d'avoir cuco res pis. Dont elle se print a crier tant qu'il luy fut possible: La Mothe, m'amie, je suis perdue deshonoree!

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Morgoth's Ring

    The first of two companion volumes which documents the later writing of The Silmarillion, Tolkien's epic tale of war. After the The Lord of the Rings was at last achieved, J R R Tolkien turned his attention once again to `the Matter of the Elder Days'. The text of the Annals of Aman, the `Blessed Land' in the far West, is given in full; while in writings hitherto unknown is seen the nature of the problems that Tolkien explored in his later years, as new and radical ideas, portending upheaval in the old narratives, emerged at the heart of the mythology, and as the destinies of Men and Elves, mortals and immortals, ecame of central significance, together with a vastly enlarged perception of the evil of Melkor, the Shadow upon Arda. The second part of this history of the later Silmarillion is concerned with developments in the legends of Beleriand after the completion of The Lord of the Rings.

  • The Aesthetic of Play

    A game designer considers the experience of play, why games have rules, and the relationship of play and narrative.

    The impulse toward play is very ancient, not only pre-cultural but pre-human; zoologists have identified play behaviors in turtles and in chimpanzees. Games have existed since antiquity; 5,000-year-old board games have been recovered from Egyptian tombs. And yet we still lack a critical language for thinking about play. Game designers are better at answering small questions ("Why is this battle boring?") than big ones ("What does this game mean?"). In this book, the game designer Brian Upton analyzes the experience of play--how playful activities unfold from moment to moment and how the rules we adopt constrain that unfolding. Drawing on games that range from Monopoly to Dungeons & Dragons to Guitar Hero, Upton develops a framework for understanding play, introducing a set of critical tools that can help us analyze games and game designs and identify ways in which they succeed or fail.

    Upton also examines the broader epistemological implications of such a framework, exploring the role of play in the construction of meaning and what the existence of play says about the relationship between our thoughts and external reality. He considers the making of meaning in play and in every aspect of human culture, and he draws on findings in pragmatic epistemology, neuroscience, and semiotics to describe how meaning emerges from playful engagement. Upton argues that play can also explain particular aspects of narrative; a play-based interpretive stance, he proposes, can help us understand the structure of books, of music, of theater, of art, and even of the process of critical engagement itself.

  • Re-collection - Art, New Media, and Social Memory

    The first book on the philosophy and aesthetics of digital preservation examines the challenge posed by new media to our long-term social memory.

    How will our increasingly digital civilization persist beyond our lifetimes? Audio and videotapes demagnetize; CDs delaminate; Internet art links to websites that no longer exist; Amiga software doesn't run on iMacs. In Re-collection, Richard Rinehart and Jon Ippolito argue that the vulnerability of new media art illustrates a larger crisis for social memory. They describe a variable media approach to rescuing new media, distributed across producers and consumers who can choose appropriate strategies for each endangered work.

    New media art poses novel preservation and conservation dilemmas. Given the ephemerality of their mediums, software art, installation art, and interactive games may be heading to obsolescence and oblivion. Rinehart and Ippolito, both museum professionals, examine the preservation of new media art from both practical and theoretical perspectives, offering concrete examples that range from Nam June Paik to Danger Mouse. They investigate three threats to twenty-first-century creativity: technology, because much new media art depends on rapidly changing software or hardware; institutions, which may rely on preservation methods developed for older mediums; and law, which complicates access with intellectual property constraints such as copyright and licensing. Technology, institutions, and law, however, can be enlisted as allies rather than enemies of ephemeral artifacts and their preservation. The variable media approach that Rinehart and Ippolito propose asks to what extent works to be preserved might be medium-independent, translatable into new mediums when their original formats are obsolete.

  • Our Kind of Movie - The Films of Andy Warhol

    "We didn't think of our movies as underground or commercial or art or porn; they were a little of all of those, but ultimately they were just 'our kind of movie.'"--Andy Warhol Andy Warhol was a remarkably prolific filmmaker, creating more than 100 movies and nearly 500 of the film portraits known as Screen Tests. And yet relatively little has been written about this body of work. Warhol withdrew his films from circulation in the early 1970s and it was only after his death in 1987 that they began to be restored and shown again. With "Our Kind of Movie" Douglas Crimp offers the first single-authored book about the full range of Andy Warhol's films in forty years--and the first since the films were put back into circulation. In six essays, Crimp examines individual films, including Blow Job, Screen Test No. 2, and Warhol's cinematic masterpiece The Chelsea Girls (perhaps the most commercially successful avant-garde film of all time), as well as groups of films related thematically or otherwise--films of seductions in confined places, films with scenarios by Ridiculous Theater playwright Ronald Tavel. Crimp argues that Warhol's films make visible new, queer forms of sociality. Crimp does not view these films as cinema-verite documents of Warhol's milieu, or as camera-abetted voyeurism, but rather as exemplifying Warhol's inventive cinema techniques, his collaborative working methods, and his superstars' unique capabilities. Thus, if Warhol makes visible new social relations, Crimp writes, that visibility is inextricable from his making a new kind of cinema. In "Our Kind of Movie" Crimp shows how Warhol's films allow us to see against the grain--to see differently and to see a different world, a world of difference.

  • The Lord Of The Rings : The Return Of The King (en anglais)

    Concluding the story of The Hobbit, this is the final part of Tolkien's epic masterpiece, The Lord of the Rings, featuring a striking black cover based on Tolkien's own design, the definitive text, and a detailed map of Middle-earth. The armies of the Dark Lord Sauron are massing as his evil shadow spreads even wider. Men, Dwarves, Elves and Ents unite forces to do battle against the Dark. Meanwhile, Frodo and Sam struggle further into Mordor, guided by the treacherous creature Gollum, in their heroic quest to destroy the One Ring... JRR Tolkien's great work of imaginative fiction has been labelled both a heroic romance and a classic fantasy fiction. By turns comic and homely, epic and diabolic, the narrative moves through countless changes of scene and character in an imaginary world which is totally convincing in its detail. Tolkien created a vast new mythology in an invented world which has proved timeless in its appeal. Part of a set of three paperbacks, this popular edition is once again available in its classic black livery designed by Tolkien himself.

  • Being Ecological

    A book about ecology without information dumping, guilt inducing, or preaching to the choir.

    Don't care about ecology? You think you don't, but you might all the same. Don't read ecology books? This book is for you.
    Ecology books can be confusing information dumps that are out of date by the time they hit you. Slapping you upside the head to make you feel bad. Grabbing you by the lapels while yelling disturbing facts. Handwringing in agony about "What are we going to do?" This book has none of that. Being Ecological doesn't preach to the eco-choir. It's for you--even, Timothy Morton explains, if you're not in the choir, even if you have no idea what choirs are. You might already be ecological.

    After establishing the approach of the book (no facts allowed!), Morton draws on Kant and Heidegger to help us understand living in an age of mass extinction caused by global warming. He considers the object of ecological awareness and ecological thinking: the biosphere and its interconnections. He discusses what sorts of actions count as ecological--starting a revolution? going to the garden center to smell the plants? And finally, in "Not a Grand Tour of Ecological Thought," he explores a variety of current styles of being ecological--a range of overlapping orientations rather than preformatted self-labeling.

    Caught up in the us-versus-them (or you-versus-everything else) urgency of ecological crisis, Morton suggests, it's easy to forget that you are a symbiotic being entangled with other symbiotic beings. Isn't that being ecological?

  • Production in the Innovation Economy

    Reports from an ambitious MIT research project that makes the case for encouraging the colocation of manufacturing and innovation.

    Production in the Innovation Economy emerges from several years of interdisciplinary research at MIT on the links between manufacturing and innovation in the United States and the world economy. Authors from political science, economics, business, employment and operations research, aeronautics and astronautics, and nuclear engineering come together to explore the extent to which manufacturing is key to an innovative and vibrant economy.

    Chapters include survey research on gaps in worker skill development and training; discussions of coproduction with Chinese firms and participation in complex manufacturing projects in China; analyses of constraints facing American start-up firms involved in manufacturing; proposals for a future of distributed manufacturing and a focus on product variety as a marker of innovation; and forecasts of powerful advanced manufacturing technologies on the horizon. The chapters show that although the global distribution of manufacturing is not an automatic loss for the United States, gains from the colocation of manufacturing and innovation have not disappeared. The book emphasizes public policy that encourages colocation through, for example, training programs, supplements to private capital, and interfirm cooperation in industry consortia. Such approaches can help the United States not only to maintain manufacturing capacity but also, crucially, to maximize its innovative potential.

    Contributors
    Joyce Lawrence, Richard K. Lester, Richard M. Locke, Florian Metzler, Jonas Nahm, Paul Osterman, Elisabeth B. Reynolds, Donald B. Rosenfeld, Hiram M. Samel, Sanjay E. Sarma, Edward S. Steinfeld, Andrew Weaver, Rachel L. Wellhausen, Olivier de Weck

  • Wanderlust: Actions, Traces, Journeys 1967-2017

    Artists as voyagers who leave their studios to make art, including Nancy Holt, Vito Acconci, Sophie Calle, and Richard Long.

    Wanderlust highlights artists as voyagers who leave their studios to make art. This book (and the exhibition it accompanies) is the first comprehensive survey of the artist's need to roam and the work that emerges from this need. Wanderlust presents the work of under-recognized yet pioneering artists alongside their well-known counterparts, and represents works that vary in process, with some artists working as solitary figures implanting themselves physically on the landscape while others perform and create movements in a collaborative manner or in public.

    Many of the earlier works use what were at the time nontraditional methods of art making. In Trail Markers (1969), for example, Nancy Holt spent time in the English countryside, where she documented the painted orange trail markers she found dotting the landscape. Vito Acconci explored his body's "occupancy" of public space through the execution of preconceived actions or activities. In Following Piece (1969), Acconci followed one randomly chosen stranger through the streets of New York. A Line Made by Walking(1967), a black-and-white photograph of Richard Long's imprint of a straight line in a field, was Long's first walking art work, made on a journey to St Martin's from his home in Bristol. Ana Mendieta's influential Silueta Works in Mexico (1977) documents performances by the artist during her travel between Iowa and Mexico, in which she imprints her body on the landscape while addressing issues of displacement.

    Each of these works recognizes the walk and the journey as much more than just a basic human act. Rebecca Solnit observes that walking replicates thinking, adding "the motions of the mind cannot be traced, but those of the feet can." These works trace the motions of wandering artists' focused minds.

    Artists
    Vito Acconci, Bas Jan Ader, Nevin Aladag, Francis Alÿs, Janine Antoni, John Baldessari, Kim Beck, Roberley Bell, Blue Republic, Sophie Calle, Rosemarie Castoro, Cardiff/Miller, Zoe Crosher, Fallen Fruit, Mona Hatoum, Nancy Holt, Kenneth Josephson, William Lamson, Richard Long, Marie Lorenz, Mary Mattingly, Anthony McCall, Ana Mendieta, Teresa Murak, Wangechi Mutu, Efrat Natan, Gabriel Orozco, Carmen Papalia, John Pfahl, Pope.L, Teri Rueb, Michael X. Ryan, Todd Shalom, Mary Ellen Strom, and Guido van der Werve.

    Contributors
    Rachel Adams, Lucy Ainsworth, Andrew Barron, Pamela Campanaro, Andy Campbell, Hannah Cattarin, Ian Cofre, Jamie DiSarno, Katherine Finerty, Joshua Fischer, Natalie Fleming, Melanie Flood, Jason Foumberg, Allison Glenn, Kate Green, Ross Stanton Jordan, Anna Kaplan, Jamilee Lacy, Jennie Lamensdorf, Toby Lawrence, Jane McFadden, Lynnette Miranda, Conor Moynihan, Liz Munsell, Karen Patterson, Ariel Lauren Pittman, Sean Ripple, Eve Schillo, Holly Shen, Rebecca Solnit, Lexi Lee Sullivan, Whitney Tassie, Charlie Tatum, Zoe Taleporos, Lori Waxman

  • Brain Structure and Its Origins - Function, Evolution, Development

    An introduction to the brain's anatomical organization and functions with explanations in terms of evolutionary adaptations and development.

    This introduction to the structure of the central nervous system demonstrates that the best way to learn how the brain is put together is to understand something about why. It explains why the brain is put together as it is by describing basic functions and key aspects of its evolution and development. This approach makes the structure of the brain and spinal cord more comprehensible as well as more interesting and memorable. The book offers a detailed outline of the neuroanatomy of vertebrates, especially mammals, that equips students for further explorations of the field.

    Gaining familiarity with neuroanatomy requires multiple exposures to the material with many incremental additions and reviews. Thus the early chapters of this book tell the story of the brain's origins in a first run-through of the entire system; this is followed by other such surveys in succeeding chapters, each from a different angle. The book proceeds from basic aspects of nerve cells and their physiology to the evolutionary beginnings of the nervous system to differentiation and development, motor and sensory systems, and the structure and function of the main parts of the brain. Along the way, it makes enlightening connections to evolutionary history and individual development. Brain Structure and Its Origins can be used for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate classes in neuroscience, biology, psychology, and related fields, or as a reference for researchers and others who want to know more about the brain.

  • Weaving the Dark Web: Legitimacy on Freenet, Tor, and I2P

    An exploration of the Dark Web--websites accessible only with special routing software--that examines the history of three anonymizing networks, Freenet, Tor, and I2P.

    The term "Dark Web" conjures up drug markets, unregulated gun sales, stolen credit cards. But, as Robert Gehl points out in Weaving the Dark Web, for each of these illegitimate uses, there are other, legitimate ones: the New York Times's anonymous whistleblowing system, for example, and the use of encryption by political dissidents. Defining the Dark Web straightforwardly as websites that can be accessed only with special routing software, and noting the frequent use of "legitimate" and its variations by users, journalists, and law enforcement to describe Dark Web practices (judging them "legit" or "sh!t"), Gehl uses the concept of legitimacy as a window into the Dark Web. He does so by examining the history of three Dark Web systems: Freenet, Tor, and I2P.

    Gehl presents three distinct meanings of legitimate: legitimate force, or the state's claim to a monopoly on violence; organizational propriety; and authenticity. He explores how Freenet, Tor, and I2P grappled with these different meanings, and then discusses each form of legitimacy in detail by examining Dark Web markets, search engines, and social networking sites. Finally, taking a broader view of the Dark Web, Gehl argues for the value of anonymous political speech in a time of ubiquitous surveillance. If we shut down the Dark Web, he argues, we lose a valuable channel for dissent.

  • Russian Cosmism

    Crucial texts, many available in English for the first time, written before and during the Bolshevik Revolution by the radical biopolitical utopianists of Russian Cosmism.

    Cosmism emerged in Russia before the October Revolution and developed through the 1920s and 1930s; like Marxism and the European avant-garde, two other movements that shared this intellectual moment, Russian Cosmism rejected the contemplative for the transformative, aiming to create not merely new art or philosophy but a new world. Cosmism went the furthest in its visions of transformation, calling for the end of death, the resuscitation of the dead, and free movement in cosmic space. This volume collects crucial texts, many available in English for the first time, by the radical biopolitical utopianists of Russian Cosmism.

    Cosmism was developed by the Russian philosopher Nikolai Fedorov in the late nineteenth century; he believed that humans had an ethical obligation not only to care for the sick but to cure death using science and technology; outer space was the territory of both immortal life and infinite resources. After the revolution, a new generation pursued Fedorov's vision. Cosmist ideas inspired visual artists, poets, filmmakers, theater directors, novelists (Tolstoy and Dostoevsky read Fedorov's writings), architects, and composers, and influenced Soviet politics and technology. In the 1930s, Stalin quashed Cosmism, jailing or executing many members of the movement. Today, when the philosophical imagination has again become entangled with scientific and technological imagination, the works of the Russian Cosmists seem newly relevant.

    Contributors
    Alexander Bogdanov, Alexander Chizhevsky, Nikolai Fedorov, Boris Groys, Valerian Muravyev, Alexander Svyatogor, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Anton Vidokle, Brian Kuan Wood

    A copublication with e-flux, New York

  • Building the Intentional University: Minerva and the Future of Higher Education

    How to rebuild higher education from the ground up for the twenty-first century.Higher education is in crisis. It is too expensive, ineffective, and impractical for many of the world's students. But how would you reinvent it for the twenty-first century--how would you build it from the ground up? Many have speculated about changing higher education, but Minerva has actually created a new kind of university program. Its founders raised the funding, assembled the team, devised the curriculum and pedagogy, recruited the students, hired the faculty, and implemented a bold vision of a new and improved higher education. This book explains that vision and how it is being realized.The Minerva curriculum focuses on "practical knowledge" (knowledge students can use to adapt to a changing world); its pedagogy is based on scientific research on learning; it uses a novel technology platform to deliver small seminars in real time; and it offers a hybrid residential model where students live together, rotating through seven cities around the world. Minerva equips students with the cognitive tools they need to succeed in the world after graduation, building the core competencies of critical thinking, creative thinking, effective communication, and effective interaction. The book offers readers both the story of this grand and sweeping idea and a blueprint for transforming higher education.

  • The Chinese Typewriter: A History

    How Chinese characters triumphed over the QWERTY keyboard and laid the foundation for China's information technology successes today.

    Chinese writing is character based, the one major world script that is neither alphabetic nor syllabic. Through the years, the Chinese written language encountered presumed alphabetic universalism in the form of Morse Code, Braille, stenography, Linotype, punch cards, word processing, and other systems developed with the Latin alphabet in mind. This book is about those encounters--in particular thousands of Chinese characters versus the typewriter and its QWERTY keyboard. Thomas Mullaney describes a fascinating series of experiments, prototypes, failures, and successes in the century-long quest for a workable Chinese typewriter.

    The earliest Chinese typewriters, Mullaney tells us, were figments of popular imagination, sensational accounts of twelve-foot keyboards with 5,000 keys. One of the first Chinese typewriters actually constructed was invented by a Christian missionary, who organized characters by common usage (but promoted the less-common characters for "Jesus to the common usage level). Later came typewriters manufactured for use in Chinese offices, and typewriting schools that turned out trained "typewriter girls" and "typewriter boys." Still later was the "Double Pigeon" typewriter produced by the Shanghai Calculator and Typewriter Factory, the typewriter of choice under Mao. Clerks and secretaries in this era experimented with alternative ways of organizing characters on their tray beds, inventing an input method that was the first instance of "predictive text."

    Today, after more than a century of resistance against the alphabetic, not only have Chinese characters prevailed, they form the linguistic substrate of the vibrant world of Chinese information technology. The Chinese Typewriter, not just an "object history" but grappling with broad questions of technological change and global communication, shows how this happened.

    A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute
    Columbia University

  • The Tales Teeth Tell: Development, Evolution, Behavior

    What teeth can tell us about human evolution, development, and behavior.

    Our teeth have intriguing stories to tell. These sophisticated time machines record growth, diet, and evolutionary history as clearly as tree rings map a redwood's lifespan. Each day of childhood is etched into tooth crowns and roots--capturing birth, nursing history, environmental clues, and illnesses. The study of ancient, fossilized teeth sheds light on how our ancestors grew up, how we evolved, and how prehistoric cultural transitions continue to affect humans today. In The Tales Teeth Tell, biological anthropologist Tanya Smith offers an engaging and surprising look at what teeth tell us about the evolution of primates--including our own uniqueness.

    Humans' impressive set of varied teeth provides a multipurpose toolkit honed by the diet choices of our mammalian ancestors. Fossil teeth, highly resilient because of their substantial mineral content, are all that is left of some long-extinct species. Smith explains how researchers employ painstaking techniques to coax microscopic secrets from these enigmatic remains. Counting tiny daily lines provides a way to estimate age that is more powerful than any other forensic technique. Dental plaque--so carefully removed by dental hygienists today--records our ancestors' behavior and health in the form of fossilized food particles and bacteria, including their DNA. Smith also traces the grisly origins of dentistry, reveals that the urge to pick one's teeth is not unique to humans, and illuminates the age-old pursuit of "dental art." The book is generously illustrated with original photographs, many in color.

  • Economics of Forest Resources

    A comprehensive and technical survey of forest resource economics, concentrating on developments in the last twenty years regarding policy instrument choice and uncertainty.

    The field of forest economics has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, and yet there exists no up-to-date textbook for advanced undergraduate-graduate level use or rigorous reference work for professionals. Economics of Forest Resources fills these gaps, offering a comprehensive technical survey of the field with special attention to recent developments regarding policy instrument choice and uncertainty. It covers all areas in which mathematical models have been used to explain forest owner and user incentives and government behavior, introducing the reader to the rigor needed to think through the consequences of policy instruments. Technically difficult concepts are presented with a unified and progressive approach; an appendix outlines the basic concepts from calculus needed to understand the models and results developed.

    The book first presents the historical and classic models that every student or researcher in forest economics must know, including Faustman and Hartman approaches, public goods, spatial interdependence, two period life-cycle models, and overlapping generations problems. It then discusses topics including policy instrument choice, deforestation, biodiversity conservation, and age-class based forest modeling. Finally, it surveys such advanced topics as uncertainty in two period models, catastrophic risk, stochastic control problems, deterministic optimal control, and stochastic and deterministic dynamic programming approaches.

    Boxes with empirical content illustrating applications of the theoretical material appear throughout. Each chapter is self-contained, allowing the reader, student, or instructor to use the text according to individual needs.

  • Cannabinoids and the Brain

    A review of the scientific evidence on the effects of cannabinoids on brain and behavioral functioning, with an emphasis on potential therapeutic use.

    The cannabis plant has been used for recreational and medicinal purposes for more than 4,000 years, but the scientific investigation into its effects has only recently yielded useful results. In this book, Linda Parker offers a review of the scientific evidence on the effects of cannabinoids on brain and behavioral functioning, with an emphasis on potential therapeutic uses.

    Parker describes the discovery of tetrahydocannbinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis, and the further discovery of cannabinoid receptors in the brain. She explains that the brain produces chemicals similar to THC, which act on the same receptors as THC, and shows that the endocannabinoid system is involved in all aspects of brain functioning. Parker reports that cannabis contains not only the psychoactive compound THC, but also other compounds of potential therapeutic benefit, and that one of them, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promise for the treatment of pain, anxiety, and epilepsy. Parker reviews the evidence on cannabinoids and anxiety, depression, mood, sleep, schizophrenia, learning and memory, addiction, sex, appetite and obesity, chemotherapy-induced nausea, epilepsy, and such neurodegenerative disorders as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease. Each chapter also links the scientific evidence to historical and anecdotal reports of the medicinal use of cannabis.

    As debate about the medical use of marijuana continues, Parker's balanced and objective review of the fundamental science and potential therapeutic effects of cannabis is especially timely.

  • Cultural Evolution - Society, Technology, Language, and Religion

    Leading scholars report on current research that demonstrates the central role of cultural evolution in explaining human behavior.

    Over the past few decades, a growing body of research has emerged from a variety of disciplines to highlight the importance of cultural evolution in understanding human behavior. Wider application of these insights, however, has been hampered by traditional disciplinary boundaries. To remedy this, in this volume leading researchers from theoretical biology, developmental and cognitive psychology, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, history, and economics come together to explore the central role of cultural evolution in different aspects of human endeavor.

    The contributors take as their guiding principle the idea that cultural evolution can provide an important integrating function across the various disciplines of the human sciences, as organic evolution does for biology. The benefits of adopting a cultural evolutionary perspective are demonstrated by contributions on social systems, technology, language, and religion. Topics covered include enforcement of norms in human groups, the neuroscience of technology, language diversity, and prosociality and religion. The contributors evaluate current research on cultural evolution and consider its broader theoretical and practical implications, synthesizing past and ongoing work and sketching a roadmap for future cross-disciplinary efforts.

    Contributors
    Quentin D. Atkinson, Andrea Baronchelli, Robert Boyd, Briggs Buchanan, Joseph Bulbulia, Morten H. Christiansen, Emma Cohen, William Croft, Michael Cysouw, Dan Dediu, Nicholas Evans, Emma Flynn, Pieter Francois, Simon Garrod, Armin W. Geertz, Herbert Gintis, Russell D. Gray, Simon J. Greenhill, Daniel B. M. Haun, Joseph Henrich, Daniel J. Hruschka, Marco A. Janssen, Fiona M. Jordan, Anne Kandler, James A. Kitts, Kevin N. Laland, Laurent Lehmann, Stephen C. Levinson, Elena Lieven, Sarah Mathew, Robert N. McCauley, Alex Mesoudi, Ara Norenzayan, Harriet Over, Ju]rgen Renn, Victoria Reyes-Garcia, Peter J. Richerson, Stephen Shennan, Edward G. Slingerland, Dietrich Stout, Claudio Tennie, Peter Turchin, Carel van Schaik, Matthijs Van Veelen, Harvey Whitehouse, Thomas Widlok, Polly Wiessner, David Sloan Wilson

  • Lettre Ouverte Aux Membres de la Société de Législation de Port-Au-Prince (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lettre Ouverte aux Membres de la Societe de Legislation de Port-au-Prince

    M. Edmond Heraus, qui a travaille assez longtemps a l'enregis trement, pour faire admettre que le bail emphyteotique est trans latif de propriete, s'est etaye du fait que la Regie, en France, fait payer, a l'enregistrement de ce bail, le droit de transmission. Cette facon de voir, ajoute-hi, est non seulement appuyee sur l'opinion des auteurs les plus eminents, mais aussi sur la docirin.? de nombreux arrets.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Avant-garde Videogames - Playing with Technoculture

    An exploration of avant-garde games that builds upon the formal and political modes of contemporary and historical art movements.

    The avant-garde challenges or leads culture; it opens up or redefines art forms and our perception of the way the world works. In this book, Brian Schrank describes the ways that the avant-garde emerges through videogames. Just as impressionism or cubism created alternative ways of making and viewing paintings, Schrank argues, avant-garde videogames create alternate ways of making and playing games. A mainstream game channels players into a tightly closed circuit of play; an avant-garde game opens up that circuit, revealing (and reveling in) its own nature as a game.

    We can evaluate the avant-garde, Schrank argues, according to how it opens up the experience of games (formal art) or the experience of being in the world (political art). He shows that different artists use different strategies to achieve an avant-garde perspective. Some fixate on form, others on politics; some take radical positions, others more complicit ones. Schrank examines these strategies and the artists who deploy them, looking closely at four varieties of avant-garde games: radical formal, which breaks up the flow of the game so players can engage with its materiality, sensuality, and conventionality; radical political, which plays with art and politics as well as fictions and everyday life; complicit formal, which treats videogames as a resource (like any other art medium) for contemporary art; and complicit political, which uses populist methods to blend life, art, play, and reality--as in alternate reality games, which adapt Situationist strategies for a mass audience.

  • Dictionnaire de Philosophie Catholique, Vol. 2: Psychologie Et Logique; Activité, Spontanéité, Volonté, Liberté; Ame; Bète, Instinct; Beau, Sublime; ... Facultés; Habitude; Hérédité; Imagination;

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire de Philosophie Catholique, Vol. 2: Psychologie Et Logique; Activite, Spontaneite, Volonte, Liberte; Ame; Bete, Instinct; Beau, Sublime; Certitude, Criterium; Ecriture; Encephale; Erreur; Facultes; Habitude; Heredite; Imagination; Infini; Jugement; Psychologie Et Logique

    Lorsque Aristote reparut, en quelque sorte en personne, au xv' siecle, en Italie, il devint de nouveau le centre de toutes les operations, et le chef de la guerre sourde contre la foi catholique.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Optimal Control Theory with Applications in Economics

    A rigorous introduction to optimal control theory, with an emphasis on applications in economics.

    This book bridges optimal control theory and economics, discussing ordinary differential equations, optimal control, game theory, and mechanism design in one volume. Technically rigorous and largely self-contained, it provides an introduction to the use of optimal control theory for deterministic continuous-time systems in economics. The theory of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is the backbone of the theory developed in the book, and chapter 2 offers a detailed review of basic concepts in the theory of ODEs, including the solution of systems of linear ODEs, state-space analysis, potential functions, and stability analysis. Following this, the book covers the main results of optimal control theory, in particular necessary and sufficient optimality conditions; game theory, with an emphasis on differential games; and the application of control-theoretic concepts to the design of economic mechanisms. Appendixes provide a mathematical review and full solutions to all end-of-chapter problems.

    The material is presented at three levels: single-person decision making; games, in which a group of decision makers interact strategically; and mechanism design, which is concerned with a designer's creation of an environment in which players interact to maximize the designer's objective. The book focuses on applications; the problems are an integral part of the text. It is intended for use as a textbook or reference for graduate students, teachers, and researchers interested in applications of control theory beyond its classical use in economic growth. The book will also appeal to readers interested in a modeling approach to certain practical problems involving dynamic continuous-time models.

  • The Robot in the Garden - Telerobotics & Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet

    An interdisciplinary collection of essays on telepistemology--the study of knowledge acquired at a distance.

    The Robot in the Garden initiates a critical theory of telerobotics and introduces telepistemology, the study of knowledge acquired at a distance. Many of our most influential technologies, the telescope, telephone, and television, were developed to provide knowledge at a distance. Telerobots, remotely controlled robots, facilitate action at a distance. Specialists use telerobots to explore actively environments such as Mars, the Titanic, and Chernobyl. Military personnel increasingly employ reconnaissance drones and telerobotic missiles. At home, we have remote controls for the garage door, car alarm, and television (the latter a remote for the remote).

    The Internet dramatically extends our scope and reach. Thousands of cameras and robots are now accessible online. Although the role of technical mediation has been of interest to philosophers since the seventeenth century, the Internet forces a reconsideration. As the public gains access to telerobotic instruments previously restricted to scientists and soldiers, questions of mediation, knowledge, and trust take on new significance for everyday life.

    Telerobotics is a mode of representation. But representations can misrepresent. If Orson Welles's War of the Worlds was the defining moment for radio, what will be the defining moment for the Internet? As artists have always been concerned with how representations provide us with knowledge, the book also looks at telerobotics' potential as an artistic medium.

    The seventeen essays, by leading figures in philosophy, art, history, and engineering, are organized into three sections: Philosophy; Art, History, and Critical Theory; and Engineering, Interface, and System Design.

    Contributors:
    Albert Borgmann, Tom Campanella, John Canny, Judith Donath, Hubert Dreyfus, Ken Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Oliver Grau, Marina Grzinic, Blake Hannaford, Michael Idinopulos, Martin Jay, Eduardo Kac, Machiko Kusahara, Jeff Malpas, Lev Manovich, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Eric Paulos, Catherine Wilson

  • What Is Landscape?

    A lexicon and guide for discovering the essence of landscape.

    "Mr. Stilgoe does not ask that we take his book outdoors with us; he believes that reading and experiencing landscapes are activities that should be kept separate. But, as I learned in his book, the hollow storage area in a car driver's door was once a holster, the 'secure nesting place of a pistol.' I recommend you stow your copy there."
    --The Wall Street Journal

    Landscape, John Stilgoe tells us, is a noun. From the old Frisian language (once spoken in coastal parts of the Netherlands and Germany), it meant shoveled land: landschop. Sixteenth-century Englishmen misheard or mispronounced this as landskep, which became landskip, then landscape, designating the surface of the earth shaped for human habitation. In What Is Landscape? Stilgoe maps the discovery of landscape by putting words to things, zeroing in on landscape's essence but also leading sideways expeditions through such sources as children's picture books, folklore, deeds, antique terminology, out-of-print dictionaries, and conversations with locals. ("What is that?" "Well, it's not really a slough, not really, it's a bayou...") He offers a highly original, cogent, compact, gracefully written narrative lexicon of landscape as word, concept, and path to discoveries.

    What Is Landscape? is an invitation to walk, to notice, to ask: to see a sandcastle with a pinwheel at the beach and think of Dutch windmills--icons of triumph, markers of territory won from the sea; to walk in the woods and be amused by the Elizabethans' misuse of the Latin silvaticus (people of the woods) to coin the word savages; to see in a suburban front lawn a representation of the meadow of a medieval freehold.

    Discovering landscape is good exercise for body and for mind. This book is an essential guide and companion to that exercise--to understanding, literally and figuratively, what landscape is.

  • Hurricane Waves

    Dramatic photographs depicting the ever-changing forms of ocean waves during storms; the first complete presentation of the "Hurricane Waves" series.

    To photograph storm-tossed waves during a hurricane, Clifford Ross goes into the surf himself, deploying a wetsuit, flotation vest, and a rope that tethers him to his assistant back on the beach. The result is a series of stunningly dramatic black and white photographs that are among Ross's best-known works. This book collects for the first time the entire "Hurricane Waves" series (begun in 1996), presenting black and white tri-tone images of all eighty-four of the "Hurricane Waves" in the series, along with detailed close ups, and historical color images. It accompanies a landmark exhibition at MASS MoCA.

    The photographs show waves arrested in mid-air but roiling with movement, offering a distorted mirror of the clouds above them, shooting up in an explosion of foam, folding in on themselves, rising tall as a waterfall. We know that the photographer is imbedded in their fury, but in the photographs there is no sign of any human presence. These astonishing images affirm Ross's commitment to the expressive powers of realism as well as to the most advanced possibilities of technology.

    Texts by
    Phong Bui, Jay Clarke, Orville Schell, and Joseph Thompson

    Copublished with MASS MoCA (Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art)

    Exhibition
    MASS MoCA Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art
    May 22, 2015--March 30, 2016

  • Letters of J R R Tolkien: A Selection

    A comprehensive collection of letters spanning the adult life (1914-1973) of one of the world's most famous storytellers. `It is not possible even at great length to "pot" The Lord of the Rings in a paragraph or two. It was begun in 1936, and every part has been written many times... the labour has been colossal; and it must stand or fall, practically as it is.' J.R.R. Tolkien was one of the most prolific letter writers of this century. Over the years he wrote to his publishers, his family, to friends (including C.S. Lewis, W.H. Auden and Naomi Mitchison) and to fans of his books. The letters present a fascinating and highly detailed portrait of the man in many of his aspects: as storyteller, scholar, Catholic, parent and observer of the world around him. They also shed much light on his creative genius and grand design for the creation of a whole new world - Middle-earth. This collection will appeal not only to the legions of Tolkien fans, but will entertain anyone who appreciates the art of letter-writing, of which Tolkien was a master. `I am nearly always written to as Tolkein (not by you): I do not know why, since it is pronounced by me always -keen.'

  • The Atom: A Visual Tour

    An accessible and engaging guide to the atom, the smallest, most fundamental constituent of matter.

    Until now, popular science has relegated the atom to a supporting role in defining the different chemical elements of the periodic table. In this book, Jack Challoner places the atom at center stage. The Atom investigates the quest to identify the smallest, most fundamental constituents of matter--and how that quest helps us to understand what everything is made of and how it all works. Challoner covers a wide range of topics--including the development of scientific thinking about atoms and the basic structure of atoms; how atomic interactions account for the familiar properties of everyday materials; the power of the atomic nucleus; and what the mysterious quantum realm of subatomic particles can tell us about the very nature of reality.

    Illustrated in color throughout, The Atom offers clear answers to questions we have all pondered, as well as some we have never even dreamed of. It describes the amazing discoveries scientists have made about the fundamental building blocks of matter--from quarks to nuclear fission to the "God particle"--and explains them accessibly and concisely. The Atom is the engaging and straightforward introduction to the topic that we didn't get in school.

  • Principles of Model Checking

    A comprehensive introduction to the foundations of model checking, a fully automated technique for finding flaws in hardware and software; with extensive examples and both practical and theoretical exercises.

    Our growing dependence on increasingly complex computer and software systems necessitates the development of formalisms, techniques, and tools for assessing functional properties of these systems. One such technique that has emerged in the last twenty years is model checking, which systematically (and automatically) checks whether a model of a given system satisfies a desired property such as deadlock freedom, invariants, and request-response properties. This automated technique for verification and debugging has developed into a mature and widely used approach with many applications. Principles of Model Checking offers a comprehensive introduction to model checking that is not only a text suitable for classroom use but also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the field.

    The book begins with the basic principles for modeling concurrent and communicating systems, introduces different classes of properties (including safety and liveness), presents the notion of fairness, and provides automata-based algorithms for these properties. It introduces the temporal logics LTL and CTL, compares them, and covers algorithms for verifying these logics, discussing real-time systems as well as systems subject to random phenomena. Separate chapters treat such efficiency-improving techniques as abstraction and symbolic manipulation. The book includes an extensive set of examples (most of which run through several chapters) and a complete set of basic results accompanied by detailed proofs. Each chapter concludes with a summary, bibliographic notes, and an extensive list of exercises of both practical and theoretical nature.

  • Functional Differential Geometry

    An explanation of the mathematics needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory.

    Physics is naturally expressed in mathematical language. Students new to the subject must simultaneously learn an idiomatic mathematical language and the content that is expressed in that language. It is as if they were asked to read Les Miserables while struggling with French grammar. This book offers an innovative way to learn the differential geometry needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory as taught at the college level.

    The approach taken by the authors (and used in their classes at MIT for many years) differs from the conventional one in several ways, including an emphasis on the development of the covariant derivative and an avoidance of the use of traditional index notation for tensors in favor of a semantically richer language of vector fields and differential forms. But the biggest single difference is the authors' integration of computer programming into their explanations. By programming a computer to interpret a formula, the student soon learns whether or not a formula is correct. Students are led to improve their program, and as a result improve their understanding.

  • Mémoires de A.-C. Thibaudeau, 1799-1815 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Memoires de A.-C. Thibaudeau, 1799-1815

    Retire des affaires depuis l'an VI, je ne prenais aucune part active aux preparatifs d'un evenement qui allait changer les destinees de la France mais, par les relations que j'avels con servees, je savais que l'on travaillait a renverser le Directoire et que l'on preparait un grand changement. J'y applaudissais d'avance, dans l'espoir qu'il sauverait la Republique, qui me paraissait alors sur le penchent de sa ruine.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Neuroscience - A Historical Introduction

    An introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system that emphasizes the history of experiments and observations that led to modern neuroscientific knowledge.

    This introduction to neuroscience is unique in its emphasis on how we know what we know about the structure and function of the nervous system. What are the observations and experiments that have taught us about the brain and spinal cord? The book traces our current neuroscientific knowledge to many and varied sources, including ancient observations on the role of the spinal cord in posture and movement, nineteenth-century neuroanatomists' descriptions of the nature of nerve cells, physicians' attempts throughout history to correlate the site of a brain injury with its symptoms, and experiments on the brains of invertebrates.

    After an overview of the brain and its connections to the sensory and motor systems, Neuroscience discusses, among other topics, the structure of nerve cells; electrical transmission in the nervous system; chemical transmission and the mechanism of drug action; sensation; vision; hearing; movement; learning and memory; language and the brain; neurological disease; personality and emotion; the treatment of mental illness; and consciousness. It explains the sometimes baffling Latin names for brain subdivisions; discusses the role of technology in the field, from microscopes to EEGs; and describes the many varieties of scientific discovery. The book's novel perspective offers a particularly effective way for students to learn about neuroscience. It also makes it clear that past contributions offer a valuable guide for thinking about the puzzles that remain.

  • A Widening Sphere - Evolving Cultures at MIT

    How MIT's first nine presidents helped transform the Institute from a small technical school into a major research university.

    MIT was founded in 1861 as a polytechnic institute in Boston's Back Bay, overshadowed by its neighbor across the Charles River, Harvard University. Harvard offered a classical education to young men of America's ruling class; the early MIT trained men (and a few women) from all parts of society as engineers for the nation's burgeoning industries. Over the years, MIT expanded its mission and ventured into other fields--pure science, social science, the humanities--and established itself in Cambridge as Harvard's enduring rival. In A Widening Sphere, Philip Alexander traces MIT's evolution from polytechnic to major research institution through the lives of its first nine presidents, exploring how the ideas, outlook, approach, and personality of each shaped the school's intellectual and social cultures. Alexander describes, among otherthings, the political skill and entrepreneurial spirit of founder and first president, William Rogers; institutional growing pains under John Runkle; Francis Walker's campaign to broaden the curriculum, especially in the social sciences, and to recruit first-rate faculty; James Crafts, whose heart lay in research, not administration; Henry Pritchett's thwarted effort to merge with Harvard (after which he decamped to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching); Richard Maclaurin's successful strategy to move the institute to Cambridge, after considering other sites (including a golfclub in Brighton); the brilliant, progressive Ernest Nichols, who succumbed to chronic illness and barely held office; Samuel Stratton's push towards a global perspective; and Karl Compton's vision for a new kind of Institute--a university polarized around science and technology. Through these interlocking yet independent portraits, Alexander reveals the inner workings of a complex and dynamic community of innovators.

  • The Internet Imaginaire

    The collective vision that shaped the emergence of the Internet: what led software designers, managers, employees, politicians, and individuals to develop and adopt one particular technology.

    In The Internet Imaginaire, sociologist Patrice Flichy examines the collective vision that shaped the emergence of the Internet -- the social imagination that envisioned a technological utopia in the birth of a new technology. By examining in detail the discourses surrounding the development of the Internet in the United States in the 1990s (and considering them an integral part of that development), Flichy shows how an entire society began a new technological era. The metaphorical "information superhighway" became a technical utopia that informed a technological program. The Internet imaginaire, Flichy argues, led software designers, businesses, politicians, and individuals to adopt this one technology instead of another.

    Flichy draws on writings by experts -- paying particular attention to the gurus of Wired magazine, but also citing articles in Time, Newsweek, and Business Week -- from 1991 to 1995. He describes two main domains of the technical imaginaire: the utopias (and ideologies) associated with the development of technical devices; and the depictions of an imaginary digital society. He analyzes the founding myths of cyberculture -- the representations of technical systems expressing the dreams and experiments of designers and promoters that developed around information highways, the Internet, Bulletin Board systems, and virtual reality. And he offers a treatise on "the virtual society imaginaire," discussing visionaries from Teilhard de Chardin to William Gibson, the body and the virtual, cyberdemocracy and the end of politics, and the new economy of the immaterial.

  • Economic Dynamics - Theory and Computation

    A rigorous and example-driven introduction to topics in economic dynamics, with an emphasis on mathematical and computational techniques for modeling dynamic systems.

    This text provides an introduction to the modern theory of economic dynamics, with emphasis on mathematical and computational techniques for modeling dynamic systems. Written to be both rigorous and engaging, the book shows how sound understanding of the underlying theory leads to effective algorithms for solving real world problems. The material makes extensive use of programming examples to illustrate ideas. These programs help bring to life the abstract concepts in the text. Background in computing and analysis is offered for readers without programming experience or upper-level mathematics. Topics covered in detail include nonlinear dynamic systems, finite-state Markov chains, stochastic dynamic programming, stochastic stability and computation of equilibria. The models are predominantly nonlinear, and the emphasis is on studying nonlinear systems in their original form, rather than by means of rudimentary approximation methods such as linearization. Much of the material is new to economics and improves on existing techniques. For graduate students and those already working in the field, Economic Dynamics will serve as an essential resource.

  • Big Data, Little Data, No Data - Scholarship in the Networked World

    An examination of the uses of data within a changing knowledge infrastructure, offering analysis and case studies from the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

    "Big Data" is on the covers of Science, Nature, the Economist, and Wired magazines, on the front pages of the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times. But despite the media hyperbole, as Christine Borgman points out in this examination of data and scholarly research, having the right data is usually better than having more data; little data can be just as valuable as big data. In many cases, there are no data -- because relevant data don't exist, cannot be found, or are not available. Moreover, data sharing is difficult, incentives to do so are minimal, and data practices vary widely across disciplines.

    Borgman, an often-cited authority on scholarly communication, argues that data have no value or meaning in isolation; they exist within a knowledge infrastructure -- an ecology of people, practices, technologies, institutions, material objects, and relationships. After laying out the premises of her investigation -- six "provocations" meant to inspire discussion about the uses of data in scholarship -- Borgman offers case studies of data practices in the sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities, and then considers the implications of her findings for scholarly practice and research policy. To manage and exploit data over the long term, Borgman argues, requires massive investment in knowledge infrastructures; at stake is the future of scholarship.

  • Koreas Online Gaming Empire

    The rapid growth of the Korean online game industry, viewed in social, cultural, and economic contexts.

    In South Korea, online gaming is a cultural phenomenon. Games are broadcast on television, professional gamers are celebrities, and youth culture is often identified with online gaming. Uniquely in the online games market, Korea not only dominates the local market but has also made its mark globally. In Korea's Online Gaming Empire, Dal Yong Jin examines the rapid growth of this industry from a political economy perspective, discussing it in social, cultural, and economic terms. Korea has the largest percentage of broadband subscribers of any country in the world, and Koreans spend increasing amounts of time and money on Internet-based games. Online gaming has become a mode of socializing--a channel for human relationships. The Korean online game industry has been a pioneer in software development and eSports (electronic sports and leagues). Jin discusses the policies of the Korean government that encouraged the development of online gaming both as a cutting-edge business and as a cultural touchstone; the impact of economic globalization; the relationship between online games and Korean society; and the future of the industry. He examines the rise of Korean online games in the global marketplace, the emergence of eSport as a youth culture phenomenon, the working conditions of professional gamers, the role of game fans as consumers, how Korea's local online game industry has become global, and whether these emerging firms have challenged the West's dominance in global markets.

  • Le Comte de Valmont, Ou Les Égaremens de la Raison, Vol. 5: Ornée de Figures (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Le Comte de Valmont, ou les Egaremens de la Raison, Vol. 5: Ornee de Figures

    Dans le detail que je te fais de mes plaisirs passes crois - tu cher Comte que je veuille oublier M. De Verzure Non non il est trop present a mon esprit et a mon coeur. Il est ton ami celui de ton fils le mien et si j'ai differe a t'en parler c'est afin de t'en eu.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Probabilistic Similarity Networks

    In this blend of formal theory and practical application, David Heckerman develops methods for building normative expert systems - expert systems that encode knowledge in a decision-theoretic framework. Heckerman introduces the similarity network and partition, two extensions to the influence diagram representation. He uses the new representations to construct Pathfinder, a large, normative expert system for the diagnosis of lymph-node diseases. Heckerman shows that such expert systems can be built efficiently, and that the use of a normative theory as the framework for representing knowledge can dramatically improve the quality of expertise that is delivered to the user. He concludes with a formal evaluation of the power of his methods for building normative expert systems.

  • Voiture Minimum - Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    A colorful account of Le Corbusier's love affair with the automobile, his vision of the ideal vehicle, and his tireless promotion of a design that industry never embraced.

    Le Corbusier, who famously called a house "a machine for living," was fascinated--even obsessed--by another kind of machine, the automobile. His writings were strewn with references to autos: "If houses were built industrially, mass-produced like chassis, an aesthetic would be formed with surprising precision," he wrote in Toward an Architecture (1923). In his "white phase" of the twenties and thirties, he insisted that his buildings photographed with a modern automobile in the foreground. Le Corbusier moved beyond the theoretical in 1936, entering (with his cousin Pierre Jeanneret) an automobile design competition, submitting plans for "a minimalist vehicle for maximum functionality," the Voiture Minimum. Despite Le Corbusier's energetic promotion of his design to several important automakers, the Voiture Minimum was never mass-produced. This book is the first to tell the full and true story of Le Corbusier's adventure in automobile design. Architect Antonio Amado describes the project in detail, linking it to Le Corbusier's architectural work, to Modernist utopian urban visions, and to the automobile design projects of other architects including Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright. He provides abundant images, including many pages of Le Corbusier's sketches and plans for the Voiture Minimum, and reprints Le Corbusier's letters seeking a manufacturer. Le Corbusier's design is often said to have been the inspiration for Volkswagen's enduringly popular Beetle; the architect himself implied as much, claiming that his design for the 1936 competition originated in 1928, before the Beetle. Amado Lorenzo, after extensive examination of archival and source materials, disproves this; the influence may have gone the other way. Although many critics considered the Voiture Minimum a footnote in Le Corbusier's career, Le Corbusier did not. This book, lavishly illustrated and exhaustively documented, restores Le Corbusier's automobile to the main text.

  • Deep Learning

    An introduction to a broad range of topics in deep learning, covering mathematical and conceptual background, deep learning techniques used in industry, and research perspectives.

    "Written by three experts in the field, Deep Learning is the only comprehensive book on the subject."
    --Elon Musk, cochair of OpenAI; cofounder and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning.

    The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models.

    Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

  • Cloud Computing for Science and Engineering

    A guide to cloud computing for students, scientists, and engineers, with advice and many hands-on examples.

    The emergence of powerful, always-on cloud utilities has transformed how consumers interact with information technology, enabling video streaming, intelligent personal assistants, and the sharing of content. Businesses, too, have benefited from the cloud, outsourcing much of their information technology to cloud services. Science, however, has not fully exploited the advantages of the cloud. Could scientific discovery be accelerated if mundane chores were automated and outsourced to the cloud? Leading computer scientists Ian Foster and Dennis Gannon argue that it can, and in this book offer a guide to cloud computing for students, scientists, and engineers, with advice and many hands-on examples.

    The book surveys the technology that underpins the cloud, new approaches to technical problems enabled by the cloud, and the concepts required to integrate cloud services into scientific work. It covers managing data in the cloud, and how to program these services; computing in the cloud, from deploying single virtual machines or containers to supporting basic interactive science experiments to gathering clusters of machines to do data analytics; using the cloud as a platform for automating analysis procedures, machine learning, and analyzing streaming data; building your own cloud with open source software; and cloud security.

    The book is accompanied by a website, Cloud4SciEng.org, that provides a variety of supplementary material, including exercises, lecture slides, and other resources helpful to readers and instructors.

  • The Strip: Las Vegas and the Architecture of the American Dream

    The transformations of the Strip--from the fake Wild West to neon signs twenty stories high to "starchitecture"--and how they mirror America itself.

    The Las Vegas Strip has impersonated the Wild West, with saloon doors and wagon wheels; it has decked itself out in midcentury modern sleekness. It has illuminated itself with twenty-story-high neon signs, then junked them. After that came Disney-like theme parks featuring castles and pirates, followed by replicas of Venetian canals, New York skyscrapers, and the Eiffel Tower. (It might be noted that forty-two million people visited Las Vegas in 2015--ten million more than visited the real Paris.) More recently, the Strip decided to get classy, with casinos designed by famous architects and zillion-dollar collections of art. Las Vegas became the "implosion capital of the world" as developers, driven by competition, got rid of the old to make way for the new--offering a non-metaphorical definition of "creative destruction." In The Strip, Stefan Al examines the many transformations of the Las Vegas Strip, arguing that they mirror transformations in America itself. The Strip is not, as popularly supposed, a display of architectural freaks but representative of architectural trends and a record of social, cultural, and economic change.

    Al tells two parallel stories. He describes the feverish competition of Las Vegas developers to build the snazziest, most tourist-grabbing casinos and resorts--with a cast of characters including the mobster Bugsy Siegel, the eccentric billionaire Howard Hughes, and the would-be political kingmaker Sheldon Adelson. And he views the Strip in a larger social context, showing that it has not only reflected trends but also magnified them and sometimes even initiated them. Generously illustrated with stunning color images throughout, The Strip traces the many metamorphoses of a city that offers a vivid projection of the American dream.

  • Models of Innovation: The History of an Idea

    Benoit Godin is a Professor at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Montreal.

    Models abound in science, technology, and society (STS) studies and in science, technology, and innovation (STI) studies. They are continually being invented, with one author developing many versions of the same model over time. At the same time, models are regularly criticized. Such is the case with the most influential model in STS-STI: the linear model of innovation.

    In this book, Benoit Godin examines the emergence and diffusion of the three most important conceptual models of innovation from the early twentieth century to the late 1980s: stage models, linear models, and holistic models. Godin first traces the history of the models of innovation constructed during this period, considering why these particular models came into being and what use was made of them. He then rethinks and debunks the historical narratives of models developed by theorists of innovation. Godin documents a greater diversity of thinkers and schools than in the conventional account, tracing a genealogy of models beginning with anthropologists, industrialists, and practitioners in the first half of the twentieth century to their later formalization in STS-STI.

    Godin suggests that a model is a conceptualization, which could be narrative, or a set of conceptualizations, or a paradigmatic perspective, often in pictorial form and reduced discursively to a simplified representation of reality. Why are so many things called models? Godin claims that model has a rhetorical function. First, a model is a symbol of "scientificity." Second, a model travels easily among scholars and policy makers. Calling a conceptualization or narrative or perspective a model facilitates its propagation.

  • Gene Regulation & Metabolism - Post-Genomic Computational Approaches

    As exciting as the new field of genomics is, it has not yet produced a basic conceptual change in biology. The fundamental problems remain: the origin of life, cell organization, the pathways of differentiation, aging, and the molecular and cellular capabilities of the brain. What has occurred is an explosion of molecular information obtained by genomic sequences, which will soon be followed by exhaustive catalogs of protein interactions and protein function. This wealth of information can be analyzed and manipulated only with the help of computers. The rapidly expanding role of computers in biology may usher in a profound conceptual change in how we study living systems in the laboratory.This book focuses on current computational approaches to understanding the complex networks of metabolic and gene regulatory capabilities of the cell. The contributors look well beyond the state of the art in computational biology to anticipate what biological research will be like in a post-genomic world.

  • Making Sense: Cognition, Computing, Art, and Embodiment

    Why embodied approaches to cognition are better able to address the performative dimensions of art than the dualistic conceptions fundamental to theories of digital computing.

    In Making Sense, Simon Penny proposes that internalist conceptions of cognition have minimal purchase on embodied cognitive practices. Much of the cognition involved in arts practices remains invisible under such a paradigm. Penny argues that the mind-body dualism of Western humanist philosophy is inadequate for addressing performative practices. Ideas of cognition as embodied and embedded provide a basis for the development of new ways of speaking about the embodied and situated intelligences of the arts. Penny argues this perspective is particularly relevant to media arts practices.

    Penny takes a radically interdisciplinary approach, drawing on philosophy, biology, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, cybernetics, artificial intelligence, critical theory, and other fields. He argues that computationalist cognitive rhetoric, with its assumption of mind-body (and software-hardware) dualism, cannot account for the quintessentially performative qualities of arts practices. He reviews post-cognitivist paradigms including situated, distributed, embodied, and enactive, and relates these to discussions of arts and cultural practices in general.

    Penny emphasizes the way real time computing facilitates new modalities of dynamical, generative and interactive arts practices. He proposes that conventional aesthetics (of the plastic arts) cannot address these new forms and argues for a new "performative aesthetics." Viewing these practices from embodied, enactive, and situated perspectives allows us to recognize the embodied and performative qualities of the "intelligences of the arts."

  • Catalogue de la Bibliothèque de l'Abbaye de Saint-Victor Au Seizième Siècle (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Catalogue de la Bibliotheque de l'Abbaye de Saint-Victor au Seizieme Siecle

    Selon le Scaligerana ce n'etait pas sans raison que Rabelais s'en moquait ?car il n' avoit en core rien qui vaille dans la bibliotheque de Saint Victor, du temps de Scaliger. Le repertoire que Rabelais a donne des princm livres de cetteo preface.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Étude Sur La Langue de Tacite: A l'Usage Des Classes Supérieures de Lettres Et Des Candidats À La Licence (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Etude sur la Langue de Tacite: A l'Usage des Classes Superieures de Lettres Et des Candidats a la Licence

    3. Meme quand Tacite emploie des mots connus, il en change souvent le sens, soit par imitation des poetes, en particulier de Virgile (a), soit par recherche de l'originalite (b), et alors il est le seul a les employer ainsi le nombre des mots de cette derniere categorie cites par Boetucher (loc. Land. P. LIII) n'est pas moindre de cent vingt - deux. Nous ne pouvons, on le concoit entrer ici dans le detail: il suffira de quelques exemples.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • How Change Happens

    The different ways that social change happens, from unleashing to nudging to social cascades.

    Sunstein's book is illuminating because it puts norms at the center of how we think about change.--David Brooks, The New York Times

    How does social change happen? When do social movements take off? Sexual harassment was once something that women had to endure; now a movement has risen up against it. White nationalist sentiments, on the other hand, were largely kept out of mainstream discourse; now there is no shortage of media outlets for them. In this book, with the help of behavioral economics, psychology, and other fields, Cass Sunstein casts a bright new light on how change happens.

    Sunstein focuses on the crucial role of social norms--and on their frequent collapse. When norms lead people to silence themselves, even an unpopular status quo can persist. Then one day, someone challenges the norm--a child who exclaims that the emperor has no clothes; a woman who says "me too." Sometimes suppressed outrage is unleashed, and long-standing practices fall.

    Sometimes change is more gradual, as "nudges" help produce new and different decisions--apps that count calories; texted reminders of deadlines; automatic enrollment in green energy or pension plans. Sunstein explores what kinds of nudges are effective and shows why nudges sometimes give way to bans and mandates. Finally, he considers social divisions, social cascades, and "partyism," when identification with a political party creates a strong bias against all members of an opposing party--which can both fuel and block social change.

  • Méléagre de Gadara: Thèse (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Meleagre de Gadara: These

    Elles portent les numeros suivants 3 (ap. XII, 9 (ap. V, 19 (ap. V, 31 (ap. V, 32 (ap. V, 311 (ap. XII, 35 (ap. XII, c'est la Sylloge barberino-vaticana qui permet de retablir ici le nom de l'auteur; la piece est adespote dans le Palatinus 50 (ap V, 53 (ap. V.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Making in America - From Innovation to Market

    How America can rebuild its industrial landscape to sustain an innovative economy.

    America is the world leader in innovation, but many of the innovative ideas that are hatched in American start-ups, labs, and companies end up going abroad to reach commercial scale. Apple, the superstar of innovation, locates its production in China (yet still reaps most of its profits in the United States). When innovation does not find the capital, skills, and expertise it needs to come to market in the United States, what does it mean for economic growth and job creation? Inspired by the MIT Made in America project of the 1980s, Making in America brings experts from across MIT to focus on a critical problem for the country.

    MIT scientists, engineers, social scientists, and management experts visited more than 250 firms in the United States, Germany, and China. In companies across America--from big defense contractors to small machine shops and new technology start-ups--these experts tried to learn how we can rebuild the industrial landscape to sustain an innovative economy. At each stop, they asked this basic question: "When you have a new idea, how do you get it into the market?" They found gaping holes and missing pieces in the industrial ecosystem.

    Even in an Internet-connected world, proximity to innovation and users matters for industry. Making in America describes ways to strengthen this connection, including public-private collaborations, new government-initiated manufacturing innovation institutes, and industry/community college projects. If we can learn from these ongoing experiments in linking innovation to production, American manufacturing could have a renaissance.

  • Text, ConText, and HyperText: Writing With and for the Computer

    "Text, ConText, and HyperText" presents recent developments in three related and important areas of technical communication: the design of effective documentation; the impact of new technology and research on technical writing; and the training and management of technical writers.The contributors are all authorities drawn from universities and industry who are active in defining and analyzing the role of computing in technical documentation and the role of documentation in the development of computing technology. This first synthesis of their diverse but related research provides a unique conceptualization of the field of computers and writing and documentation.The book first examines techniques for writing online documentation and the value of usability testing. It presents new research into the impact of human factors in screen design and designing online help, and looks at the impact of desktop publishing on documentation, and at visual literacy and graphic design.Artificial intelligence and documentation processing are then addressed with discussion of data acquisition, automated formatting in expert systems, and document databases; the uses of HyperText in documentation; and the future of technical writing in this new environment."Text, ConText, and HyperText" concludes by examining the training and management of documentation groups: how they "learn to write" in industry, management of large-scale documentation projects and their effect on product development; and the "two cultures" of engineering and documentation."Text, ConText, and HyperText" is included in the Information Systems series, edited by Michael Lesk.

  • Values at Play in Digital Games

    A theoretical and practical guide to integrating human values into the conception and design of digital games.

    All games express and embody human values, providing a compelling arena in which we play out beliefs and ideas. "Big ideas" such as justice, equity, honesty, and cooperation--as well as other kinds of ideas, including violence, exploitation, and greed--may emerge in games whether designers intend them or not. In this book, Mary Flanagan and Helen Nissenbaum present Values at Play, a theoretical and practical framework for identifying socially recognized moral and political values in digital games. Values at Play can also serve as a guide to designers who seek to implement values in the conception and design of their games.

    After developing a theoretical foundation for their proposal, Flanagan and Nissenbaum provide detailed examinations of selected games, demonstrating the many ways in which values are embedded in them. They introduce the Values at Play heuristic, a systematic approach for incorporating values into the game design process. Interspersed among the book's chapters are texts by designers who have put Values at Play into practice by accepting values as a design constraint like any other, offering a real-world perspective on the design challenges involved.

  • The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World

    Why our brains aren't built for media multitasking, and how we can learn to live with technology in a more balanced way.

    Brilliant and practical, just what we need in these techno-human times.--Jack Kornfield, author of The Wise Heart

    Most of us will freely admit that we are obsessed with our devices. We pride ourselves on our ability to multitask--read work email, reply to a text, check Facebook, watch a video clip. Talk on the phone, send a text, drive a car. Enjoy family dinner with a glowing smartphone next to our plates. We can do it all, 24/7! Never mind the errors in the email, the near-miss on the road, and the unheard conversation at the table. In The Distracted Mind, Adam Gazzaley and Larry Rosen--a neuroscientist and a psychologist--explain why our brains aren't built for multitasking, and suggest better ways to live in a high-tech world without giving up our modern technology.

    The authors explain that our brains are limited in their ability to pay attention. We don't really multitask but rather switch rapidly between tasks. Distractions and interruptions, often technology-related--referred to by the authors as "interference"--collide with our goal-setting abilities. We want to finish this paper/spreadsheet/sentence, but our phone signals an incoming message and we drop everything. Even without an alert, we decide that we "must" check in on social media immediately.

    Gazzaley and Rosen offer practical strategies, backed by science, to fight distraction. We can change our brains with meditation, video games, and physical exercise; we can change our behavior by planning our accessibility and recognizing our anxiety about being out of touch even briefly. They don't suggest that we give up our devices, but that we use them in a more balanced way.

  • The Grid: Biography of an American Technology

    The history of the grid, the world's largest interconnected power machine that is North America's electricity infrastructure.

    The North American power grid has been called the world's largest machine. The grid connects nearly every living soul on the continent; Americans rely utterly on the miracle of electrification. In this book, Julie Cohn tells the history of the grid, from early linkages in the 1890s through the grid's maturity as a networked infrastructure in the 1980s. She focuses on the strategies and technologies used to control power on the grid--in fact made up of four major networks of interconnected power systems--paying particular attention to the work of engineers and system operators who handled the everyday operations. To do so, she consulted sources that range from the pages of historical trade journals to corporate archives to the papers of her father, Nathan Cohn, who worked in the industry from 1927 to 1989--roughly the period of key power control innovations across North America.

    Cohn investigates major challenges and major breakthroughs but also the hidden aspects of our electricity infrastructure, both technical and human. She describes the origins of the grid and the growth of interconnection; emerging control issues, including difficulties in matching generation and demand on linked systems; collaboration and competition against the backdrop of economic depression and government infrastructure investment; the effects of World War II on electrification; postwar plans for a coast-to-coast grid; the northeast blackout of 1965 and the East-West closure of 1967; and renewed efforts at achieving stability and reliability after those two events.

  • Decoding the Social World: Data Science and the Unintended Consequences of Communication

    How data science and the analysis of networks help us solve the puzzle of unintended consequences.

    Social life is full of paradoxes. Our intentional actions often trigger outcomes that we did not intend or even envision. How do we explain those unintended effects and what can we do to regulate them? In Decoding the Social World, Sandra Gonzalez-Bailon explains how data science and digital traces help us solve the puzzle of unintended consequences--offering the solution to a social paradox that has intrigued thinkers for centuries. Communication has always been the force that makes a collection of people more than the sum of individuals, but only now can we explain why: digital technologies have made it possible to parse the information we generate by being social in new, imaginative ways. And yet we must look at that data, Gonzalez-Bailon argues, through the lens of theories that capture the nature of social life. The technologies we use, in the end, are also a manifestation of the social world we inhabit.

    Gonzalez-Bailon discusses how the unpredictability of social life relates to communication networks, social influence, and the unintended effects that derive from individual decisions. She describes how communication generates social dynamics in aggregate (leading to episodes of "collective effervescence") and discusses the mechanisms that underlie large-scale diffusion, when information and behavior spread "like wildfire." She applies the theory of networks to illuminate why collective outcomes can differ drastically even when they arise from the same individual actions. By opening the black box of unintended effects, Gonzalez-Bailon identifies strategies for social intervention and discusses the policy implications--and how data science and evidence-based research embolden critical thinking in a world that is constantly changing.

  • The Cost-benefit Revolution

    Why policies should be based on careful consideration of their costs and benefits rather than on intuition, popular opinion, interest groups, and anecdotes.

    Opinions on government policies vary widely. Some people feel passionately about the child obesity epidemic and support government regulation of sugary drinks. Others argue that people should be able to eat and drink whatever they like. Some people are alarmed about climate change and favor aggressive government intervention. Others don't feel the need for any sort of climate regulation. In The Cost-Benefit Revolution, Cass Sunstein argues our major disagreements really involve facts, not values. It follows that government policy should not be based on public opinion, intuitions, or pressure from interest groups, but on numbers--meaning careful consideration of costs and benefits. Will a policy save one life, or one thousand lives? Will it impose costs on consumers, and if so, will the costs be high or negligible? Will it hurt workers and small businesses, and, if so, precisely how much?

    As the Obama administration's "regulatory czar," Sunstein knows his subject in both theory and practice. Drawing on behavioral economics and his well-known emphasis on "nudging," he celebrates the cost-benefit revolution in policy making, tracing its defining moments in the Reagan, Clinton, and Obama administrations (and pondering its uncertain future in the Trump administration). He acknowledges that public officials often lack information about costs and benefits, and outlines state-of-the-art techniques for acquiring that information. Policies should make people's lives better. Quantitative cost-benefit analysis, Sunstein argues, is the best available method for making this happen--even if, in the future, new measures of human well-being, also explored in this book, may be better still.

  • Readings in Development Economics - Empirical Microeconomics V 2

    These two volumes of readings attempt to bring some degree of structure to a relatively diffuse field. Because of the sheer volume of high-quality work in development economics research, they are intended as a sampling of work at the frontier of the field, rather than as a comprehensive overview.Volume II: Empirical Microeconomics focuses on empirical work. Topics covered include the relationship between wages and health, the role of human capital and demographic change, the internal structure of households, information imperfections in factor markets, the permanent income hypothesis, the possibility of Pareto-efficient allocation of risk in villages, and the relationship between property rights and investment decisions.

  • The War on Learning - Gaining Ground in the Digital University

    An examination of technology-based education initiatives--from MOOCs to virtual worlds--that argues against treating education as a product rather than a process.

    Behind the lectern stands the professor, deploying course management systems, online quizzes, wireless clickers, PowerPoint slides, podcasts, and plagiarism-detection software. In the seats are the students, armed with smartphones, laptops, tablets, music players, and social networking. Although these two forces seem poised to do battle with each other, they are really both taking part in a war on learning itself. In this book, Elizabeth Losh examines current efforts to "reform" higher education by applying technological solutions to problems in teaching and learning. She finds that many of these initiatives fail because they treat education as a product rather than a process. Highly touted schemes--video games for the classroom, for example, or the distribution of iPads--let students down because they promote consumption rather than intellectual development.

    Losh analyzes recent trends in postsecondary education and the rhetoric around them, often drawing on first-person accounts. In an effort to identify educational technologies that might actually work, she looks at strategies including MOOCs (massive open online courses), the gamification of subject matter, remix pedagogy, video lectures (from Randy Pausch to "the Baked Professor"), and educational virtual worlds. Finally, Losh outlines six basic principles of digital learning and describes several successful university-based initiatives. Her book will be essential reading for campus decision makers--and for anyone who cares about education and technology.

  • I Am Error - The Nintendo Family Computer / Entertainment System Platform

    The complex material histories of the Nintendo Entertainment System platform, from code to silicon, focusing on its technical constraints and its expressive affordances.

    In the 1987 Nintendo Entertainment System videogame Zelda II: The Adventure of Link, a character famously declared: I AM ERROR. Puzzled players assumed that this cryptic mesage was a programming flaw, but it was actually a clumsy Japanese-English translation of "My Name is Error," a benign programmer's joke. In I AM ERROR Nathan Altice explores the complex material histories of the Nintendo Entertainment System (and its Japanese predecessor, the Family Computer), offering a detailed analysis of its programming and engineering, its expressive affordances, and its cultural significance.

    Nintendo games were rife with mistranslated texts, but, as Altice explains, Nintendo's translation challenges were not just linguistic but also material, with consequences beyond simple misinterpretation. Emphasizing the technical and material evolution of Nintendo's first cartridge-based platform, Altice describes the development of the Family Computer (or Famicom) and its computational architecture; the "translation" problems faced while adapting the Famicom for the U.S. videogame market as the redesigned Entertainment System; Nintendo's breakthrough console title Super Mario Bros. and its remarkable software innovations; the introduction of Nintendo's short-lived proprietary disk format and the design repercussions on The Legend of Zelda; Nintendo's efforts to extend their console's lifespan through cartridge augmentations; the Famicom's Audio Processing Unit (APU) and its importance for the chiptunes genre; and the emergence of software emulators and the new kinds of play they enabled.

  • Histoire Du Peuple d'Israël, Vol. 2 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Histoire du Peuple d'Israel, Vol. 2

    Ce volume renferme la partie que je regarde comme la plus importante dans l'histoire du judaisme. Iahve, le dieu national d'israel, y subit une complete trans formation. De dieu local et provincial, il devient, par une sorte de retour a l'ancien elohisme patriarcal, le Dieu universel qui a fait le ciel et la terre. Il devient surtout un Dieu juste; ce que les dieux nationaux, necessairement pleins de partialite pour leur clientele, ne sontjamais. L'entree de la morale dans la religion est un fait accompli Amos, Osee, Michee, lsaic, a la date ou s'arrete ce volume, l'ont proclamee en tirades dont la beaute n'a jamais ete surpassee.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Oeuvres Inédites de Michel l'Hospital Chancelier de France, Vol. 1: Suivies d'Un Tableau de la Législation Française Au Seizième Siècle, Et Accompagnées de Notes Historiques (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Inedites de Michel l'Hospital Chancelier de France, Vol. 1: Suivies d'un Tableau de la Legislation Francaise au Seizieme Siecle, Et Accompagnees de Notes Historiques

    Le titre general semble n'indiquer qu'un sim ple traite de reforme judiciaire; mais l'auteur a pris le mot justice dans sa plus noble acception. Il l'a consideree comme la base de tout gouver nement bien organise, comme le principal ele ment de bonheur, de surete et de puissance des etats. C'est un veritable traite de haute economie politique.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The End of Ownership: Personal Property in the Digital Economy

    An argument for retaining the notion of personal property in the products we "buy" in the digital marketplace.

    If you buy a book at the bookstore, you own it. You can take it home, scribble in the margins, put in on the shelf, lend it to a friend, sell it at a garage sale. But is the same thing true for the ebooks or other digital goods you buy? Retailers and copyright holders argue that you don't own those purchases, you merely license them. That means your ebook vendor can delete the book from your device without warning or explanation--as Amazon deleted Orwell's 1984 from the Kindles of surprised readers several years ago. These readers thought they owned their copies of 1984. Until, it turned out, they didn't. In The End of Ownership, Aaron Perzanowski and Jason Schultz explore how notions of ownership have shifted in the digital marketplace, and make an argument for the benefits of personal property.

    Of course, ebooks, cloud storage, streaming, and other digital goods offer users convenience and flexibility. But, Perzanowski and Schultz warn, consumers should be aware of the tradeoffs involving user constraints, permanence, and privacy. The rights of private property are clear, but few people manage to read their end user agreements. Perzanowski and Schultz argue that introducing aspects of private property and ownership into the digital marketplace would offer both legal and economic benefits. But, most important, it would affirm our sense of self-direction and autonomy. If we own our purchases, we are free to make whatever lawful use of them we please. Technology need not constrain our freedom; it can also empower us.

  • Ai Weiwei′s Blog - Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009

    Manifestos and immodest proposals from China's most famous artist and activist, culled from his popular blog, shut down by Chinese authorities in 2009.

    In 2006, even though he could barely type, China's most famous artist started blogging. For more than three years, Ai Weiwei turned out a steady stream of scathing social commentary, criticism of government policy, thoughts on art and architecture, and autobiographical writings. He wrote about the Sichuan earthquake (and posted a list of the schoolchildren who died because of the government's "tofu-dregs engineering"), reminisced about Andy Warhol and the East Village art scene, described the irony of being investigated for "fraud" by the Ministry of Public Security, made a modest proposal for tax collection. Then, on June 1, 2009, Chinese authorities shut down the blog. This book offers a collection of Ai's notorious online writings translated into English--the most complete, public documentation of the original Chinese blog available in any language.

    The New York Times called Ai "a figure of Warholian celebrity." He is a leading figure on the international art scene, a regular in museums and biennials, but in China he is a manifold and controversial presence: artist, architect, curator, social critic, justice-seeker. He was a consultant on the design of the famous "Bird's Nest" stadium but called for an Olympic boycott; he received a Chinese Contemporary Art "lifetime achievement award" in 2008 but was beaten by the police in connection with his "citizen investigation" of earthquake casualties in 2009. Ai Weiwei's Blog documents Ai's passion, his genius, his hubris, his righteous anger, and his vision for China.

  • Industrial Landscapes

    Photographs by Bernd and Hilla Becher of industrial structures amid their natural surroundings.

    Bernd and Hilla Becher have profoundly influenced the international photography world over the past several decades. Their unique genre, which falls somewhere between topological documentation and conceptual art, is in line with the aesthetics of such early-twentieth-century masters of German photography as Karl Blossfeldt, Germaine Krull, Albert Renger-Patzsch, and August Sander.

    Industrial Landscapes introduces a new aspect to the Bechers' photography, one that will surprise connoisseurs of their work. Whereas their previously published works concentrated on isolated industrial objects, they now show huge industrial sites amid their natural surroundings. They move away from the objective, severe image to present slightly more narrative, interpretive images of the industrial environment as a whole. Although the photographs in Industrial Landscapes were taken over the past forty years, they are published here for the first time. The industrial structures shown include a wide range of coal mines, iron ore mines, steel mills, power stations with cooling towers, lime kilns, grain elevators, and so on. They represent industrial regions in Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States (Alabama, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania).

  • Manuel Élémentaire d'Histoire Du Droit Français À l'Usage Des Étudiants En Droit de Première Année: Suivi d'Un Résumé En Tableaux Synoptiques Et d'Un ... Questions d'Examen (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Manuel Elementaire d'Histoire du Droit Francais a l'Usage des Etudiants en Droit de Premiere Annee: Suivi d'un Resume en Tableaux Synoptiques Et d'un Recueil Methodique des Principales Questions d'Examen

    Le droit Romain a ete pratique dans les provinces du midi de la France jusqu'en 1789. Il a fait egalement sentir son influence dans le nord, comme raison ecrite, lorsque les coutumes etaient muettes. C'est au droit Roma1n que les redacteurs du Code civil ont emprunte la plupart des regles de la theorie des contrats et obligations.

    Le droit Germanique a surtout exerce son influence dans le nord de la France.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Art Et Scolastique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Art Et Scolastique

    L'ordre yralu;uo s'oppose a l'ordre speculatif parce que l'homme y tend a autro e/pod0 que le seul connaitre. S'il connait cen'est pas pour se reposer dans la verite, et pour y trouver son frui; c'est pour se servir (ati) de ses connaissances, en vue de quelque oeuvre ou de quelque action'.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Traduction Des Satires de Perse, Et de Juvénal (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traduction des Satires de Perse, Et de Juvenal

    De jeunefle qui ne me conviennent plus. Non cd dcm a]? star, non mam. J'y avois peut - etre tr.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Richard Hamilton

    Still little-known in the United States, Richard Hamilton is a key figure in twentieth-century art. An original member of the legendary Independent Group in London in the 1950s, Hamilton organized or participated in groundbreaking exhibitions associated with the group--in particular This Is Tomorrow (1956), for which his celebrated collage Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing?, crystallizing the postwar world of consumer capitalism, was made. With his colleagues in the Independent Group, Hamilton promoted the artistic investigation of popular culture, undertaking this analysis in paintings, prints, and texts, thus setting the stage for Pop art--indeed, he is often called the intellectual father of Pop. At the same time, Hamilton was crucial to the postwar reception of Marcel Duchamp, transcribing his notes for The Large Glass and producing a reconstruction of this epochal piece for the first Duchamp retrospective in Britain, in 1966. Over the years Hamilton has continued to develop his work, in a variety of media, on subjects ranging from the Rolling Stones to the Troubles in Northern Ireland, from new commodities and technologies to the oldest genres in Western painting. True to the mission of the October Files series, this volume collects the most telling essays on Hamilton (including several hard-to-find texts by the artist), spanning the entire range of his extraordinary career.

  • The Handbook of Brain Theory & Neural Networks 2e

    A new, dramatically updated edition of the classic resource on the constantly evolving fields of brain theory and neural networks.

    Dramatically updating and extending the first edition, published in 1995, the second edition of The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks presents the enormous progress made in recent years in the many subfields related to the two great questions: How does the brain work? and, How can we build intelligent machines?

    Once again, the heart of the book is a set of almost 300 articles covering the whole spectrum of topics in brain theory and neural networks. The first two parts of the book, prepared by Michael Arbib, are designed to help readers orient themselves in this wealth of material. Part I provides general background on brain modeling and on both biological and artificial neural networks. Part II consists of Road Maps to help readers steer through articles in part III on specific topics of interest. The articles in part III are written so as to be accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds. They are cross-referenced and provide lists of pointers to Road Maps, background material, and related reading.

    The second edition greatly increases the coverage of models of fundamental neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, and neural network approaches to language. It contains 287 articles, compared to the 266 in the first edition. Articles on topics from the first edition have been updated by the original authors or written anew by new authors, and there are 106 articles on new topics.

  • Dreaming - A Conceptual Framework for Philosophy of Mind and Empirical Research

    A comprehensive proposal for a conceptual framework for describing conscious experience in dreams, integrating philosophy of mind, sleep and dream research, and interdisciplinary consciousness studies.

    Dreams, conceived as conscious experience or phenomenal states during sleep, offer an important contrast condition for theories of consciousness and the self. Yet, although there is a wealth of empirical research on sleep and dreaming, its potential contribution to consciousness research and philosophy of mind is largely overlooked. This might be due, in part, to a lack of conceptual clarity and an underlying disagreement about the nature of the phenomenon of dreaming itself. In Dreaming, Jennifer Windt lays the groundwork for solving this problem. She develops a conceptual framework describing not only what it means to say that dreams are conscious experiences but also how to locate dreams relative to such concepts as perception, hallucination, and imagination, as well as thinking, knowledge, belief, deception, and self-consciousness.

    Arguing that a conceptual framework must be not only conceptually sound but also phenomenologically plausible and carefully informed by neuroscientific research, Windt integrates her review of philosophical work on dreaming, both historical and contemporary, with a survey of the most important empirical findings. This allows her to work toward a systematic and comprehensive new theoretical understanding of dreaming informed by a critical reading of contemporary research findings. Windt's account demonstrates that a philosophical analysis of the concept of dreaming can provide an important enrichment and extension to the conceptual repertoire of discussions of consciousness and the self and raises new questions for future research.

  • The Hobbit poster collection: Six paintings

    This collection features six paintings by Alan Lee of scenes from J.R.R Tolkien's The Hobbit.

  • Design Structure Matrix Methods and Applications

    Design structure matrix (DSM) is a straightforward and flexible modeling technique that can be used for designing, developing, and managing complex systems. DSM offers network modeling tools that represent the elements of a system and their interactions, thereby highlighting the system's architecture (or designed structure). Its advantages include compact format, visual nature, intuitive representation, powerful analytical capacity, and flexibility. Used primarily so far in the area of engineering management, DSM is increasingly being applied to complex issues in health care management, financial systems, public policy, natural sciences, and social systems. This book offers a clear and concise explanation of DSM methods for practitioners and researchers.

  • Control - Digitality as Cultural Logic

    An examination of digitality not simply as a technical substrate but also as the logical basis for reshaped concepts of labor, subjectivity, and collectivity.

    Is there a cultural logic of what we have come to call the information age? Have the technologies and techniques centered on the computer provided not only tools but also the metaphors through which we now understand the social and economic formation of our world? In Control, Seb Franklin addresses the conditions of knowledge that make the concept of the "information economy" possible while at the same time obscuring its deleterious effects on material social spaces. In so doing, Franklin traces three intertwined threads: the relationships among information, labor, and social management that emerged in the nineteenth century; the mid-twentieth-century diffusion of computational metaphors; and the appearance of informatic principles in certain contemporary socioeconomic and cultural practices.

    Drawing on critical theory, media theory, and the history of science, Franklin names control as the episteme grounding late capitalism. Beyond any specific device or set of technically mediated practices, digitality functions within this episteme as the logical basis for reshaped concepts of labor, subjectivity, and collectivity, as well as for the intensification of older modes of exclusion and dispossession. In tracking the pervasiveness of this logical mode into the present, Franklin locates the cultural traces of control across a diverse body of objects and practices, from cybernetics to economic theory and management styles, and from concepts of language and subjectivity to literary texts, films, and video games.

  • Correspondance Inédite, Officielle Et Confidentielle de Napoléon Bonaparte Avec Les Cours Étrangères, Les Princes, Les Ministres Et Les Généraux ... Vol. 3: Suite de Venise; Traité de Camp

    Excerpt from Correspondance Inedite, Officielle Et Confidentielle de Napoleon Bonaparte Avec les Cours Etrangeres, les Princes, les Ministres Et les Generaux Francais Et Etrangers, en Italie, en Allemagne Et en Egypte, Vol. 3: Suite de Venise; Traite de Campo-Formio, Affaires de Genes, Etc

    Ci incluse une autre cdpie d'une lettre du citoyen Noel, relative aux.eniprunts faits par l'empereur dans la rai - devant Belgique. Ch. Delacroix.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Philo Und Die Alexandrinische Theosophie, Oder Vom Einflusse Der Jüdisch-Ägyptischen Schule Auf Die Lehre Des Neuen Testaments, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Philo und die Alexandrinische Theosophie, oder vom Einflusse der Judisch-Agyptischen Schule auf die Lehre des Neuen Testaments, Vol. 1

    (R)er $erfafi'cr biefer (R)d)rift legt bier betu S))nbliunn bie Q[nfange eine6 u3erfea vor, in mefcf)em er bie (se fd)id)te be8 11rcf;riffentbnmss an bearbeiten beabfidytigt. (R)ein q)ian ift, in rein Difiorifcbenx @eifte, bcn (c)acf;en gemass, nnb nrfnnb[icf; 5n verfahren. Linermiefene 9j2ntb massnngen follen anagefcss[ofi'cn' alle nadyerfnnbenen 8been, melcbe qie[tere unb 9?enere in bie acbten nnssenaqnel: [en bineingebentet, um 8eitpbilofopbie nnb mition mit einnnber an verfbbnen' mit (c)trenge fern geba[ten werben.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Paul Lauterbur and the Invention of MRI

    The story behind the invention of the most important medical diagnostic tool since the X-ray.

    On September 2, 1971, the chemist Paul Lauterbur had an idea that would change the practice of medical research. Considering recent research findings about the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals to detect tumors in tissue samples, Lauterbur realized that the information from NMR signals could be recovered in the form of images--and thus obtained noninvasively from a living subject. It was an unexpected epiphany: he was eating a hamburger at the time. Lauterbur rushed out to buy a notebook in which to work out his idea; he completed his notes a few days later. He had discovered the basic method used in all MRI scanners around the world, and for this discovery he would share the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2003. This book, by Lauterbur's wife and scientific partner, M. Joan Dawson, is the story of Paul Lauterbur's discovery and the subsequent development of the most important medical diagnostic tool since the X-ray.

    With MRI, Lauterbur had discovered an entirely new principle of imaging. Dawson explains the science behind the discovery and describes Lauterbur's development of the idea, his steadfastness in the face of widespread skepticism and criticism, and related work by other scientists including Peter Mansfield (Lauterbur's Nobel co-recipient), and Raymond Damadian (who famously feuded with Lauterbur over credit for the ideas behind MRI). She offers not only the story of one man's passion for his work but also a case study of how science is actually done: a flash of insight followed by years of painstaking work.

  • Foundations of Machine Learning

    Fundamental topics in machine learning are presented along with theoretical and conceptual tools for the discussion and proof of algorithms.

    This graduate-level textbook introduces fundamental concepts and methods in machine learning. It describes several important modern algorithms, provides the theoretical underpinnings of these algorithms, and illustrates key aspects for their application. The authors aim to present novel theoretical tools and concepts while giving concise proofs even for relatively advanced topics.

    Foundations of Machine Learning fills the need for a general textbook that also offers theoretical details and an emphasis on proofs. Certain topics that are often treated with insufficient attention are discussed in more detail here; for example, entire chapters are devoted to regression, multi-class classification, and ranking. The first three chapters lay the theoretical foundation for what follows, but each remaining chapter is mostly self-contained. The appendix offers a concise probability review, a short introduction to convex optimization, tools for concentration bounds, and several basic properties of matrices and norms used in the book.

    The book is intended for graduate students and researchers in machine learning, statistics, and related areas; it can be used either as a textbook or as a reference text for a research seminar.

  • Down Detour Road - An Architect in Search of Practice

    A young architect's search for new architectural values in a time of economic crisis.

    I paused at the stoop and thought this could be the basis of a good book. The story of a young man who went deep into the bowels of the academy in order to understand architecture and found it had been on his doorstep all along. This had an air of hokeyness about it, but it had been a tough couple of days and I was feeling sentimental about the warm confines of the studio which had unceremoniously discharged me upon the world.--from Down Detour Road

    What does it say about the value of architecture that as the world faces economic and ecological crises, unprecedented numbers of architects are out of work? This is the question that confronted architect Eric Cesal as he finished graduate school at the onset of the worst financial meltdown in a generation. Down Detour Road is his journey: one that begins off-course, and ends in a hopeful new vision of architecture. Like many architects of his generation, Cesal confronts a cold reality. Architects may assure each other of their own importance, but society has come to view architecture as a luxury it can do without. For Cesal, this recognition becomes an occasion to rethink architecture and its value from the very core. He argues that the times demand a new architecture, an empowered architecture that is useful and relevant. New architectural values emerge as our cultural values shift: from high risks to safe bets, from strong portfolios to strong communities, and from clean lines to clean energy.This is not a book about how to run a firm or a profession; it doesn't predict the future of architectural form or aesthetics. It is a personal story--and in many ways a generational one: a story that follows its author on a winding detour across the country, around the profession, and into a new architectural reality.

  • America Starts Here - Kate Ericson and Mel Ziegler

    During their decade-long collaboration (1985-1995), Kate Ericson and Mel Ziegler produced some of the most influential conceptual art projects of the time. Among their witty and stimulating installations and outdoor projects was Camouflaged History, a house painted in a U.S. Army-designed camouflage pattern using 72 commercial paint colors included in the municipally-approved "authentic colors" of historic Charleston, South Carolina. The commercial name of each paint, commemorating an aspect of the city's history, is also painted on the house, revealing and illuminating the lingering Civil War-era past of the region. Like the Earthwork pioneers, Ericson and Ziegler took the whole country as their working space; but rather than impose a conspicuous work of art upon a site or situation, they devised projects that altered sites subtly, creating a patchwork of poetic narratives and histories to be excavated. The windows rescued from the old National Licorice factory in Philadelphia in the title piece America Starts Here--which takes its name from the slogan used to promote Pennsylvania tourism during the 1980s--are hung according to the location of the original windows in the factory; the cracks in the glass echo the famous cracks in two of Philadelphia's tourist attractions, the Liberty Bell and Marcel Duchamp's The Large Glass. Kate Ericson's death from cancer in 1995 at age 39 made the body of Ericson and Ziegler's collaborative work finite. America Starts Here offers a generous selection of Ericson and Ziegler's work, with much of it reproduced in color, and provides a critical analysis of the artists' still under-appreciated position in the history of twentieth-century art. It accompanies the first retrospective exhibition of Ericson and Ziegler's work. Copublished with The Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum at Skidmore College and List Visual Arts Center at MIT.

  • The Theory of Money and Financial Institutions V 3

    The third and last volume of a work aimed at providing the theoretical underpinnings for an economic dynamics.

    This is the third and last volume of Martin Shubik's exposition of his vision of "mathematical institutional economics"--a term he coined in 1959 to describe the theoretical underpinnings needed for the construction of an economic dynamics. The goal is to develop a process-oriented theory of money and financial institutions that reconciles micro- and macroeconomics, using strategic market games and other game-theoretic methods.

    There is as yet no general dynamic counterpart to the elegant and mathematically well-developed static theory of general equilibrium. Shubik's paradigm serves as an intermediate step between general equilibrium and full dynamics. General equilibrium provides valuable insights on relationships in a closed, friction-free economic structure. Shubik aims to open up this limited structure to the rich environment of sociopolitical economy without dispensing with conceptual continuity.

    Volume 3 considers the specific roles of financial institutions and government, aiming to provide the link between the abstract study of invariant economic and financial functions and the ever-changing institutions that provide these functions. The concept of minimal financial institutions is stressed as a means to connect function with form in a parsimonious manner.

  • You'll See This Message When It Is Too Late: The Legal and Economic Aftermath of Cybersecurity Breaches

    What we can learn from the aftermath of cybersecurity breaches and how we can do a better job protecting online data.

    Cybersecurity incidents make the news with startling regularity. Each breach--the theft of 145.5 million Americans' information from Equifax, for example, or the Russian government's theft of National Security Agency documents, or the Sony Pictures data dump--makes headlines, inspires panic, instigates lawsuits, and is then forgotten. The cycle of alarm and amnesia continues with the next attack, and the one after that. In this book, cybersecurity expert Josephine Wolff argues that we shouldn't forget about these incidents, we should investigate their trajectory, from technology flaws to reparations for harm done to their impact on future security measures. We can learn valuable lessons in the aftermath of cybersecurity breaches.

    Wolff describes a series of significant cybersecurity incidents between 2005 and 2015, mapping the entire life cycle of each breach in order to identify opportunities for defensive intervention. She outlines three types of motives underlying these attacks--financial gain, espionage, and public humiliation of the victims--that have remained consistent through a decade of cyberattacks, offers examples of each, and analyzes the emergence of different attack patterns. The enormous TJX breach in 2006, for instance, set the pattern for a series of payment card fraud incidents that led to identity fraud and extortion; the Chinese army conducted cyberespionage campaigns directed at U.S.-based companies from 2006 to 2014, sparking debate about the distinction between economic and political espionage; and the 2014 breach of the Ashley Madison website was aimed at reputations rather than bank accounts.

  • The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies

    The fourth edition of an authoritative overview, with all new chapters that capture the state of the art in a rapidly growing field.

    Science and Technology Studies (STS) is a flourishing interdisciplinary field that examines the transformative power of science and technology to arrange and rearrange contemporary societies. The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the field, reviewing current research and major theoretical and methodological approaches in a way that is accessible to both new and established scholars from a range of disciplines. This new edition, sponsored by the Society for Social Studies of Science, is the fourth in a series of volumes that have defined the field of STS. It features 36 chapters, each written for the fourth edition, that capture the state of the art in a rich and rapidly growing field. One especially notable development is the increasing integration of feminist, gender, and postcolonial studies into the body of STS knowledge.

    The book covers methods and participatory practices in STS research; mechanisms by which knowledge, people, and societies are coproduced; the design, construction, and use of material devices and infrastructures; the organization and governance of science; and STS and societal challenges including aging, agriculture, security, disasters, environmental justice, and climate change.

  • Simulation And Its Discontents

    How the simulation and visualization technologies so pervasive in science, engineering, and design have changed our way of seeing the world.

    Over the past twenty years, the technologies of simulation and visualization have changed our ways of looking at the world. In Simulation and Its Discontents, Sherry Turkle examines the now dominant medium of our working lives and finds that simulation has become its own sensibility. We hear it in Turkle's description of architecture students who no longer design with a pencil, of science and engineering students who admit that computer models seem more "real" than experiments in physical laboratories.

    Echoing architect Louis Kahn's famous question, "What does a brick want?", Turkle asks, "What does simulation want?" Simulations want, even demand, immersion, and the benefits are clear. Architects create buildings unimaginable before virtual design; scientists determine the structure of molecules by manipulating them in virtual space; physicians practice anatomy on digitized humans. But immersed in simulation, we are vulnerable. There are losses as well as gains. Older scientists describe a younger generation as "drunk with code." Young scientists, engineers, and designers, full citizens of the virtual, scramble to capture their mentors' tacit knowledge of buildings and bodies. From both sides of a generational divide, there is anxiety that in simulation, something important is slipping away. Turkle's examination of simulation over the past twenty years is followed by four in-depth investigations of contemporary simulation culture: space exploration, oceanography, architecture, and biology.

  • Functional Connections of Cortical Areas - A New View from the Thalamus

    Two leading authorities on thalamocortical connections consider how the neural circuits of the brain relate to our actions and perceptions.

    In this book, two leading authorities on the thalamus and its relationship to cortex build on their earlier findings to arrive at new ways of thinking about how the brain relates to the world, to cognition, and behavior. Based on foundations established earlier in their book Exploring the Thalamus and Its Role in Cortical Function, the authors consider the implications of these ground rules for thalamic inputs, thalamocortical connections, and cortical outputs.

    The authors argue that functional and structural analyses of pathways connecting thalamus and cortex point beyond these to lower centers and through them to the body and the world. Each cortical area depends on the messages linking it to body and world. These messages relate to the way we act and think; each cortical area receives thalamic inputs and has outputs to motor centers. Sherman and Guillery go on to discuss such topics as the role of branching axons that carry motor instructions as well as copies of these motor instructions for relay to cortex under the control of the thalamic gate. This gate allows the thalamus to control the passage of information on the basis of which cortex relates to the rest of the nervous system.

  • Molecular Aesthetics

    Scientists and artists explore links between current developments in molecular science and the visual arts.

    Thanks to advances in molecular science and microscopy, we can visualize matter on a nanoscale, and structures not visible to the naked eye can be visualized and characterized. The fact that technology allows us to transcend the limits of natural perception and see what was previously unseeable creates a new dimension of aesthetic experience and practice: molecular aesthetics. This book, drawing on an exhibit and symposium at ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe, documents aesthetic developments in what Felix Guattari called the "molecular revolution."

    Just as artists in the Bauhaus movement began to use such industrial materials as metal, Plexiglas, and alloys as raw materials, artists today have access to new realms of the molecular and nano. The industrial aesthetic of machinery and material has been transformed into an aesthetic of media and molecules. Molecular Aesthetics suggests ways in which art can draw inspiration from the molecular sciences--and ways in which science can use art to make experimental results more intelligible and comprehensible. The authors of the essays collected in the book discuss the creation of molecules of remarkable beauty and the functional properties that stem from a few geometrical principles of molecular design; address the history of molecular structure representation; examine the meaning of molecular aesthetics for scientists; and compare chemical structures to artworks.

  • Oeuvres Inédites de Michel l'Hospital, Chancelier de France, Vol. 2: Suivies d'Un Tableau de la Législation Française Au Seizième Siècle, Et Accompagnées de Notes Historiques (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Inedites de Michel l'Hospital, Chancelier de France, Vol. 2: Suivies d'un Tableau de la Legislation Francaise au Seizieme Siecle, Et Accompagnees de Notes Historiques

    Le temple d'esculape estoit assis en lieu hault, et distant de cinq mille pas de la ville, pour nous donner a entendre que ez lieux eslevez l'air des champs est beaucoup meilleur et plus sain que celui des villes.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Dictionnaire Universel, Historique Et Comparatif, de Toutes Les Religions Du Monde, Vol. 2: Comprenant Le Judaisme, Le Christianisme, Le Paganisme, Le ... Le Chamanisme, l'Islamisme, Le Féti

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire Universel, Historique Et Comparatif, de Toutes les Religions du Monde, Vol. 2: Comprenant le Judaisme, le Christianisme, le Paganisme, le Sabeisme, le Magisme, le Druidisme, le Brahmanisme, le Bouddhisme, le Chamanisme, l'Islamisme, le Fetichisme, Etc., Avec Toutes Leurs Brachnes

    Que la foi en Dieu caracterise toutes vos pensees, vos paroles, vos actions. Celui qui sert Dieu ne place sa confiance en rien autre.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Making of Grand Paris: Metropolitan Urbanism in the Twenty-first Century

    A critical examination of metropolitan planning in Paris--the "Grand Paris" initiative--and the building of today's networked global city.

    In 2007 the French government announced the "Grand Paris" initiative. This ambitious project reimagined the Paris region as integrated, balanced, global, sustainable, and prosperous. Metropolitan solidarity would unite divided populations; a new transportation system, the Grand Paris Express, would connect the affluent city proper with the low-income suburbs; streamlined institutions would replace fragmented governance structures. Grand Paris is more than a redevelopment plan; it is a new paradigm for urbanism. In this first English-language examination of Grand Paris, Theresa Enright offers a critical analysis of the early stages of the project, considering whether it can achieve its twin goals of economic competitiveness and equality.

    Enright argues that by orienting the city around growth and marketization, Grand Paris reproduces the social and spatial hierarchies it sets out to address. For example, large expenditures for the Grand Paris Express are made not for the public good but to increase the attractiveness of the region to private investors, setting off a real estate boom, encouraging gentrification, and leaving many residents still unable to get from here to there.

    Enright describes Grand Paris as an example of what she calls "grand urbanism," large-scale planning that relies on infrastructural megaprojects to reconfigure urban regions in pursuit of speculative redevelopment. Democracy and equality suffer under processes of grand urbanism. Given the logic of commodification on which Grand Paris is based, these are likely to suffer as the project moves forward.

  • Introduction to Machine Learning 2e (OISC)

    The goal of machine learning is to program computers to use example data or past experience to solve a given problem. Many successful applications of machine learning exist already, including systems that analyze past sales data to predict customer behavior, optimize robot behavior so that a task can be completed using minimum resources, and extract knowledge from bioinformatics data. Introduction to Machine Learning is a comprehensive textbook on the subject, covering a broad array of topics not usually included in introductory machine learning texts. In order to present a unified treatment of machine learning problems and solutions, it discusses many methods from different fields, including statistics, pattern recognition, neural networks, artificial intelligence, signal processing, control, and data mining. All learning algorithms are explained so that the student can easily move from the equations in the book to a computer program. The text covers such topics as supervised learning, Bayesian decision theory, parametric methods, multivariate methods, multilayer perceptrons, local models, hidden Markov models, assessing and comparing classification algorithms, and reinforcement learning. New to the second edition are chapters on kernel machines, graphical models, and Bayesian estimation; expanded coverage of statistical tests in a chapter on design and analysis of machine learning experiments; case studies available on the Web (with downloadable results for instructors); and many additional exercises. All chapters have been revised and updated. Introduction to Machine Learning can be used by advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have completed courses in computer programming, probability, calculus, and linear algebra. It will also be of interest to engineers in the field who are concerned with the application of machine learning methods. Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning series

  • Principles of Robot Motion - Theory, Algorithms and Implementation (OIP)

    A text that makes the mathematical underpinnings of robot motion accessible and relates low-level details of implementation to high-level algorithmic concepts.

    Robot motion planning has become a major focus of robotics. Research findings can be applied not only to robotics but to planning routes on circuit boards, directing digital actors in computer graphics, robot-assisted surgery and medicine, and in novel areas such as drug design and protein folding. This text reflects the great advances that have taken place in the last ten years, including sensor-based planning, probabalistic planning, localization and mapping, and motion planning for dynamic and nonholonomic systems. Its presentation makes the mathematical underpinnings of robot motion accessible to students of computer science and engineering, rleating low-level implementation details to high-level algorithmic concepts.

  • Cryopolitics: Frozen Life in a Melting World

    The social, political, and cultural consequences of attempts to cheat death by freezing life.

    As the planet warms and the polar ice caps melt, naturally occurring cold is a resource of growing scarcity. At the same time, energy-intensive cooling technologies are widely used as a means of preservation. Technologies of cryopreservation support global food chains, seed and blood banks, reproductive medicine, and even the preservation of cores of glacial ice used to study climate change. In many cases, these practices of freezing life are an attempt to cheat death. Cryopreservation has contributed to the transformation of markets, regimes of governance and ethics, and the very relationship between life and death. In Cryopolitics, experts from anthropology, history of science, environmental humanities, and indigenous studies make clear the political and cultural consequences of extending life and deferring death by technoscientific means.

    The contributors examine how and why low temperatures have been harnessed to defer individual death through freezing whole human bodies; to defer nonhuman species death by freezing tissue from endangered animals; to defer racial death by preserving biospecimens from indigenous people; and to defer large-scale human death through pandemic preparedness. The cryopolitical lens, emphasizing the roles of temperature and time, provokes new and important questions about living and dying in the twenty-first century.

    Contributors
    Warwick Anderson, Michael Bravo, Jonny Bunning, Matthew Chrulew, Soraya de Chadarevian, Alexander Friedrich, Klaus Hoeyer, Frederic Keck, Eben Kirksey, Emma Kowal, Joanna Radin, Deborah Bird Rose, Kim TallBear, Charis Thompson, David Turnbull, Thom van Dooren, Rebecca J. H. Woods

  • Speaking Code - Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression

    The aesthetic and political implications of working with code as procedure, expression, and action.

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the "Hello World" convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software development, in Speaking Code Geoff Cox formulates an argument that aims to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice and to emphasize the aesthetic and political implications of software studies.

    Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech to language; it is only interpretable in the context of its distribution and network of operations. Code is understood as both script and performance, Cox argues, and is in this sense like spoken language--always ready for action.

    Speaking Code examines the expressive and performative aspects of programming; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their actual role in suppressing political expression; and the market's emptying out of possibilities for free expression in the public realm. Cox defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing.

  • Histoire de la Dernière Guerre de Boheme, Vol. 3: Enrichie Des Cartes, Des Plans de Batailles Et Des Sieges (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Histoire de la Derniere Guerre de Boheme, Vol. 3: Enrichie des Cartes, des Plans de Batailles Et des Sieges

    Amais on n'a eu plus de fecours pour l'hifioirc que dans ces dcr nicrs {cms jamais elle n'a ete exite avec moins de fmcerhe moins maine dea'tdelite. Les Bayli3.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • What Have We Learned? - Macroeconomic Policy After the Crisis

    Top economists consider how to conduct policy in a world where previous beliefs have been shattered by the recent financial and economic crises.

    Since 2008, economic policymakers and researchers have occupied a brave new economic world. Previous consensuses have been upended, former assumptions have been cast into doubt, and new approaches have yet to stand the test of time. Policymakers have been forced to improvise and researchers to rethink basic theory. George Akerlof, Nobel Laureate and one of this volume's editors, compares the crisis to a cat stuck in a tree, afraid to move. In April 2013, the International Monetary Fund brought together leading economists and economic policymakers to discuss the slowly emerging contours of the macroeconomic future. This book offers their combined insights.

    The editors and contributors--who include the Nobel Laureate and bestselling author Joseph Stiglitz, Federal Reserve Vice Chair Janet Yellen, and the former Governor of the Bank of Israel Stanley Fischer--consider the lessons learned from the crisis and its aftermath. They discuss, among other things, post-crisis questions about the traditional policy focus on inflation; macroprudential tools (which focus on the stability of the entire financial system rather than of individual firms) and their effectiveness; fiscal stimulus, public debt, and fiscal consolidation; and exchange rate arrangements.

  • Dictionnaire des Familles Françaises, Anciennes ou Notables, A la Fin du Xixe Siècle, Vol. 8: Bus-Cas (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire des Familles Francaises, Anciennes ou Notables, A la Fin du Xixe Siecle, Vol. 8: Bus-Cas

    La branche cadette, demeuree non noble, etait representee au XIX? siecle par Antoine - Henri du Bus, ne en 1814, brasseur 51 Tour nay, qui a laisse une nombreuse posterite.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Human Robotics - Neuromechanics and Motor Control

    A synthesis of biomechanics and neural control that draws on recent advances in robotics to address control problems solved by the human sensorimotor system.

    This book proposes a transdisciplinary approach to investigating human motor control that synthesizes musculoskeletal biomechanics and neural control. The authors argue that this integrated approach--which uses the framework of robotics to understand sensorimotor control problems--offers a more complete and accurate description than either a purely neural computational approach or a purely biomechanical one.

    The authors offer an account of motor control in which explanatory models are based on experimental evidence using mathematical approaches reminiscent of physics. These computational models yield algorithms for motor control that may be used as tools to investigate or treat diseases of the sensorimotor system and to guide the development of algorithms and hardware that can be incorporated into products designed to assist with the tasks of daily living.

    The authors focus on the insights their approach offers in understanding how movement of the arm is controlled and how the control adapts to changing environments. The book begins with muscle mechanics and control, progresses in a logical manner to planning and behavior, and describes applications in neurorehabilitation and robotics. The material is self-contained, and accessible to researchers and professionals in a range of fields, including psychology, kinesiology, neurology, computer science, and robotics.

  • Londres, Vol. 2 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Londres, Vol. 2

    D B\eerre difpofition melancolique refultent lufieurs effets dont la combinai on fait le fond du carac tere Anglois.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Dictionnaire Des Proverbes François, Et de Façons de Parler Comiques, Burlesques Et Familières, &c: Avec l'Explication, Et Les Étymologies Les Plus Avérées (Classic Reprint)

    This Elibron Classics book is a facsimile reprint of a 1750 edition by François Varrentrapp, Francfort, Mayence.

  • Motion and Representation - The Language of Human Movement

    An examination of the ways human movement can be represented as a formal language and how this language can be mediated technologically.

    In Motion and Representation, Nicolas Salazar Sutil considers the representation of human motion through languages of movement and technological mediation. He argues that technology transforms the representation of movement and that representation in turn transforms the way we move and what we understand to be movement. Humans communicate through movement, physically and mentally. To record and capture integrated movement (both bodily and mental), by means of formal language and technological media, produces a material record and cultural expression of our evolving kinetic minds and identities.

    Salazar Sutil considers three forms of movement inscription: a written record (notation), a visual record (animation), and a computational record (motion capture). He focuses on what he calls kinetic formalism--formalized movement in such pursuits as dance, sports, live animation, and kinetic art, as well as abstract definitions of movement in mathematics and computer science. He explores the representation of kinetic space and spatiotemporality; the representation of mental plans of movement; movement notation, including stave notation (Labanotation) and such contemporary forms of notation as Choreographic Language Agent; and the impact of digital technology on contemporary representations of movement--in particular motion capture technology and Internet transfer protocols.

    Motion and Representation offers a unique cultural theory of movement and of the ever-changing ways of representing movement.

  • Building Old Cambridge: Architecture and Development

    An extensively illustrated, comprehensive exploration of the architecture and development of Old Cambridge from colonial settlement to bustling intersection of town and gown.

    Old Cambridge is the traditional name of the once-isolated community that grew up around the early settlement of Newtowne, which served briefly as the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and then became the site of Harvard College. This abundantly illustrated volume from the Cambridge Historical Commission traces the development of the neighborhood as it became a suburban community and bustling intersection of town and gown. Based on the city's comprehensive architectural inventory and drawing extensively on primary sources, Building Old Cambridge considers how the social, economic, and political history of Old Cambridge influenced its architecture and urban development.

    Old Cambridge was famously home to such figures as the proscribed Tories William Brattle and John Vassall; authors Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and William Dean Howells; publishers Charles C. Little, James Brown, and Henry O. Houghton; developer Gardiner Greene Hubbard, a founder of Bell Telephone; and Charles Eliot, the landscape architect. Throughout its history, Old Cambridge property owners have engaged some of the country's most talented architects, including Peter Harrison, H. H. Richardson, Eleanor Raymond, Carl Koch, and Benjamin Thompson.

    The authors explore Old Cambridge's architecture and development in the context of its social and economic history; the development of Harvard Square as a commercial center and regional mass transit hub; the creation of parks and open spaces designed by Charles Eliot and the Olmsted Brothers; and the formation of a thriving nineteenth-century community of booksellers, authors, printers, and publishers that made Cambridge a national center of the book industry. Finally, they examine Harvard's relationship with Cambridge and the community's often impassioned response to the expansive policies of successive Harvard administrations.

  • Trump and the Media

    The election of Donald Trump and the great disruption in the news and social media.

  • Fascist Pigs: Technoscientific Organisms and the History of Fascism

    How the breeding of new animals and plants was central to fascist regimes in Italy, Portugal, and Germany and to their imperial expansion.

    In the fascist regimes of Mussolini's Italy, Salazar's Portugal, and Hitler's Germany, the first mass mobilizations involved wheat engineered to take advantage of chemical fertilizers, potatoes resistant to late blight, and pigs that thrived on national produce. Food independence was an early goal of fascism; indeed, as Tiago Saraiva writes in Fascist Pigs, fascists were obsessed with projects to feed the national body from the national soil. Saraiva shows how such technoscientific organisms as specially bred wheat and pigs became important elements in the institutionalization and expansion of fascist regimes. The pigs, the potatoes, and the wheat embodied fascism. In Nazi Germany, only plants and animals conforming to the new national standards would be allowed to reproduce. Pigs that didn't efficiently convert German-grown potatoes into pork and lard were eliminated.

    Saraiva describes national campaigns that intertwined the work of geneticists with new state bureaucracies; discusses fascist empires, considering forced labor on coffee, rubber, and cotton in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Eastern Europe; and explores fascist genocides, following Karakul sheep from a laboratory in Germany to Eastern Europe, Libya, Ethiopia, and Angola.

    Saraiva's highly original account--the first systematic study of the relation between science and fascism--argues that the "back to the land" aspect of fascism should be understood as a modernist experiment involving geneticists and their organisms, mass propaganda, overgrown bureaucracy, and violent colonialism.

  • The Hobbit, or, "There and back again" (en anglais)

    Reissued with a new jacket.

  • Blast Furnaces

    Typological, repetitive, at times oddly humorous, Bernd and Hilla Becher's photographs of industrial structures are, in their cumulative effect, profoundly moving. The Becher's serenely cool, disarmingly objective, and notoriously obsessive images of watertowers, gas tanks, grain elevators, blast furnaces, and mine heads have been taken over a period of almost thirty years, under overcast skies, with a view camera that captures each detail and tonality of wood, concrete, brick, and steel."Blast Furnaces "represents a continuation of, but also a counterpoint to the Bechers' earlier book "Watertowers. "There basic functional elements were hidden or clothed in disguises, whereas the 256 duotone prints included here record a purely functional and exposed architecture, built to contain heat, pressure, and accumulations of gases and unhindered by any outside constraints.The blast furnace is the symbol of the steel industry. Like other building types which attract the Bechers, it is also an endangered industrial species. Essentially giant, cone-shaped circular stoves, blast furnaces dominate the cityscapes of Pittsburgh, Youngstown, and Birmingham much as religious structures dominated medieval cities. These photographs, taken between 1961 and 1989, convey the unique characteristics, physical complexity, and eerie presence in the landscape of blast furnaces in Great Britain, Belgium, France, Austria, Germany, and the United States.Bernd and Hilla Becher teach at the Dusseldorf Art Academy. They began their collaborative photographic enterprise in 1957, when they did a study of workers' houses in their native Germany. The Bechers follow in a distinguished line of German photographers that includes August Sander, Albert Renger-Patzsch, and Werner Manz, all of whom contributed in different ways to the definition of "objective" photography. A selection of their photographs is on view throughout 1990 at the Dia Art Foundation galleries in New York, and they will represent Germany in the 1990 Venice Biennale.

  • La Kabylie Et Les Coutumes Kabyles, Vol. 3 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Kabylie Et les Coutumes Kabyles, Vol. 3

    Le defendeur qui appartient a un autre village peut exiger que l'on observe des formes speciales et decliner la competence de la djemaa.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Future of Europe - Reform or Decline

    A provocative argument that unless Europe takes serious action soon, its economic and political decline is unavoidable, and a clear statement of the steps Europe must take before it's too late.

    Unless Europe takes action soon, its further economic and political decline is almost inevitable, economists Alberto Alesina and Francesco Giavazzi write in this provocative book. Without comprehensive reform, continental Western Europe's overprotected, overregulated economies will continue to slow--and its political influence will become negligible. This doesn't mean that Italy, Germany, France, and other now-prosperous countries will become poor; their standard of living will remain comfortable. But they will become largely irrelevant on the world scene. In The Future of Europe, Alesina and Giavazzi (themselves Europeans) outline the steps that Europe must take to prevent its economic and political eclipse.

    Europe, the authors say, has much to learn from the market liberalism of America. Europeans work less and vacation more than Americans; they value job stability and security above all. Americans, Alesina and Giavazzi argue, work harder and longer and are more willing to endure the ups and downs of a market economy. Europeans prize their welfare states; Americans abhor government spending. America is a melting pot; European countries--witness the November 2005 unrest in France--have trouble absorbing their immigrant populations. If Europe is to arrest its decline, Alesina and Giavazzi warn, it needs to adopt something closer to the American free-market model for dealing with these issues.

    Alesina and Giavazzi's prescriptions for how Europe should handle worker productivity, labor market regulation, globalization, support for higher education and technology research, fiscal policy, and its multiethnic societies are sure to stir controversy, as will their eye-opening view of the European Union and the euro. But their wake-up call will ring loud and clear for anyone concerned about the future of Europe and the global economy.

  • Oeuvres Littéraires d'Éd. Richer, Vol. 5: Publiées Et Annotées d'Après Les Indications de l'Auteur (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Litteraires d'Ed. Richer, Vol. 5: Publiees Et Annotees d'Apres les Indications de l'Auteur

    Je me bornerai donc a vous donner les Opi nions de mes deux amis, en vous faisant le recit de la promenade dans laquelle il a ete question de votre Lycee.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Beyond Objecthood: The Exhibition As a Critical Form Since 1968

    The rise of the exhibition as critical form and artistic medium, from Robert Smithson's antimodernist non-sites in 1968 to today's institutional gravitation toward the participatory.

    In 1968, Robert Smithson reacted to Michael Fried's influential essay "Art and Objecthood" with a series of works called non-sites. While Fried described the spectator's connection with a work of art as a momentary visual engagement, Smithson's non-sites asked spectators to do something more: to take time looking, walking, seeing, reading, and thinking about the combination of objects, images, and texts installed in a gallery. In Beyond Objecthood, James Voorhies traces a genealogy of spectatorship through the rise of the exhibition as a critical form--and artistic medium. Artists like Smithson, Group Material, and Michael Asher sought to reconfigure and expand the exhibition and the museum into something more active, open, and democratic, by inviting spectators into new and unexpected encounters with works of art and institutions. This practice was sharply critical of the ingrained characteristics long associated with art institutions and conventional exhibition-making; and yet, Voorhies finds, over time the critique has been diluted by efforts of the very institutions that now gravitate to the "participatory."

    Beyond Objecthood focuses on innovative figures, artworks, and institutions that pioneered the exhibition as a critical form, tracing its evolution through the activities of curator Harald Szeemann, relational art, and New Institutionalism. Voorhies examines recent artistic and curatorial work by Liam Gillick, Thomas Hirschhorn, Carsten Holler, Maria Lind, Apolonija Sustersic, and others, at such institutions as Documenta, e-flux, Manifesta, and Office for Contemporary Art Norway, and he considers the continued potential of the exhibition as a critical form in a time when the differences between art and entertainment increasingly blur.

  • Cultural Code: Video Games and Latin America

    How culture uses games and how games use culture: an examination of Latin America's gaming practices and the representation of the region's cultures in games.

    Video games are becoming an ever more ubiquitous element of daily life, played by millions on devices that range from smart phones to desktop computers. An examination of this phenomenon reveals that video games are increasingly being converted into cultural currency. For video game designers, culture is a resource that can be incorporated into games; for players, local gaming practices and specific social contexts can affect their playing experiences. In Cultural Code, Phillip Penix-Tadsen shows how culture uses games and how games use culture, looking at examples related to Latin America. Both static code and subjective play have been shown to contribute to the meaning of games; Penix-Tadsen introduces culture as a third level of creating meaning.

    Penix-Tadsen focuses first on how culture uses games, looking at the diverse practices of play in Latin America, the ideological and intellectual uses of games, and the creative and economic possibilities opened up by video games in Latin America--the evolution of regional game design and development. Examining how games use culture, Penix-Tadsen discusses in-game cultural representations of Latin America in a range of popular titles (pointing out, for example, appearances of Rio de Janeiro's Christ the Redeemer statue in games from Call of Duty to the tourism-promoting Brasil Quest). He analyzes this through semiotics, the signifying systems of video games and the specific signifiers of Latin American culture; space, how culture is incorporated into different types of game environments; and simulation, the ways that cultural meaning is conveyed procedurally and algorithmically through gameplay mechanics.

  • La Vie Intime d'Une Reine de France Au Xviie Siècle (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Vie Intime d'une Reine de France au Xviie Siecle

    Chetif et d'une sante maladive, son frere Philippe mourait en 1583. Sa soeur Anne, plus agee qu'elle de cinq ans, jeune fille vive et piquante, qui contribuait a donner quelque gaiete a leur petit groupe, etait emportee ass'ez brusquement le 19 fevrier 1584, apres une fievre causee par des saignements de nez pro longes; elle avait quinze ans. Cette meme annee 1584 n'etait pas achevee qu'eleonore s'en allait, mariee au duc de Mantoue, et Marie de Medicis demeurait seule, a onze ans, sans mere, presque sans pere, dans ce grand palais ou l'etiquette la condamnait a demeurer enfermee le plus possible, n'ayant plus personne des siens qui I'aimat, qui put l'elever et en qui elle eut confiance.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Creating Language: Integrating Evolution, Acquisition, and Processing

    A work that reveals the profound links between the evolution, acquisition, and processing of language, and proposes a new integrative framework for the language sciences.

    Language is a hallmark of the human species; the flexibility and unbounded expressivity of our linguistic abilities is unique in the biological world. In this book, Morten Christiansen and Nick Chater argue that to understand this astonishing phenomenon, we must consider how language is created: moment by moment, in the generation and understanding of individual utterances; year by year, as new language learners acquire language skills; and generation by generation, as languages change, split, and fuse through the processes of cultural evolution. Christiansen and Chater propose a revolutionary new framework for understanding the evolution, acquisition, and processing of language, offering an integrated theory of how language creation is intertwined across these multiple timescales.

    Christiansen and Chater argue that mainstream generative approaches to language do not provide compelling accounts of language evolution, acquisition, and processing. Their own account draws on important developments from across the language sciences, including statistical natural language processing, learnability theory, computational modeling, and psycholinguistic experiments with children and adults. Christiansen and Chater also consider some of the major implications of their theoretical approach for our understanding of how language works, offering alternative accounts of specific aspects of language, including the structure of the vocabulary, the importance of experience in language processing, and the nature of recursive linguistic structure.

  • Incontinence of the Void: Economico-Philosophical Spandrels

    The "formidably brilliant" Zizek considers sexuality, ontology, subjectivity, and Marxian critiques of political economy by way of Lacanian psychoanalysis.

    If the most interesting theoretical interventions emerge today from the interspaces between fields, then the foremost interspaceman is Slavoj Zizek. In Incontinence of the Void (the title is inspired by a sentence in Samuel Beckett's late masterpiece Ill Seen Ill Said), Zizek explores the empty spaces between philosophy, psychoanalysis, and the critique of political economy. He proceeds from the universal dimension of philosophy to the particular dimension of sexuality to the singular dimension of the critique of political economy. The passage from one dimension to another is immanent: the ontological void is accessible only through the impasses of sexuation and the ongoing prospect of the abolition of sexuality, which is itself opened up by the technoscientific progress of global capitalism, in turn leading to the critique of political economy.

    Responding to his colleague and fellow Short Circuits author Alenka Zupancic's What Is Sex?, Zizek examines the notion of an excessive element in ontology that gives body to radical negativity, which becomes the antagonism of sexual difference. From the economico-philosophical perspective, Zizek extrapolates from ontological excess to Marxian surplus value to Lacan's surplus enjoyment. In true Zizekian fashion, Incontinence of the Void focuses on eternal topics while detouring freely into contemporary issuesfrom the Internet of Things to Danish TV series.

  • A Prehistory of the Cloud

    The militarized legacy of the digital cloud: how the cloud grew out of older network technologies and politics.

    We may imagine the digital cloud as placeless, mute, ethereal, and unmediated. Yet the reality of the cloud is embodied in thousands of massive data centers, any one of which can use as much electricity as a midsized town. Even all these data centers are only one small part of the cloud. Behind that cloud-shaped icon on our screens is a whole universe of technologies and cultural norms, all working to keep us from noticing their existence. In this book, Tung-Hui Hu examines the gap between the real and the virtual in our understanding of the cloud.

    Hu shows that the cloud grew out of such older networks as railroad tracks, sewer lines, and television circuits. He describes key moments in the prehistory of the cloud, from the game "Spacewar" as exemplar of time-sharing computers to Cold War bunkers that were later reused as data centers. Countering the popular perception of a new "cloudlike" political power that is dispersed and immaterial, Hu argues that the cloud grafts digital technologies onto older ways of exerting power over a population. But because we invest the cloud with cultural fantasies about security and participation, we fail to recognize its militarized origins and ideology. Moving between the materiality of the technology itself and its cultural rhetoric, Hu's account offers a set of new tools for rethinking the contemporary digital environment.

  • Surf Craft - Design and the Culture of Board Riding

    The evolution of the surfboard, from traditional Hawaiian folk designs to masterpieces of mathematical engineering to mass-produced fiberglass.

    Surfboards were once made of wood and shaped by hand, objects of both cultural and recreational significance. Today most surfboards are mass-produced with fiberglass and a stew of petrochemicals, moving (or floating) billboards for athletes and their brands, emphasizing the commercial rather than the cultural. Surf Craft maps this evolution, examining surfboard design and craft with 150 color images and an insightful text. From the ancient Hawaiian alaia, the traditional board of the common people, to the unadorned boards designed with mathematical precision (but built by hand) by Bob Simmons, to the store-bought longboards popularized by the 1959 surf-exploitation movie Gidget, board design reflects both aesthetics and history. The decline of traditional alaia board riding is not only an example of a lost art but also a metaphor for the disintegration of traditional culture after the Republic of Hawaii was overthrown and annexed in the 1890s.

    In his text, Richard Kenvin looks at the craft and design of surfboards from a historical and cultural perspective. He views board design as an exemplary model of mingei, or art of the people, and the craft philosophy of Soetsu Yanagi. Yanagi believed that a design's true beauty and purpose are revealed when it is put to its intended use. In its purest form, the craft of board building, along with the act of surfing itself, exemplifies mingei. Surf Craft pays particular attention to Bob Simmons's boards, which are striking examples of this kind of functional design, mirroring the work of postwar modern California designers.

    Surf Craft is published in conjunction with an exhibition at San Diego's Mingei International Museum.

  • Makers of the Microchip - A Documentary History of Fairchild Semiconductor

    The first years of the company that developed the microchip and created the model for a successful Silicon Valley start-up.

    In the first three and a half years of its existence, Fairchild Semiconductor developed, produced, and marketed the device that would become the fundamental building block of the digital world: the microchip. Founded in 1957 by eight former employees of the Schockley Semiconductor Laboratory, Fairchild created the model for a successful Silicon Valley start-up: intense activity with a common goal, close collaboration, and a quick path to the market (Fairchild's first device hit the market just ten months after the company's founding). Fairchild Semiconductor was one of the first companies financed by venture capital, and its success inspired the establishment of venture capital firms in the San Francisco Bay area. These firms would finance the explosive growth of Silicon Valley over the next several decades. This history of the early years of Fairchild Semiconductor examines the technological, business, and social dynamics behind its innovative products. The centerpiece of the book is a collection of documents, reproduced in facsimile, including the company's first prospectus; ideas, sketches, and plans for the company's products; and a notebook kept by cofounder Jay Last that records problems, schedules, and tasks discussed at weekly meetings. A historical overview, interpretive essays, and an introduction to semiconductor technology in the period accompany these primary documents.

  • Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics 2e

    The new edition of a classic text that concentrates on developing general methods for studying the behavior of classical systems, with extensive use of computation.

    We now know that there is much more to classical mechanics than previously suspected. Derivations of the equations of motion, the focus of traditional presentations of mechanics, are just the beginning. This innovative textbook, now in its second edition, concentrates on developing general methods for studying the behavior of classical systems, whether or not they have a symbolic solution. It focuses on the phenomenon of motion and makes extensive use of computer simulation in its explorations of the topic. It weaves recent discoveries in nonlinear dynamics throughout the text, rather than presenting them as an afterthought. Explorations of phenomena such as the transition to chaos, nonlinear resonances, and resonance overlap to help the student develop appropriate analytic tools for understanding. The book uses computation to constrain notation, to capture and formalize methods, and for simulation and symbolic analysis. The requirement that the computer be able to interpret any expression provides the student with strict and immediate feedback about whether an expression is correctly formulated.

    This second edition has been updated throughout, with revisions that reflect insights gained by the authors from using the text every year at MIT. In addition, because of substantial software improvements, this edition provides algebraic proofs of more generality than those in the previous edition; this improvement permeates the new edition.

  • Inventing Modern America: From the Microwave to the Mouse

    "Inventing Modern America" profiles 35 inventors who exemplify the rich technological creativity of the United States over the past century. The range of their contributions is broad. They have helped transform our homes, our healthcare, our work, our environment, and the way we travel and communicate. The inventors profiled include such well-known figures as George Washington Carver, Henry Ford, and Steve Wozniak, as well as unsung technological pioneers such as Stephanie Kwolek, inventor of Kevlar, and Wilson Greatbatch, inventor of the first implantable cardiac pacemaker. "Inventing Modern America" is designed to create excitement about invention through the personal stories of these American scientists, technologists, and researchers. It is accessible enough to engage high school students yet wide-ranging and interesting enough to appeal to anyone who has ever wondered where microwave ovens and traffic lights come from. The book was developed by the Lemelson-MIT Program for Invention and Innovation, whose mission is to inspire a new generation of American scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs.

  • Traité de Droit Commercial, Vol. 1: Introduction, Histoire Du Droit Commercial, Des Actes de Commerce, Des Commerçants, Des Tribunaux de Commerce, Des ... de Commerce, Des Consuls (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traite de Droit Commercial, Vol. 1: Introduction, Histoire du Droit Commercial, des Actes de Commerce, des Commercants, des Tribunaux de Commerce, des Conseils de Prud'hommes, des Chambres de Commerce, des Consuls

    I. (le! Murmure esl. Romme son lilre meme. L unlique. Ronsuere u lelurunrlw (le lu legislulion.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Innovating: A Doer's Manifesto for Starting from a Hunch, Prototyping Problems, Scaling Up, and Learning to Be Productively Wrong

    Innovating is for doers: you don't need to wait for an earth-shattering idea, but can build one with a hunch and scale it up to impact.

    Innovation is the subject of countless books and courses, but there's very little out there about how you actually innovate. Innovation and entrepreneurship are not one and the same, although aspiring innovators often think of them that way. They are told to get an idea and a team and to build a show-and-tell for potential investors. In Innovating, Luis Perez-Breva describes another approach--a doer's approach developed over a decade at MIT and internationally in workshops, classes, and companies. He shows that to start innovating it doesn't require an earth-shattering idea; all it takes is a hunch. Anyone can do it. By prototyping a problem and learning by being wrong, innovating can be scaled up to make an impact. As Perez-Breva demonstrates, no thing is new at the outset of what we only later celebrate as innovation.

    In Innovating, the process--illustrated by unique and dynamic artwork--is shown to be empirical, experimental, nonlinear, and incremental. You give your hunch the structure of a problem. Anything can be a part. Your innovating accrues other people's knowledge and skills. Perez-Breva describes how to create a kit for innovating, and outlines questions that will help you think in new ways. Finally, he shows how to systematize what you've learned: to advocate, communicate, scale up, manage innovating continuously, and document--"you need a notebook to converse with yourself," he advises. Everyone interested in innovating also needs to read this book.

  • Yayoi Kusama - Inventing the Singular

    An examination of Yayoi Kusama's work that goes beyond the usual biographical interpretation to consider her place in postwar global art history.

    Yayoi Kusama is the most famous artist to emerge from Japan in the period following World War II. Part of a burgeoning international art scene in the early 1960s, she exhibited in New York with Andy Warhol, Donald Judd, Claes Oldenburg, and other Pop and Minimalist luminaries, and in Europe with the Dutch Nul and the German Zero artist groups. Known for repetitive patterns, sewn soft sculptures, naked performance, and suggestive content, Kusama's work anticipated the politically charged feminist art of the 1970s. But Kusama and her work were soon eclipsed by a dealer-controlled art market monopoly of white male American artists. Returning to Japan in 1973, Kusama became almost as famous for her self-proclaimed mental illness and permanent residence in a psychiatric hospital as she was for her art. In this book, Midori Yamamura eschews the usual critical fascination with Kusama's biography to consider the artist in her social and cultural milieu. By examining Kusama's art alongside that of her peers, Yamamura offers a new perspective on Kusama's career.

    Yamamura shows that Kusama, who came of age in totalitarian wartime Japan, embraced art as an anticonformist pursuit, seeking a subjective autonomy that resulted in the singular expression of her art. Examining Kusama's association with European and New York art movements of the 1960s and her creation of psychedelic light-and-sound "Happenings," Yamamura argues that Kusama and her heterogeneous peers defied and undermined various pillars of modernity during the crucial transition from the modern nation-state to global free-market capitalism.

    The art market rediscovered Kusama in the 1990s, and she has since had a series of high-profile exhibitions. Recounting Kusama's story, Yamamura offers an incisive, penetrating analysis of postwar art's globalization as viewed from the periphery.

  • Distance Points: Essays in Theory and Renaissance Art and Architecture

    "James Ackerman's essays are nuggets of pure gold in the mainstream of American cultural history. They exemplify the very best art history has achieved in our time." -- Irving Lavin, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University These essays by one of America's foremost historians of art and architecture range over theory and criticism, the search for connections between art and science in the Renaissance, and specific works of Renaissance architecture. The largest group of essays, dealing with the character of Renaissance architecture, are models of art historical scholarship in their direct approach to identifying the essentials of a building and the social and intellectual context in which they should be viewed. Another group of essays explores encounters between the traditions of artistic practice and early optics and color theory. The three essays that begin this collection bring to light the intellectual and moral concerns that underlie all of Ackerman's art historical work.

  • Intervention in the Brain - Politics, Policy, and Ethics

    The political and policy implications of recent developments in neuroscience, including new techniques in imaging and neurogenetics.

    New findings in neuroscience have given us unprecedented knowledge about the workings of the brain. Innovative research--much of it based on neuroimaging results--suggests not only treatments for neural disorders but also the possibility of increasingly precise and effective ways to predict, modify, and control behavior. In this book, Robert Blank examines the complex ethical and policy issues raised by our new capabilities of intervention in the brain.

    After surveying current knowledge about the brain and describing a wide range of experimental and clinical interventions--from behavior-modifying drugs to neural implants to virtual reality--Blank discusses the political and philosophical implications of these scientific advances. If human individuality is simply a product of a network of manipulable nerve cell connections, and if aggressive behavior is a treatable biochemical condition, what happens to our conceptions of individual responsibility, autonomy, and free will? In light of new neuroscientific possibilities, Blank considers such topics as informed consent, addiction, criminal justice, racism, commercial and military applications of neuroscience research, new ways to define death, and political ideology and partisanship.

    Our political and social institutions have not kept pace with the rapid advances in neuroscience. This book shows why the political issues surrounding the application of this new research should be debated before interventions in the brain become routine.

  • L'Ordre Des Trinitaires Pour Le Rachat Des Captifs, Vol. 2: Pièces Justificatives (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from L'Ordre des Trinitaires pour le Rachat des Captifs, Vol. 2: Pieces Justificatives

    C'est donc une des tentatives d'accaparement faites par les Trinitaires pour faire croire a leur antiquite.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Generating Referring Expressions - Constructing Descriptions in a Domain of Objects & Processes

    Robert Dale presents a detailed description of the development of algorithms for the generation of referring expressions, and of the underlying structures that motivate these algorithms, in a dynamic domain. He provides a number of novel results in both knowledge representation and natural language generation that should have straightforward applications in other domains. Dale describes EPICURE, a natural language generating system, and its capacity to create referring expressions in a domain embodying several interesting features: The entities in the domain consist of masses and sets as well as the more usual singular individuals; during the development of a discourse, the entities may take on new properties, existing entities may be destroyed, and new entities may be created; and the discourses within which the entities appear are hierarchically structured, allowing for the integration of discourse-structural constraints on the use of anaphoric expressions. EPICURE is designed to generate text from underlying plans. Dale uses cooking recipes as examples, showing how the system must determine what level of explanation is required and how the events in the plan must be modeled to ensure that the references generated are accurate.

  • Children Without a State - A Global Human Rights Challenge

    The first book to address children's statelessness and lack of legal status as a human rights issue.

    Children are among the most vulnerable citizens of the world, with a special need for the protections, rights, and services offered by states. And yet children are particularly at risk from statelessness. Thirty-six percent of all births in the world are not registered, leaving more than forty-eight million children under the age of five with no legal identity and no formal claim on any state. Millions of other children are born stateless or become undocumented as a result of migration. Children Without a State is the first book to examine how statelessness affects children throughout the world, examining this largely unexplored problem from a human rights perspective.

    The human rights repercussions explored range from dramatic abuses (detention and deportation) to social marginalization (lack of access to education and health care). The book provides a variety of examples, including chapters on Palestinian children in Israel, undocumented young people seeking higher education in the United States, unaccompanied child migrants in Spain, Roma children in Italy, irregular internal child migrants in China, and children in mixed legal/illegal families in the United States.

  • Machine Learners: Archaeology of a Data Practice

    If machine learning transforms the nature of knowledge, does it also transform the practice of critical thought?

    Machine learning--programming computers to learn from data--has spread across scientific disciplines, media, entertainment, and government. Medical research, autonomous vehicles, credit transaction processing, computer gaming, recommendation systems, finance, surveillance, and robotics use machine learning. Machine learning devices (sometimes understood as scientific models, sometimes as operational algorithms) anchor the field of data science. They have also become mundane mechanisms deeply embedded in a variety of systems and gadgets. In contexts from the everyday to the esoteric, machine learning is said to transform the nature of knowledge. In this book, Adrian Mackenzie investigates whether machine learning also transforms the practice of critical thinking.

    Mackenzie focuses on machine learners--either humans and machines or human-machine relations--situated among settings, data, and devices. The settings range from fMRI to Facebook; the data anything from cat images to DNA sequences; the devices include neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees. He examines specific learning algorithms--writing code and writing about code--and develops an archaeology of operations that, following Foucault, views machine learning as a form of knowledge production and a strategy of power. Exploring layers of abstraction, data infrastructures, coding practices, diagrams, mathematical formalisms, and the social organization of machine learning, Mackenzie traces the mostly invisible architecture of one of the central zones of contemporary technological cultures.

    Mackenzie's account of machine learning locates places in which a sense of agency can take root. His archaeology of the operational formation of machine learning does not unearth the footprint of a strategic monolith but reveals the local tributaries of force that feed into the generalization and plurality of the field.

  • Sport 2.0: Transforming Sports for a Digital World

    Ramifications of the convergence of sports and digital technology, from athlete and spectator experience to the role of media innovation at the Olympics.

    Digital technology is changing everything about modern sports. Athletes and coaches rely on digital data to monitor and enhance performance. Officials use tracking systems to augment their judgment in what is an increasingly superhuman field of play. Spectators tune in to live sports through social media, or even through virtual reality. Audiences now act as citizen journalists whose collective shared data expands the places in which we consume sports news.

    In Sport 2.0, Andy Miah examines the convergence of sports and digital cultures, examining not only how it affects our participation in sport but also how it changes our experience of life online. This convergence redefines how we think of about our bodies, the social function of sports, and the kinds of people who are playing. Miah describes a world in which the rise of competitive computer game playing--e-sports--challenges and invigorates the social mandate. Miah also looks at the Olympic Games as an exemplar of digital innovation in sports, and offers a detailed look at the social media footprint of the 2012 London Games, discussing how organizers, sponsors, media, and activists responded to the world's largest media event.

    In the end, Miah does not argue that physical activity will cease to be central to sports, or that digital corporeality will replace the nondigital version. Rather, he provides a road map for how sports will become mixed-reality experiences and abandon the duality of physical and digital.

  • The Culture of Curating and the Curating of Culture(s)

    How curating has changed art and how art has changed curating: an examination of the emergence contemporary curatorship.

    Once considered a mere caretaker for collections, the curator is now widely viewed as a globally connected auteur. Over the last twenty-five years, as international group exhibitions and biennials have become the dominant mode of presenting contemporary art to the public, curatorship has begun to be perceived as a constellation of creative activities not unlike artistic praxis. The curator has gone from being a behind-the-scenes organizer and selector to a visible, centrally important cultural producer. In The Culture of Curating and the Curating of Culture(s), Paul O'Neill examines the emergence of independent curatorship and the discourse that helped to establish it.

    O'Neill describes how, by the 1980s, curated group exhibitions--large-scale, temporary projects with artworks cast as illustrative fragments--came to be understood as the creative work of curator-auteurs. The proliferation of new biennials and other large international exhibitions in the 1990s created a cohort of high-profile, globally mobile curators, moving from Venice to Paris to Kassel. In the 1990s, curatorial and artistic practice converged, blurring the distinction between artist and curator.

    O'Neill argues that this change in the understanding of curatorship was shaped by a curator-centered discourse that effectively advocated--and authorized--the new independent curatorial practice. Drawing on the extensive curatorial literature and his own interviews with leading curators, critics, art historians, and artists, O'Neill traces the development of the curator-as-artist model and the ways it has been contested. The Culture of Curating and the Curating of Culture(s) documents the many ways in which our perception of art has been transformed by curating and the discourses surrounding it.

  • The Smart Enough City: Putting Technology in Its Place to Reclaim Our Urban Future

    Why technology is not an end in itself, and how cities can be "smart enough," using technology to promote democracy and equity.

    Smart cities, where technology is used to solve every problem, are hailed as futuristic urban utopias. We are promised that apps, algorithms, and artificial intelligence will relieve congestion, restore democracy, prevent crime, and improve public services. In The Smart Enough City, Ben Green warns against seeing the city only through the lens of technology; taking an exclusively technical view of urban life will lead to cities that appear smart but under the surface are rife with injustice and inequality. He proposes instead that cities strive to be "smart enough" to embrace technology as a powerful tool when used in conjunction with other forms of social change--but not to value technology as an end in itself.

    In a technology-centric smart city, self-driving cars have the run of downtown and force out pedestrians, civic engagement is limited to requesting services through an app, police use algorithms to justify and perpetuate racist practices, and governments and private companies surveil public space to control behavior. Green describes smart city efforts gone wrong but also smart enough alternatives, attainable with the help of technology but not reducible to technology: a livable city, a democratic city, a just city, a responsible city, and an innovative city. By recognizing the complexity of urban life rather than merely seeing the city as something to optimize, these Smart Enough Cities successfully incorporate technology into a holistic vision of justice and equity.

  • Trap Door: Trans Cultural Production and the Politics of Visibility

    Essays, conversations, and archival investigations explore the paradoxes, limitations, and social ramifications of trans representation within contemporary culture.

    The increasing representation of trans identity throughout art and popular culture in recent years has been nothing if not paradoxical. Trans visibility is touted as a sign of a liberal society, but it has coincided with a political moment marked both by heightened violence against trans people (especially trans women of color) and by the suppression of trans rights under civil law. Trap Door grapples with these contradictions.

    The essays, conversations, and dossiers gathered here delve into themes as wide-ranging yet interconnected as beauty, performativity, activism, and police brutality. Collectively, they attest to how trans people are frequently offered "doors"--entrances to visibility and recognition--that are actually "traps," accommodating trans bodies and communities only insofar as they cooperate with dominant norms. The volume speculates about a third term, perhaps uniquely suited for our time: the trapdoor, neither entrance nor exit, but a secret passageway leading elsewhere. Trap Door begins a conversation that extends through and beyond trans culture, showing how these issues have relevance for anyone invested in the ethics of visual culture.

    Contributors
    Lexi Adsit, Sara Ahmed, Nicole Archer, Kai Lumumba Barrow, Johanna Burton, micha cardenas, Mel Y. Chen, Grace Dunham, Treva Ellison, Sydney Freeland, Che Gossett, Reina Gossett, Stamatina Gregory, Miss Major Griffin-Gracy, Robert Hamblin, Eva Hayward, Juliana Huxtable, Yve Laris Cohen, Abram J. Lewis, Heather Love, Park McArthur, CeCe McDonald, Toshio Meronek, Fred Moten, Tavia Nyong'o, Morgan M. Page, Roy Perez, Dean Spade, Eric A. Stanley, Jeannine Tang, Wu Tsang, Jeanne Vaccaro, Chris E. Vargas, Geo Wyeth, Kalaniopua Young, Constantina Zavitsanos

  • L'Art Dans La Parure Et Dans Le Vètement (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from L'Art dans la Parure Et dans le Vetement

    Cependant le mot ordre n'est ici qu'un terme generique pour exprimer ce qui est commun a toutes les choses ornees par la nature. La regula rite de ses petits ouvrages et la grace qu'elle y a mise procedent de divers principes, d'ailleurs en tres - petit nombre et comme ces principes divers sont les elements inevitables de tout ornement in vente par l'homme, il importe de les connaitre avec precision, de les bien distinguer les uns des autres, et de les ramener a l'etat irreductible, en evitant avec le plus grand soin de confondre4 l'art dans LA parure ET dans LE vetement.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Modern Macroeconomics

    A textbook that approaches modern macroeconomics through its microeconomic foundations, with an emphasis on financial market connections and policy applications.

    The modern study and analysis of macroeconomics begins by considering how microeconomic units--consumers and firms--make decisions, and then investigates how these choices interact to yield economy-wide outcomes. This innovative textbook takes this "modern" approach, teaching macroeconomics through its microeconomic foundations. It does so by adopting the representative agent paradigm. By modeling the representative consumer and the representative firm, students will learn to describe macroeconomic outcomes and consider the effects of macroeconomic policies. Unique in its coverage of monopolistic competition, financial markets, and the interaction of fiscal and monetary policy, Modern Macroeconomics is suitable for use in intermediate undergraduate, advanced undergraduate, and graduate level courses.

    The book first introduces the building blocks of macroeconomics, the heart of which is the representative consumer. It goes on to offer a brief history of macroeconomic thought, including supply-side economics, the Phillips curve, and the New Keynesian framework. It then covers two policy applications, monetary policy and the interaction of monetary and fiscal policy; optimal policy analysis for both the flexible price and the rigid price case; long-run steady states, treating the Solow growth framework and the neoclassical growth model; a search-and-matching framework for the analysis of unemployment; and the application of the tools of modern macroeconomics to "open economy," or international macroeconomics. End-of-chapter problem sets enable students to apply the concepts they have learned. A separate Solutions Manual will be available for students to purchase. Teaching materials, including complete solutions and slides, will be available to qualified instructors.

  • Les Plantes a Feuillage Coloré, Vol. 2: Histoire, Description, Culture, Emploi Des Espèces Les Plus Remarquables Pour La Décoration Des Parcs, Jardins, Serres, Appartements (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Plantes A Feuillage Colore, Vol. 2: Histoire, Description, Culture, Emploi des Especes les Plus Remarquables pour la Decoration des Parcs, Jardins, Serres, Appartements

    C'est donc par son feuillage, dont il n'est pas possible de faire ressortir la beaute, que ce Calathea est digne de figurer dans nos serres, et, avec quelques precautions, dans les salons. Dans ce der nier cas, si on veut utiliser la magnificence de cette plante, on ne devra la laisser que pendant quelques jours dans les appartements. Elle sera ensuite replacee dans la serre, ou des soins entendus efl'aceront promptement les traces de la fatigue qu'elle aura subie.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Muriel Cooper

    The career of the pioneering designer Muriel Cooper, whose work spanned media from printed book to software interface; generously illustrated in color.

    Muriel Cooper (1925-1994) was the pioneering designer who created the iconic MIT Press colophon (or logo)--seven bars that represent the lowercase letters "mitp" as abstracted books on a shelf. She designed a modernist monument, the encyclopedic volume The Bauhaus (1969), and the graphically dazzling and controversial first edition of Learning from Las Vegas (1972). She used an offset press as an artistic tool, worked with a large-format Polaroid camera, and had an early vision of e-books. Cooper was the first design director of the MIT Press, the cofounder of the Visible Language Workshop at MIT, and the first woman to be granted tenure at MIT's Media Lab, where she developed software interfaces and taught a new generation of designers. She began her four-decade career at MIT by designing vibrant printed flyers for the Office of Publications; her final projects were digital. This lavishly illustrated volume documents Cooper's career in abundant detail, with prints, sketches, book covers, posters, mechanicals, student projects, and photographs, from her work in design, teaching, and research at MIT.

    A humanist among scientists, Cooper embraced dynamism, simultaneity, transparency, and expressiveness across all the media she worked in. More than two decades after her career came to a premature end, Muriel Cooper's legacy is still unfolding. This beautiful slip-cased volume, designed by Yasuyo Iguchi, looks back at a body of work that is as contemporary now as it was when Cooper was experimenting with IBM Selectric typewriters. She designed design's future.

  • Fair Trade & Harmonization - Prerequisites for Free Trade? V 1 - Economic Analysis

    "These two volumes, edited by Jagdish Bhagwati and Robert Hudec, are extremely well-written. They provide valuable insights into the trade and' agenda, whether the environment, labor, or competition policy.

  • Computational Modeling Methods for Neuroscientists

    A guide to computational modeling methods in neuroscience, covering a range of modeling scales from molecular reactions to large neural networks.

    This book offers an introduction to current methods in computational modeling in neuroscience. The book describes realistic modeling methods at levels of complexity ranging from molecular interactions to large neural networks. A "how to" book rather than an analytical account, it focuses on the presentation of methodological approaches, including the selection of the appropriate method and its potential pitfalls. It is intended for experimental neuroscientists and graduate students who have little formal training in mathematical methods, but it will also be useful for scientists with theoretical backgrounds who want to start using data-driven modeling methods. The mathematics needed are kept to an introductory level; the first chapter explains the mathematical methods the reader needs to master to understand the rest of the book. The chapters are written by scientists who have successfully integrated data-driven modeling with experimental work, so all of the material is accessible to experimentalists. The chapters offer comprehensive coverage with little overlap and extensive cross-references, moving from basic building blocks to more complex applications.

    Contributors
    Pablo Achard, Haroon Anwar, Upinder S. Bhalla, Michiel Berends, Nicolas Brunel, Ronald L. Calabrese, Brenda Claiborne, Hugo Cornelis, Erik De Schutter, Alain Destexhe, Bard Ermentrout, Kristen Harris, Sean Hill, John R. Huguenard, William R. Holmes, Gwen Jacobs, Gwendal LeMasson, Henry Markram, Reinoud Maex, Astrid A. Prinz, Imad Riachi, John Rinzel, Arnd Roth, Felix Schurmann, Werner Van Geit, Mark C. W. van Rossum, Stefan Wils

  • Common Sense, the Turing Test, and the Quest for Real AI

    What artificial intelligence can tell us about the mind and intelligent behavior.

    What can artificial intelligence teach us about the mind? If AI's underlying concept is that thinking is a computational process, then how can computation illuminate thinking? It's a timely question. AI is all the rage, and the buzziest AI buzz surrounds adaptive machine learning computer systems that learn intelligent behavior from massive amounts of data. This is what powers a driverless car, for example. In this book, Hector Levesque shifts the conversation to "good old fashioned artificial intelligence," which is based not on heaps of data but on understanding commonsense intelligence. This kind of artificial intelligence is equipped to handle situations that depart from previous patterns -- as we do in real life, when, for example, we encounter a washed-out bridge or when the barista informs us there's no more soy milk.

    Levesque considers the role of language in learning. He argues that a computer program that passes the famous Turing Test could be a mindless zombie, and he proposes another way to test for intelligence -- the Winograd Schema Test, developed by Levesque and his colleagues. "If our goal is to understand intelligent behavior, we had better understand the difference between making it and faking it," he observes. He identifies a possible mechanism behind common sense and the capacity to call on background knowledge: the ability to represent objects of thought symbolically. As AI migrates more and more into everyday life, we should worry if systems without common sense are making decisions where common sense is needed.

  • The Color Revolution

    A history of color and commerce from haute couture to automobile showrooms to interior design.

    When the fashion industry declares that lime green is the new black, or instructs us to "think pink!," it is not the result of a backroom deal forged by a secretive cabal of fashion journalists, designers, manufacturers, and the editor of Vogue. It is the latest development of a color revolution that has been unfolding for more than a century. In this book, the award-winning historian Regina Lee Blaszczyk traces the relationship of color and commerce, from haute couture to automobile showrooms to interior design, describing the often unrecognized role of the color profession in consumer culture.

    Blaszczyk examines the evolution of the color profession from 1850 to 1970, telling the stories of innovators who managed the color cornucopia that modern artificial dyes and pigments made possible. These "color stylists," "color forecasters," and "color engineers" helped corporations understand the art of illusion and the psychology of color. Blaszczyk describes the strategic burst of color that took place in the 1920s, when General Motors introduced a bright blue sedan to compete with Ford's all-black Model T and when housewares became available in a range of brilliant hues. She explains the process of color forecasting--not a conspiracy to manipulate hapless consumers but a careful reading of cultural trends and consumer taste. And she shows how color information flowed from the fashion houses of Paris to textile mills in New Jersey.

    Today professional colorists are part of design management teams at such global corporations as Hilton, Disney, and Toyota. The Color Revolution tells the history of how colorists help industry capture the hearts and dollars of consumers.

  • Pastoral Capitalism - A History of Suburban Corporate Landscapes

    How business appropriated the pastoral landscape, as seen in the corporate campus, the corporate estate, and the office park.

    By the end of the twentieth century, America's suburbs contained more office space than its central cities. Many of these corporate workplaces were surrounded, somewhat incongruously, by verdant vistas of broad lawns and leafy trees. In Pastoral Capitalism, Louise Mozingo describes the evolution of these central (but often ignored) features of postwar urbanism in the context of the modern capitalist enterprise.

    These new suburban corporate landscapes emerged from a historical moment when corporations reconceived their management structures, the city decentralized and dispersed into low-density, auto-dependent peripheries, and the pastoral--in the form of leafy residential suburbs--triumphed as an American ideal. Greenness, writes Mozingo, was associated with goodness, and pastoral capitalism appropriated the suburb's aesthetics and moral code. Like the lawn-proud suburban homeowner, corporations understood a pastoral landscape's capacity to communicate identity, status, and right-mindedness.

    Mozingo distinguishes among three forms of corporate landscapes--the corporate campus, the corporate estate, and the office park--and examines suburban corporate landscapes built and inhabited by such companies as Bell Labs, General Motors, Deere & Company, and Microsoft. She also considers the globalization of pastoral capitalism in Europe and the developing world including Singapore, India, and China. Mozingo argues that, even as it is proliferating, pastoral capitalism needs redesign, as do many of our metropolitan forms, for pressing social, cultural, political, and environmental reasons. Future transformations are impossible, however, unless we understand the past. Pastoral Capitalism offers an indispensible chapter in urban history, examining not only the design of corporate landscapes but also the economic, social, and cultural models that determined their form.

  • Maintenance Architecture

    An inventive examination of a crucial but neglected aspect of architecture, by an architect writing to architects.

    Maintenance plays a crucial role in the production and endurance of architecture, yet architects for the most part treat maintenance with indifference. The discipline of architecture values the image of the new over the lived-in, the photogenic empty and stark building over a messy and labored one. But the fact is: homes need to be cleaned and buildings and cities need to be maintained, and architecture no matter its form cannot escape from such realities. In Maintenance Architecture, Hilary Sample offers an inventive examination of the architectural significance of maintenance through a series of short texts and images about specific buildings, materials, and projects. Although architects have seldom choose to represent maintenance--imagining their work only from conception to realization--artists have long explored subjects of endurance and permanence in iconic architecture. Sample explores a range of art projects--by artists including Gordon Matta-Clark, Jeff Wall, and Mierle Laderman Ukeles--to recast the problem of maintenance for architecture. How might architectural design and discourse change as a building cycle expands to include "post-occupancy"?

    Sample looks particularly at the private home, exhibition pavilion, and high-rise urban building, giving special attention to buildings constructed with novel and developing materials, technologies, and precise detailing in relation to endurance. These include Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion House (1929), the Lever House (1952), the U.S. Steel Building (1971), and the O-14 (2010). She considers the iconography of skyscrapers; maintenance workforces, both public and private; labor-saving technology and devices; and contemporary architectural projects and preservation techniques that encompass the afterlife of buildings. A selection of artworks make the usually invisible aspects of maintenance visible, from Martha Rosler's Cleaning the Drapes to Inigo Manglano-Ovalle's The Kiss.

  • MATLAB for Brain and Cognitive Scientists

    An introduction to a popular programming language for neuroscience research, taking the reader from beginning to intermediate and advanced levels of MATLAB programming.

    MATLAB is one of the most popular programming languages for neuroscience and psychology research. Its balance of usability, visualization, and widespread use makes it one of the most powerful tools in a scientist's toolbox. In this book, Mike Cohen teaches brain scientists how to program in MATLAB, with a focus on applications most commonly used in neuroscience and psychology. Although most MATLAB tutorials will abandon users at the beginner's level, leaving them to sink or swim, MATLAB for Brain and Cognitive Scientists takes readers from beginning to intermediate and advanced levels of MATLAB programming, helping them gain real expertise in applications that they will use in their work.

    The book offers a mix of instructive text and rigorous explanations of MATLAB code along with programming tips and tricks. The goal is to teach the reader how to program data analyses in neuroscience and psychology. Readers will learn not only how to but also how not to program, with examples of bad code that they are invited to correct or improve. Chapters end with exercises that test and develop the skills taught in each chapter. Interviews with neuroscientists and cognitive scientists who have made significant contributions their field using MATLAB appear throughout the book. MATLAB for Brain and Cognitive Scientists is an essential resource for both students and instructors, in the classroom or for independent study.

  • Workflow Patterns - The Definitive Guide

    A comprehensive guide to well-known workflow patterns: recurrent, generic business process constructs, described from the control-flow, data, and resource perspectives.

    The study of business processes has emerged as a highly effective approach to coordinating an organization's complex service- and knowledge-based activities. The growing field of business process management (BPM) focuses on methods and tools for designing, enacting, and analyzing business processes. This volume offers a definitive guide to the use of patterns, which synthesize the wide range of approaches to modeling business processes. It provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the well-known workflow patterns collection--recurrent, generic constructs describing common business process modeling and execution scenarios, presented in the form of problem-solution dialectics. The underlying principles of the patterns approach ensure that they are independent of any specific enabling technology, representational formalism, or modeling approach, and thus broadly applicable across the business process modeling and business process technology domains.

    The authors, drawing on extensive research done by the Workflow Patterns Initiative, offer a detailed introduction to the fundamentals of business process modeling and management; describe three major pattern catalogs, presented from control-flow, data, and resource perspectives; and survey related BPM patterns. The book, a companion to the authoritative Workflow Patterns website, will be an essential resource for both academics and practitioners working in business process modeling and business process management.

  • Douglas Gordon

    A survey of the work of the Scottish artist Douglas Gordon.

    This book examines the innovative work of thirty-four-year-old Scottish artist Douglas Gordon. Gordon is perhaps best known for installations that feature classic films by directors such as Alfred Hitchcock, Otto Preminger, and Martin Scorsese. In each of these works the original film has been manipulated--slowed down, mirrored by the use of split screen or dual projection, or had its soundtrack altered--to emphasize the artist's own signature themes, which include trust, guilt, madness, confession, deception, and doubling.

    Produced in conjunction with a survey of Gordon's work at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, the book features essays by MOCA assistant curator Michael Darling, exhibition curator Russell Ferguson, Scottish novelist Francis McKee, and Guggenheim Museum curator Nancy Spector. Darling's essay places Gordon's work in the context of the Romantic tradition. Ferguson's essay looks at Gordon's work to date. It focuses on the issue of trust as it weaves its way from early works such as the performance/installation Trust Me, through his tattoo and instruction works, to more recent works such as Feature Film, which incorporates the Hitchcock film Vertigo. McKee compiles Gordon's literary sources into a kind of hybridized text. Spector's essay focuses on the autobiographical nature of Gordon's oeuvre, showing how he shifts between revealing details of his personal life--for example, the ongoing List of Names lists all the people he has met in a given period of time---and obscuring other aspects of his identity. Designed by the studio of Bruce Mau in close collaboration with Gordon himself, this book promises to be the definitive reference on one of today's most exciting young artists.

  • La Papauté: Son Origine Au Moyen Age Et Son Développement Jusqu'en 1870 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Papaute Son Origine au Moyen Age Et Son Developpement Jusqu'en 1870

    Il se placait, pour protester contre l'autoc - ratie de Rome, sur le terrain historique, et c'est par ses travaux dans ce domaine que son nom marquera dans la science.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Metamorphosis of Plants

    Goethe's influential text, newly illustrated with stunning color photographs.

    The Metamorphosis of Plants, published in 1790, was Goethe's first major attempt to describe what he called in a letter to a friend "the truth about the how of the organism." Inspired by the diversity of flora he found on a journey to Italy, Goethe sought a unity of form in diverse structures. He came to see in the leaf the germ of a plant's metamorphosis--"the true Proteus who can hide or reveal himself in all vegetal forms"--from the root and stem leaves to the calyx and corolla, to pistil and stamens. With this short book--123 numbered paragraphs, in the manner of the great botanist Linnaeus--Goethe aimed to tell the story of botanical forms in process, to present, in effect, a motion picture of the metamorphosis of plants. This MIT Press edition of The Metamorphosis of Plants illustrates Goethe's text (in an English translation by Douglas Miller) with a series of stunning and starkly beautiful color photographs as well as numerous line drawings. It is the most completely and colorfully illustrated edition of Goethe's book ever published. It demonstrates vividly Goethe's ideas of transformation and interdependence, as well as the systematic use of imagination in scientific research--which influenced thinkers ranging from Darwin to Thoreau and has much to teach us today about our relationship with nature.

  • Stochastic Methods in Asset Pricing

    A comprehensive overview of the theory of stochastic processes and its connections to asset pricing, accompanied by some concrete applications.

    This book presents a self-contained, comprehensive, and yet concise and condensed overview of the theory and methods of probability, integration, stochastic processes, optimal control, and their connections to the principles of asset pricing. The book is broader in scope than other introductory-level graduate texts on the subject, requires fewer prerequisites, and covers the relevant material at greater depth, mainly without rigorous technical proofs. The book brings to an introductory level certain concepts and topics that are usually found in advanced research monographs on stochastic processes and asset pricing, and it attempts to establish greater clarity on the connections between these two fields.

    The book begins with measure-theoretic probability and integration, and then develops the classical tools of stochastic calculus, including stochastic calculus with jumps and Levy processes. For asset pricing, the book begins with a brief overview of risk preferences and general equilibrium in incomplete finite endowment economies, followed by the classical asset pricing setup in continuous time. The goal is to present a coherent single overview. For example, the text introduces discrete-time martingales as a consequence of market equilibrium considerations and connects them to the stochastic discount factors before offering a general definition. It covers concrete option pricing models (including stochastic volatility, exchange options, and the exercise of American options), Merton's investment-consumption problem, and several other applications. The book includes more than 450 exercises (with detailed hints). Appendixes cover analysis and topology and computer code related to the practical applications discussed in the text.

  • Oeuvres Complettes de Messire Esprit Fléchier, Évêque de Nismes, Et l'Un Des Quarante de l'Académie Françoise, Vol. 5: Revues Fur Les Manuscrits de ... Jamais Été Imprimées, &c., Accompagnées de PR

    Excerpt from OEuvres Complettes de Messire Esprit Flechier, Eveque de Nismes, Et l'un des Quarante de l'Academie Francoise, Vol. 5: Revues Fur les Manuscrits de l'Auteur, Augmentees de Plusieurs Pieces Qui n'Ont Jamais Ete Imprimees, &C., Accompagnees de Prefaces, d'Observations Et de Notes sur Tous les Endroits Qui Ont Paru en Avoir Besoin; Partie I

    La diverfite des Ouvrages qui forment ces Me'lan ges a produit quatre divifions qui font comme qua tre Parties da meme Volume. La premiere contient les Pieces d'eloquence dont l'objet n'appartient point a la Chaire la feconde comprend les Poefies Latines Francoifes on'trouve dans la troifieme des ecrits fut la Morale; la quatrieme prefente quelques Relations qui tiennent au genre hifiorique. Il nous a paru convenable de cara&erifer ici, en peu de mors les Pieces qui font reunies fous chacune de ces divifions.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Regulation of International Trade: GATT

    A detailed examination of the GATT regime for international trade, discussing the negotiating record, policy background, economic rationale, and case law.

    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was created alongside other towering achievements of the post-World War II era, including the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. GATT, the first successful agreement to generate multilateral trade liberalization, became the principal institution to administer international trade for the next six decades. In this book, Petros Mavoidis offers detailed examination of the GATT regime for international trade, discussing the negotiating record, policy background, economic rationale, and case law.

    Mavroidis offers a substantive first chapter that provides a detailed historical background to GATT that stretches from the 1927 World Economic Conference through Bretton Woods and the Atlantic Charter. Each of the following chapters examines the disciplines agreed to, their negotiating record, their economic rationale, and subsequent practice. Mavroidis focuses on cases that have influenced the prevailing understanding of the norm, as well as on literature that has contributed to its interpretation, and the final outcome. In particular, he examines quantitative restrictions and tariffs; the most favored nation clause (MFN), the cornerstone of the GATT edifice; preferential trade agreements and special treatment for products originating in developing countries; domestic instruments; and exceptions to the obligations assumed under GATT. This book's companion volume examines World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements regulating trade in goods.

  • Internet Success - A Study of Open Source Software Commons

    A systematic examination of the factors that influence the success or abandonment of open-source software projects and the implications for other kinds of collaborations.

    The use of open-source software (OSS)--readable software source code that can be copied, modified, and distributed freely--has expanded dramatically in recent years. The number of OSS projects hosted on SourceForge.net (the largest hosting Web site for OSS), for example, grew from just over 100,000 in 2006 to more than 250,000 at the beginning of 2011. But why are some projects successful--that is, able to produce usable software and sustain ongoing development over time--while others are abandoned? In this book, the product of the first large-scale empirical study to look at social, technical, and institutional aspects of OSS, Charles Schweik and Robert English examine factors that lead to success in OSS projects and work toward a better understanding of Internet-based collaboration.

    Drawing on literature from many disciplines and using a theoretical framework developed for the study of environmental commons, Schweik and English examine stages of OSS development, presenting multivariate statistical models of success and abandonment. Schweik and English argue that analyzing the conditions of OSS successes may also inform Internet collaborations in fields beyond software engineering, particularly those that aim to solve complex technical, social, and political problems.

  • Lettres de Horace Walpole: Écrites a Ses Amis Pendant Ses Voyages En France (1739-1775) (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lettres de Horace Walpole: Ecrites A Ses Amis Pendant Ses Voyages en France (1739-1775)

    The story rests on the authority of lady Louisa Stuart, daughter of the minister Earl of Bute, and grand-daughter of lady Mary Wortley Montague. She has related itin print in the Introductory Anecdotes to lady Mary's Works, and there is too much reason to believe that what she tells is true. P. Cunningham 's Pre/ace to the letters of Horace Walpole.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Meaningful Games - Exploring Language with Game Theory

    An engaging introduction to the use of game theory to study lingistic meaning.

    In Meaningful Games, Robin Clark explains in an accessible manner the usefulness of game theory in thinking about a wide range of issues in linguistics. Clark argues that we use grammar strategically to signal our intended meanings: our choices as speaker are conditioned by what choices the hearer will make interpreting what we say. Game theory--according to which the outcome of a decision depends on the choices of others--provides a formal system that allows us to develop theories about the kind of decision making that is crucial to understanding linguistic behavior.

    Clark argues the only way to understand meaning is to grapple with its social nature--that it is the social that gives content to our mental lives. Game theory gives us a framework for working out these ideas. The resulting theory of use will allow us to account for many aspects of linguistic meaning, and the grammar itself can be simplified. The results are nevertheless precise and subject to empirical testing.

    Meaningful Games offers an engaging and accessible introduction to game theory and the study of linguistic meaning. No knowledge of mathematics beyond simple algebra is required; formal definitions appear in special boxes outside the main text. The book includes an extended argument in favor of the social basis of meaning; a brief introduction to game theory, with a focus on coordination games and cooperation; discussions of common knowledge and games of partial information; models of games for pronouns and politeness; and the development of a system of social coordination of reference.

  • Formalism and Historicity - Models and Methods in Twentieth-Century Art

    Essays spanning three decades by one of the most rigorous art thinkers of our time grapple with formal and historical paradigms in twentieth century art.

    These influential essays by the noted critic and art historian Benjamin Buchloh have had a significant impact on the theory and practice of art history. Written over the course of three decades and now collected in one volume, they trace a history of crucial artistic transitions, iterations, and paradigmatic shifts in the twentieth century, considering both the evolution and emergence of artistic forms and the specific historical moment in which they occurred.

    Buchloh's subject matter ranges through various moments in the history of twentieth-century American and European art, from the moment of the retour a l'ordre of 1915 to developments in the Soviet Union in the 1920s to the beginnings of Conceptual art in the late 1960s to the appropriation artists of the 1980s. He discusses conflicts resulting from historical repetitions (such as the monochrome and collage/montage aesthetics in the 1910s, 1950s, and 1980s), the emergence of crucial neo-avantgarde typologies, and the resuscitation of obsolete genres (including the portrait and landscape, revived by 1980s photography). Although these essays are less monographic than those in Buchloh's earlier collection, Neo-Avantgarde and Culture Industry, two essays in this volume are devoted to Marcel Broodthaers, whose work remains central to Buchloh's theoretical concerns. Engaging with both formal and historical paradigms, Buchloh situates himself productively between the force fields of formal theory and historical narrative, embracing the discrepancies and contradictions between them and within individual artistic trajectories.

    Contents
    Formalism and Historicity (1977) - Marcel Broodthaers: Allegories of the Avant-Garde (1980) - Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting (1981) - Allegorical Procedures: Appropriations and Montage in Contemporary Art (1982) - The Museum Fictions of Marcel Broodthaers (1983) - From Faktura to Factography (1984) - Readymade, Objet Trouve, Idee Recue (1985) - The Primary Colors for the Second Time: A Paradigm Repetition of the Neo-Avantgarde (1986) - Cold War Constructivism (1986) - Conceptual Art 1962-1969: From the Aesthetics of Administration to the Critique of Institutions (1989) - Residual Resemblance: Three Notes on the Ends of Portraiture (1994) - Sculpture: Publicity and the Poverty of Experience (1996)

  • Macrobe (Oeuvres Complètes); Varron (de la Langue Latine); Pomponius Méla (Oeuvres Complètes): Avec La Traduction En Français (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Macrobe (OEuvres Completes); Varron (de la Langue Latine); Pomponius Mela (OEuvres Completes): Avec la Traduction en Francais

    La Religion chretienne autorisee par le temoignage des anciens a.uteurs payons, Lyon; l7l8, val. Iii - 12 (t. P. 208 et suivantes).

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Psychedelic - Optical and Visionary Art Since the 1960s

    The history of an aesthetic sensibility that began with Op Art and album covers; with more than seventy-five stunning color images.

    This eye-popping book offers a visual history of the psychedelic sensibility. In pop culture, that sensibility is associated with lava lamps, album covers, and teashades, but it first manifested itself in the extreme colors and kaleidoscopic compositions of 1960s Op Artists. The psychedelic sensibility didn't die at the end of the 1960s; Psychedelic traces it through the day-glo colors of painters Peter Saul, Alex Grey, and Kenny Scharf, the pill and hemp leaf paintings of Fred Tomaselli, the intensified palettes of Douglas Bourgeois and Sharon Ellis, and mixed-media and new media works by younger artists in the new millennium.

    Although the term psychedelic was coined to describe hallucinatory experiences produced by drugs used psychotherapeutically, the story these images tell is about the influence of psychedelic culture on the art world--not necessarily the influence of drugs. As contemporary art evolved into a diverse and pluralistic discipline, the psychedelic evolved into a language of color and light. In Psychedelic, more than seventy-five vivid color images chart this development, exploring the art chronologically, from early Op Art through recent work using digital technology. The book, which accompanies an exhibition organized by the San Antonio Museum of Art, includes three essays that set the works in historical and cultural context.

    Artists include
    Isaac Abrams, Albert Alvarez, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Chio Aoshima, Kamrooz Aram, Jeremy Blake, Richie Budd, Gordon Cheung, Judy Chicago, George Cisneros, James Cobb, Steve DiBenedetto, Carole Feuerman, Jack Goldstein, Alex Grey, Peter Halley, Al Held, Mark Hogensen, Constance Lowe, Erik Parker, Ed Paschke, Lari Pittman, Ray Rapp, Deborah Remington, Bridget Riley, Susie Rosmarin, Alex Rubio, Sterling Ruby, Julian Stanczak, Jennifer Steinkamp, Frank Stella, Philip Taaffe, Barbara Takenaga, Fred Tomaselli, Victor Vasarely, Michael Velliquette, Andy Warhol, Robert Williams

    Essays by
    David S. Rubin, Robert C. Morgan, Daniel Pinchbeck

    Copublished with the San Antonio Museum of Art

  • Giving Kids a Fair Chance

    A top economist weighs in on one of the most urgent questions of our times: What is the source of inequality and what is the remedy?

    In Giving Kids a Fair Chance, Nobel Prize-winning economist James Heckman argues that the accident of birth is the greatest source of inequality in America today. Children born into disadvantage are, by the time they start kindergarten, already at risk of dropping out of school, teen pregnancy, crime, and a lifetime of low-wage work. This is bad for all those born into disadvantage and bad for American society.

    Current social and education policies directed toward children focus on improving cognition, yet success in life requires more than smarts. Heckman calls for a refocus of social policy toward early childhood interventions designed to enhance both cognitive abilities and such non-cognitive skills as confidence and perseverance. This new focus on preschool intervention would emphasize improving the early environments of disadvantaged children and increasing the quality of parenting while respecting the primacy of the family and America's cultural diversity.

    Heckman shows that acting early has much greater positive economic and social impact than later interventions -- which range from reduced pupil-teacher ratios to adult literacy programs to expenditures on police -- that draw the most attention in the public policy debate. At a time when state and local budgets for early interventions are being cut, Heckman issues an urgent call for action and offers some practical steps for how to design and pay for new programs.

    The debate that follows delves deeply into some of the most fraught questions of our time: the sources of inequality, the role of schools in solving social problems, and how to invest public resources most effectively. Mike Rose, Geoffrey Canada, Charles Murray, Carol Dweck, Annette Lareau, and other prominent experts participate.

  • Essai Sur La Vie de T. Wentworth, Comte de Strafford: Principal Ministre Du Roi Charles Ier, Et Sur l'Histoire Genérale d'Angeleterre, d'Écosse Et d'Irlande a Cette Époque (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Essai sur la Vie de T. Wentworth, Comte de Strafford: Principal Ministre du Roi Charles Ier, Et sur l'Histoire Generale d'Angeleterre, d'Ecosse Et d'Irlande A cette Epoque

    Pendant cette lutte de treize ans qu'il eut a soutenir pour l'innocence et l'hou neur de son pere, inspire par le besom de produire sous toutes les formes le sentiment qui remplissait son coeur et sa pensee, M. De Lally essaya de retracer dans une tragedie le caractere d'un homme vertueux con damne a la mort des coupables c'est ainsi qu'en Hollande un poete citoyen avait re presente, sous des noms antiques, le sup plice du grand et irreprochable Barneveldt.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Handbook of Multisensory Processes

    A reference work for the emerging field of multisensory integration, covering multidisciplinary research that goes beyond the traditional sense-by-sense approach and recognizes that perception is fundamentally a multisensory experience.

    This landmark reference work brings together for the first time in one volume the most recent research from different areas of the emerging field of multisensory integration. After many years of using a modality-specific sense-by-sense approach, researchers across different disciplines in neuroscience and psychology now recognize that perception is fundamentally a multisensory experience. To understand how the brain synthesizes information from the different senses, we must study not only how information from each sensory modality is decoded but also how this information interacts with the sensory processing taking place within other sensory channels. The findings cited in The Handbook of Multisensory Processes suggest that there are broad underlying principles that govern this interaction, regardless of the specific senses involved.

    The book is organized thematically into eight sections; each of the 55 chapters presents a state-of-the-art review of its topic by leading researchers in the field. The key themes addressed include multisensory contributions to perception in humans; whether the sensory integration involved in speech perception is fundamentally different from other kinds of multisensory integration; multisensory processing in the midbrain and cortex in model species, including rat, cat, and monkey; behavioral consequences of multisensory integration; modern neuroimaging techniques, including EEG, PET, and fMRI, now being used to reveal the many sites of multisensory processing in the brain; multisensory processes that require postnatal sensory experience to emerge, with examples from multiple species; brain specialization and possible equivalence of brain regions; and clinical studies of such breakdowns of normal sensory integration as brain damage and synesthesia.

  • The Lord Of The Ring (en anglais)

    Sauron, the Dark Lord, has gathered to him the Rings of Power - the means by which he will be able to rule the world. All he lacks in his plan for dominion is the Ruling Ring, which has fallen into the hands of the hobbit Bilbo Baggins.

  • Michael Asher

    Essays and criticism that span Michael Asher's career, documenting site-specific installations and institutional interventions.

    During a career that spanned more than forty years, from the late 1960s until his death in 2012, Michael Asher created site-specific installations and institutional interventions that examined the conditions of art's production, display, and reception. At the Art Institute of Chicago, for example, he famously relocated a bronze replica of an eighteenth-century sculpture of George Washington from the museum's entrance to an interior gallery, thereby highlighting the disjunction between the statue's symbolic function as a public monument and its aesthetic origins as an artwork.

    Today, Asher is celebrated as one of the forerunners of institutional critique. Yet because of Asher's situation-based method of working, and his resistance to making objects that could circulate in the art market, few of his works survive in physical form. What does survive is writing by scholars and critics about his diverse practice. The essays in this volume document projects that range from Asher's environmental works and museum displacements to his research-based presentations and reflections on urban space.

    Contributors
    Michael Asher, Sandy Ballatore, Benjamin H. D. Buchloh, Jennifer King, Miwon Kwon, Barbara Munger, Stephan Pascher, Birgit Pelzer, Anne Rorimer, Allan Sekula

  • The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-based Capitalism

    The wide-ranging implications of the shift to a sharing economy, a new model of organizing economic activity that may supplant traditional corporations.

    Sharing isn't new. Giving someone a ride, having a guest in your spare room, running errands for someone, participating in a supper club -- these are not revolutionary concepts. What is new, in the "sharing economy," is that you are not helping a friend for free; you are providing these services to a stranger for money. In this book, Arun Sundararajan, an expert on the sharing economy, explains the transition to what he describes as "crowd-based capitalism" -- a new way of organizing economic activity that may supplant the traditional corporate-centered model. As peer-to-peer commercial exchange blurs the lines between the personal and the professional, how will the economy, government regulation, what it means to have a job, and our social fabric be affected?

    Drawing on extensive research and numerous real-world examples -- including Airbnb, Lyft, Uber, Etsy, TaskRabbit, France's BlaBlaCar, China's Didi Kuaidi, and India's Ola, Sundararajan explains the basics of crowd-based capitalism. He describes the intriguing mix of "gift" and "market" in its transactions, demystifies emerging blockchain technologies, and clarifies the dizzying array of emerging on-demand platforms. He considers how this new paradigm changes economic growth and the future of work. Will we live in a world of empowered entrepreneurs who enjoy professional flexibility and independence? Or will we become disenfranchised digital laborers scurrying between platforms in search of the next wedge of piecework? Sundararajan highlights the important policy choices and suggests possible new directions for self-regulatory organizations, labor law, and funding our social safety net.

  • Artificial Chemistries

    An introduction to the fundamental concepts of the emerging field of Artificial Chemistries, covering both theory and practical applications.

    The field of Artificial Life (ALife) is now firmly established in the scientific world, but it has yet to achieve one of its original goals: an understanding of the emergence of life on Earth. The new field of Artificial Chemistries draws from chemistry, biology, computer science, mathematics, and other disciplines to work toward that goal. For if, as it has been argued, life emerged from primitive, prebiotic forms of self-organization, then studying models of chemical reaction systems could bring ALife closer to understanding the origins of life. In Artificial Chemistries (ACs), the emphasis is on creating new interactions rather than new materials. The results can be found both in the virtual world, in certain multiagent systems, and in the physical world, in new (artificial) reaction systems. This book offers an introduction to the fundamental concepts of ACs, covering both theory and practical applications.

    After a general overview of the field and its methodology, the book reviews important aspects of biology, including basic mechanisms of evolution; discusses examples of ACs drawn from the literature; considers fundamental questions of how order can emerge, emphasizing the concept of chemical organization (a closed and self-maintaining set of chemicals); and surveys a range of applications, which include computing, systems modeling in biology, and synthetic life. An appendix provides a Python toolkit for implementing ACs.

  • Building Mobile Experiences

    Methods for new mobile experiences, from concept creation to prototyping to commercialization.

    The mobile device is changing the ways we interact with each other and with the world. The mobile experience is distinct from the desktop or laptop experience; mobile apps require a significantly different design philosophy as well as design methods that reflect the unique experience of computing in the world. This book presents an approach to designing mobile media that takes advantage of the Internet-connected, context-aware, and media-sharing capabilities of mobile devices. It introduces tools that can be used at every stage of building a mobile application, from concept creation to commercialization, as well as real-world examples from industry and academia.

    The methods outlined apply user-centered design processes to mobile devices in a way that makes these methods relevant to the mobile experience--which involves the use of systems in the complex spatial and social world rather than at a desk. The book shows how each project begins with generative research into the practices and desires of a diverse set of potential users, which grounds research and design in the real world. It then describes methods for rapid prototyping, usability evaluation, field testing, and scaling up solutions in order to bring a product to market. Building Mobile Experiences grew out of an MIT course in communicating with mobile technology; it is appropriate for classroom use and as a reference for mobile app designers.

  • The Qualified Self: Social Media and the Accounting of Everyday Life

    How sharing the mundane details of daily life did not start with Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube but with pocket diaries, photo albums, and baby books.

    Social critiques argue that social media have made us narcissistic, that Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube are all vehicles for me-promotion. In The Qualified Self, Lee Humphreys offers a different view. She shows that sharing the mundane details of our lives--what we ate for lunch, where we went on vacation, who dropped in for a visit--didn't begin with mobile devices and social media. People have used media to catalog and share their lives for several centuries. Pocket diaries, photo albums, and baby books are the predigital precursors of today's digital and mobile platforms for posting text and images. The ability to take selfies has not turned us into needy narcissists; it's part of a longer story about how people account for everyday life.

    Humphreys refers to diaries in which eighteenth-century daily life is documented with the brevity and precision of a tweet, and cites a nineteenth-century travel diary in which a young woman complains that her breakfast didn't agree with her. Diaries, Humphreys explains, were often written to be shared with family and friends. Pocket diaries were as mobile as smartphones, allowing the diarist to record life in real time. Humphreys calls this chronicling, in both digital and nondigital forms, media accounting. The sense of self that emerges from media accounting is not the purely statistics-driven "quantified self," but the more well-rounded qualified self. We come to understand ourselves in a new way through the representations of ourselves that we create to be consumed.

  • The Cognitive Neurosciences V

    Modeled on the classic Neuroscience Study Program volumes which helped define an evolving field, The Cognitive Neurosciences is a major new reference that documents and defines the emerging field of cognitive neuroscience. The ninety-two original contributions provide comprehensive coverage - from the molecular level right up to human conscious experience - of one of the most interesting areas of modern science, namely the relationship between the structural and physiological mechanisms of the brain/nervous system and the psychological reality of mind.

    "Sections and section editors": Molecular and Cellular Plasticity, Ira Black. Neural and Psychological Development, Pasko Rakic. Sensory Systems, Colin Blakemore and J. Anthony Movshon. Strategies and Planning: Motor Systems, Emilio Bizzi. Attention, Michael Posner. Memory, Endel Tulving. Language, Steven Pinker. Thought and Imagery, Stephen M. Kosslyn. Emotion, Joseph E. LeDoux. Evolutionary Perspectives, Leda Cosmides and John Tooby. Consciousness, Daniel L. Schacter.

    "An extremely valuable handbook. Not only is its scope adequate to the challenge of this rapidly growing young discipline, but the focus is clear: intelligible, up-to-date theories of mental processes are grounded in the latest findings of the brain sciences. The integration provided in this handbook lays a foundation for the next generation of cognitive neuroscientists."
    -- George A. Miller, James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Psychology Emeritus, Princeton University.

    "The Cognitive Neurosciences" is a wonderfully comprehensive and up-to-date collection of authoritative articles. Istrongly recommend it to anyone who hopes to keep abreast with this fast-moving area of scientific enquiry--relating the brain and mind."
    -- Sir Roger Penrose, FRS, Rouse Ball, Professor of Mathematics, University of Oxford.

    "At last--a source book in Cognitive Neuroscience for our students! And for ourselves! This much needed book contains a thoughtful selection of reviews from all areas relevant to current research. [...] Michael Gazzaniga and his colleagues should be congratulated for an outstanding job."
    -- Eric R. Kandel, M.D. University Professor, Center for Neurobiology, Columbia University

    A Bradford Book

  • The Machine Question - Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics

    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. Much recent attention has been devoted to the "animal question" -- consideration of the moral status of nonhuman animals. In this book, David Gunkel takes up the "machine question": whether and to what extent intelligent and autonomous machines of our own making can be considered to have legitimate moral responsibilities and any legitimate claim to moral consideration. The machine question poses a fundamental challenge to moral thinking, questioning the traditional philosophical conceptualization of technology as a tool or instrument to be used by human agents. Gunkel begins by addressing the question of machine moral agency: whether a machine might be considered a legitimate moral agent that could be held responsible for decisions and actions. He then approaches the machine question from the other side, considering whether a machine might be a moral patient due legitimate moral consideration. Finally, Gunkel considers some recent innovations in moral philosophy and critical theory that complicate the machine question, deconstructing the binary agent--patient opposition itself. Technological advances may prompt us to wonder if the science fiction of computers and robots whose actions affect their human companions (think of HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey) could become science fact. Gunkel's argument promises to influence future considerations of ethics, ourselves, and the other entities who inhabit this world.

  • Biomedical Signal Analysis - Methods and Applications

    A comprehensive introduction to innovative methods in the field of biomedical signal analysis, covering both theory and practice.

    Biomedical signal analysis has become one of the most important visualization and interpretation methods in biology and medicine. Many new and powerful instruments for detecting, storing, transmitting, analyzing, and displaying images have been developed in recent years, allowing scientists and physicians to obtain quantitative measurements to support scientific hypotheses and medical diagnoses. This book offers an overview of a range of proven and new methods, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects of biomedical signal analysis and interpretation.After an introduction to the topic and a survey of several processing and imaging techniques, the book describes a broad range of methods, including continuous and discrete Fourier transforms, independent component analysis (ICA), dependent component analysis, neural networks, and fuzzy logic methods. The book then discusses applications of these theoretical tools to practical problems in everyday biosignal processing, considering such subjects as exploratory data analysis and low-frequency connectivity analysis in fMRI, MRI signal processing including lesion detection in breast MRI, dynamic cerebral contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI, skin lesion classification, and microscopic slice image processing and automatic labeling. Biomedical Signal Analysis can be used as a text or professional reference. Part I, on methods, forms a self-contained text, with exercises and other learning aids, for upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level students. Researchers or graduate students in systems biology, genomic signal processing, and computer-assisted radiology will find both parts I and II (on applications) a valuable handbook.

  • L'Évangile Expliqué, Défendu, Médité, Vol. 2: Ou Exposition Exégétique, Apologétique, Et Homilétique de la Vie de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ, d'Après l'Harmonie Des Évangiles (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from L'Evangile Explique, Defendu, Medite, Vol. 2: Ou Exposition Exegetique, Apologetique, Et Homiletique de la Vie de Notre-Seigneur Jesus-Christ, d'Apres l'Harmonie des Evangiles

    Il a renonce a donner suite a son projet de Christologie Catholique, et pense que son travail est suffisamment complet sous cette forme defini tive.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Economics of Growth

    A comprehensive, rigorous, and up-to-date introduction to growth economics that presents all the major growth paradigms and shows how they can be used to analyze the growth process and growth policy design.

    This comprehensive introduction to economic growth presents the main facts and puzzles about growth, proposes simple methods and models needed to explain these facts, acquaints the reader with the most recent theoretical and empirical developments, and provides tools with which to analyze policy design. The treatment of growth theory is fully accessible to students with a background no more advanced than elementary calculus and probability theory; the reader need not master all the subtleties of dynamic programming and stochastic processes to learn what is essential about such issues as cross-country convergence, the effects of financial development on growth, and the consequences of globalization. The book, which grew out of courses taught by the authors at Harvard and Brown universities, can be used both by advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and as a reference for professional economists in government or international financial organizations.

    The Economics of Growth first presents the main growth paradigms: the neoclassical model, the AK model, Romer's product variety model, and the Schumpeterian model. The text then builds on the main paradigms to shed light on the dynamic process of growth and development, discussing such topics as club convergence, directed technical change, the transition from Malthusian stagnation to sustained growth, general purpose technologies, and the recent debate over institutions versus human capital as the primary factor in cross-country income differences. Finally, the book focuses on growth policies--analyzing the effects of liberalizing market competition and entry, education policy, trade liberalization, environmental and resource constraints, and stabilization policy--and the methodology of growth policy design. All chapters include literature reviews and problem sets. An appendix covers basic concepts of econometrics.

  • The Peoples of Middle-earth

    The concluding volume of The History of Middle-earth series, which examines the Appendices to The Lord of the Rings. The Peoples of Middle-earth traces the evolution of the Appendices to The Lord of The Rings, which provide a comprehensive historical structure of the Second and Third Ages, including Calendars, Hobbit genealogies and the Westron language. The book concludes with two unique abandoned stories: The New Shadow, set in Gondor during the Fourth Age, and the tale of Tal-elmar, in which the coming of the dreaded Numenorean ships is seen through the eyes of men of Middle-earth in the Dark Years. With the publication of this book, the long history of J.R.R. Tolkien's creation is completed and the enigmatic state of his work can be understood.

  • IWarp - Anatomy of a System

    This book describes the complete iWarp system, from instruction-level parallelism to final parallel applications. The authors present a range of issues that must be considered to get a real system into practice. foreword by Gordon Bell and afterword by H.T. Kung Although researchers have proposed many mechanisms and theories for parallel systems, only a few have actually resulted in working computing platforms. The iWarp is an experimental parallel system that was designed and built jointly by Carnegie Mellon University and Intel Corporation. The system is based on the idea of integrating a VLIW processor and a sophisticated fine-grained communication system on a single chip. This book describes the complete iWarp system, from instruction-level parallelism to final parallel applications. The authors present a range of issues that must be considered to get a real system into practice. They also provide a start-to-finish history of the project, including what was done right and what was done wrong, that will be of interest to anyone who studies or builds computer systems.

  • The Technology Fallacy: How People Are the Real Key to Digital Transformation

    Why an organization's response to digital disruption should focus on people and processes and not necessarily on technology.

    Digital technologies are disrupting organizations of every size and shape, leaving managers scrambling to find a technology fix that will help their organizations compete. This book offers managers and business leaders a guide for surviving digital disruptions--but it is not a book about technology. It is about the organizational changes required to harness the power of technology. The authors argue that digital disruption is primarily about people and that effective digital transformation involves changes to organizational dynamics and how work gets done. A focus only on selecting and implementing the right digital technologies is not likely to lead to success. The best way to respond to digital disruption is by changing the company culture to be more agile, risk tolerant, and experimental.

    The authors draw on four years of research, conducted in partnership with MIT Sloan Management Review and Deloitte, surveying more than 16,000 people and conducting interviews with managers at such companies as Walmart, Google, and Salesforce. They introduce the concept of digital maturity--the ability to take advantage of opportunities offered by the new technology--and address the specifics of digital transformation, including cultivating a digital environment, enabling intentional collaboration, and fostering an experimental mindset. Every organization needs to understand its "digital DNA" in order to stop "doing digital" and start "being digital."

    Digital disruption won't end anytime soon; the average worker will probably experience numerous waves of disruption during the course of a career. The insights offered by The Technology Fallacy will hold true through them all.

    A book in the Management on the Cutting Edge series, published in cooperation with MIT Sloan Management Review.

  • Les Coquilles des Eaux Douces Et Saumatres de France: Description des Familles, Genres Et Espèces (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Coquilles des Eaux Douces Et Saumatres de France: Description des Familles, Genres Et Especes

    Encourage par le bienveillant accueil accorde au volume que nous venons de publier sur les coquilles marines des cotes de France nous nous proposons de donner aujour d'hui une seconde partie a cette etude de la faune francaise, en presentant la description des coquilles qui vivent dans les eaux douces et saumatres. Et, puisque le plan que nous avons suivi a paru bon, c'est encore le meme que nous allons suivre: grouper toutes les especes connues jusqu'a ce jour suivant un mode de classification rationnel et methodique; faire suivre chacune de ces especes d'une description courte, precise, mais telle que chacun puisse arriver facilement et avec certitude ala determination exacte de toutes ces formes; accompagner ces descriptions d'un nombre de figures suf lisant pour permettre de les bien comprendre; faire-enfin du tout un volume a la portee de tous les amis des sciences naturelles, tel est le but que nous esperons pouvoir encore atteindre.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • True Enough

    The development of an epistemology that explains how science and art embody and convey understanding.

    Philosophy valorizes truth, holding that there can never be epistemically good reasons to accept a known falsehood, or to accept modes of justification that are not truth conducive. How can this stance account for the epistemic standing of science, which unabashedly relies on models, idealizations, and thought experiments that are known not to be true? In True Enough, Catherine Elgin argues that we should not assume that the inaccuracy of models and idealizations constitutes an inadequacy. To the contrary, their divergence from truth or representational accuracy fosters their epistemic functioning. When effective, models and idealizations are, Elgin contends, felicitous falsehoods that exemplify features of the phenomena they bear on. Because works of art deploy the same sorts of felicitous falsehoods, she argues, they also advance understanding.

    Elgin develops a holistic epistemology that focuses on the understanding of broad ranges of phenomena rather than knowledge of individual facts. Epistemic acceptability, she maintains, is a matter not of truth-conduciveness, but of what would be reflectively endorsed by the members of an idealized epistemic community--a quasi-Kantian realm of epistemic ends.

  • Annaes Do Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 2 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Annaes do Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 2

    Corte Portugueza participou a este Governo o as sombroso projecto da Hollanda de invasao das Provincias, destroco da sua Marinha e Commer cio, com a instituicao e formacao da Companhia Oriental, nao podendo o Reino de Portugal dar o menor soccorro cxhaurido de cabedaes e de provimentos de boca e de guerra, francamente confessando que na fidelidade e coragem destes habitantes esperava que fossem repellidos cacos sados os inimigos da sua Coroa. Foi em tao critica situaeao dado por Governadora Martim de Sa, que aexpericncia dos negocios publicos sua periciac prudencia habilitavao ao desempenho das arduas tarefas do Governo, excitando o particular en thusiasmo de hum povo o mais excellentemente patriotico e o mais acrisoladamente amante e fiel a seus superiores contando com o seu brio e va lor para debellar e expugnar tao temerarios inva sores, que impunemente saquearao e roubavao quantas embarcacoes eneontravao entrando nos diversos portos as armadas do Norte a titulo de necessidade de aguada saltavao em terra sendo entao acossados e corridos pelos povoadores que se embnscavao para impedir - lhes o passo. Cor riao por toda a parte boatos dos sinistros designios e audacioso projecto daquella Companhia de se ahorcar-se do Brazil e das Minas d'ouro ate o Peru. Taes tinhao sido os gigantescos projectos daquella nascente Republica extendendo o seu.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Atari Age: The Emergence of Video Games in America

    The cultural contradictions of early video games: a medium for family fun (but mainly for middle-class boys), an improvement over pinball and television (but possibly harmful)Beginning with the release of the Magnavox Odyssey and Pong in 1972, video games, whether played in arcades and taverns or in family rec rooms, became part of popular culture, like television. In fact, video games were sometimes seen as an improvement on television because they spurred participation rather than passivity. These "space-age pinball machines" gave coin-operated games a high-tech and more respectable profile. In Atari Age, Michael Newman charts the emergence of video games in America from ball-and-paddle games to hits like Space Invaders and Pac-Man, describing their relationship to other amusements and technologies and showing how they came to be identified with the middle class, youth, and masculinity.Newman shows that the "new media" of video games were understood in varied, even contradictory ways. They were family fun (but mainly for boys), better than television (but possibly harmful), and educational (but a waste of computer time). Drawing on a range of sources--including the games and their packaging; coverage in the popular, trade, and fan press; social science research of the time; advertising and store catalogs; and representations in movies and television--Newman describes the series of cultural contradictions through which the identity of the emerging medium worked itself out. Would video games embody middle-class respectability or suffer from the arcade's unsavory reputation? Would they foster family togetherness or allow boys to escape from domesticity? Would they make the new home computer a tool for education or just a glorified toy? Then, as now, many worried about the impact of video games on players, while others celebrated video games for familiarizing kids with technology essential for the information age.

  • Gaming the Iron Curtain: How Teenagers and Amateurs in Communist Czechoslovakia Claimed the Medium of Computer Games

    How amateur programmers in 1980s Czechoslovakia discovered games as a medium, using them not only for entertainment but also as a means of self-expression.

    Aside from the exceptional history of Tetris, very little is known about gaming culture behind the Iron Curtain. But despite the scarcity of home computers and the absence of hardware and software markets, Czechoslovakia hosted a remarkably active DIY microcomputer scene in the 1980s, producing more than two hundred games that were by turns creative, inventive, and politically subversive. In Gaming the Iron Curtain, Jaroslav Svelch offers the first social history of gaming and game design in 1980s Czechoslovakia, and the first book-length treatment of computer gaming in any country of the Soviet bloc.

    Svelch describes how amateur programmers in 1980s Czechoslovakia discovered games as a medium, using them not only for entertainment but also as a means of self-expression. Sheltered in state-supported computer clubs, local programmers fashioned games into a medium of expression that, unlike television or the press, was neither regulated nor censored. In the final years of Communist rule, Czechoslovak programmers were among the first in the world to make activist games about current political events, anticipating trends observed decades later in independent or experimental titles. Drawing from extensive interviews as well as political, economic, and social history, Gaming the Iron Curtain tells a compelling tale of gaming the system, introducing us to individuals who used their ingenuity to be active, be creative, and be heard.

  • Fundamentals of Machine Learning for Predictive - Algorithms, Worked Examples, and Case Studies

    A comprehensive introduction to the most important machine learning approaches used in predictive data analytics, covering both theoretical concepts and practical applications.

    Machine learning is often used to build predictive models by extracting patterns from large datasets. These models are used in predictive data analytics applications including price prediction, risk assessment, predicting customer behavior, and document classification. This introductory textbook offers a detailed and focused treatment of the most important machine learning approaches used in predictive data analytics, covering both theoretical concepts and practical applications. Technical and mathematical material is augmented with explanatory worked examples, and case studies illustrate the application of these models in the broader business context.

    After discussing the trajectory from data to insight to decision, the book describes four approaches to machine learning: information-based learning, similarity-based learning, probability-based learning, and error-based learning. Each of these approaches is introduced by a nontechnical explanation of the underlying concept, followed by mathematical models and algorithms illustrated by detailed worked examples. Finally, the book considers techniques for evaluating prediction models and offers two case studies that describe specific data analytics projects through each phase of development, from formulating the business problem to implementation of the analytics solution. The book, informed by the authors' many years of teaching machine learning, and working on predictive data analytics projects, is suitable for use by undergraduates in computer science, engineering, mathematics, or statistics; by graduate students in disciplines with applications for predictive data analytics; and as a reference for professionals.

  • Lecturas Para Mujeres (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lecturas para Mujeres

    Mi libro no tiene de original sino esta seccion: Hogar, para la que he espigado en unas cuantas obras, todas aquellas paginas que exaltan la maternidad o el amor filial y que hacen sentir, hecho nobleza, el ambiente de la casa. Desearia que se realizara en mi raza lo que llama en un noble verso Eduardo Marquina elevar lo domestico a dominio. Y tambien a belleza; debemos ennoblecer con esta todas las cosas que queremos sean amadas.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Discours Qui A Remporté le Prix A l'Academie de Dijon, en l'Année 1750, sur cette Question Proposée par la Même Académie: Si le Rétablissement des ... à Épurer les Moeurs (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Discours Qui A Remporte le Prix A l'Academie de Dijon, en l'Annee 1750, sur cette Question Proposee par la Meme Academie: Si le Retablissement des Sciences Et des Arts A Contribue a Epurer les Moeurs

    Accompagnee de la Refutation de ce Difcours, par les Apoflilles critiques de l'un des Academiciens Exa minatems, qui refufe de donner fon fufiiage a cette Piece.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Why We Cooperate

    Understanding cooperation as a distinctly human combination of innate and learned behavior.

    Drop something in front of a two-year-old, and she's likely to pick it up for you. This is not a learned behavior, psychologist Michael Tomasello argues. Through observations of young children in experiments he himself has designed, Tomasello shows that children are naturally--and uniquely--cooperative. Put through similar experiments, for example, apes demonstrate the ability to work together and share, but choose not to. As children grow, their almost reflexive desire to help--without expectation of reward--becomes shaped by culture. They become more aware of being a member of a group. Groups convey mutual expectations, and thus may either encourage or discourage altruism and collaboration. Either way, cooperation emerges as a distinctly human combination of innate and learned behavior. In Why We Cooperate, Tomasello's studies of young children and great apes help identify the underlying psychological processes that very likely supported humans' earliest forms of complex collaboration and, ultimately, our unique forms of cultural organization, from the evolution of tolerance and trust to the creation of such group-level structures as cultural norms and institutions. Scholars Carol Dweck, Joan Silk, Brian Skyrms, and Elizabeth Spelke respond to Tomasello's findings and explore the implications.

  • Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène, Vol. 4: Journal de la Vie Privée Et Des Conversations de l'Empereur Napoléon, a Sainte Hélène; Huitième Partie (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Memorial de Sainte-Helene, Vol. 4: Journal de la Vie Privee Et des Conversations de l'Empereur Napoleon, A Sainte Helene; Huitieme Partie

    Derniers adieux. Scelle des papiers. Depart. Mnxnsen nn sxmm-nezauz m cu. Traversee. Les griefs de Longwood. Details.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • On a overgrown path (Sur un sentier broussaileux) --- Piano

    Excerpt from Die Reptilien und Amphibien Mitteleuropas

    Nattern Ringelnatter (i'af. VII) Wurfelnatter (taf. VIII) Zornnatter (taf. IX) Aeskulapnatter (t af. X) Schlingnatter (t af. XI) Girondifd1e Schlingnatter (auf Taf. IX)

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Lucrèce, de la Nature des Choses, Vol. 2 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lucrece, de la Nature des Choses, Vol. 2

    Apres cette theorie des sensations et des idees, le poete entre dans quelques dann relatifs 'a cette doctrine: 1? il combat les causes finales, en s'eflbrcant de prouver que nos organes n'ont pas ete faits en vue de nos besoins, mais que les hommes en ont use, parce qu'ils les ont tron ves faits; a il explique pourquoi le besoin de boire et (le manger est naturel a tous les animaux; 5? comment l'ame, cette substance si deliee, peut mouvoir une masse aussi pesante que nos Corps; 4? par quel mecanisme le sommeil vient a bout d'en80utdir toutes les facultes de l'ame et du corps, et d'ou viennent les Songes dont il est met - ent ac compagne. A l'occasion des songes, il traite ensuite de l'amour, dont il etait, comme Bull'dn, qu'il n'y qt1b le physique qui soit bqa, et contre lequel il avertit les hom mes de se mettre en garde, par les peintures eloquehtes qu'il fait du malheur des amants. Enfin il termine ce mor ceau et le livre entier par une espece de trafle anatqmi que et physique sur la generation.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Body Sweats - The Uncensored Writings of Elsa Von Freytag-Loringhoven

    The first major collection of poetry written in English by the flabbergasting and flamboyant Baroness Elsa, "the first American Dada."

    As a neurasthenic, kleptomaniac, man-chasing proto-punk poet and artist, the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven left in her wake a ripple that is becoming a rip--one hundred years after she exploded onto the New York art scene. As an agent provocateur within New York's modernist revolution, "the first American Dada" not only dressed and behaved with purposeful outrageousness, but she set an example that went well beyond the eccentric divas of the twenty-first century, including her conceptual descendant, Lady Gaga.

    Her delirious verse flabbergasted New Yorkers as much as her flamboyant persona. As a poet, she was profane and playfully obscene, imagining a farting God, and transforming her contemporary Marcel Duchamp into M'ars (my arse). With its ragged edges and atonal rhythms, her poetry echoes the noise of the metropolis itself. Her love poetry muses graphically on ejaculation, orgasm, and oral sex. When she tired of existing words, she created new ones: "phalluspistol," "spinsterlollipop," "kissambushed." The Baroness's rebellious, highly sexed howls prefigured the Beats; her intensity and psychological complexity anticipates the poetic utterances of Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath.

    Published more than a century after her arrival in New York, Body Sweats is the first major collection of Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven's poems in English. The Baroness's biographer Irene Gammel and coeditor Suzanne Zelazo have assembled 150 poems, most of them never before published. Many of the poems are themselves art objects, decorated in red and green ink, adorned with sketches and diagrams, presented with the same visceral immediacy they had when they were composed.

  • Wired for Innovation - How Information Technology is Reshaping the Economy

    Two experts on the information economy explore the true economic value of technology and innovation.

    A wave of business innovation is driving the productivity resurgence in the U.S. economy. In Wired for Innovation, Erik Brynjolfsson and Adam Saunders describe how information technology directly or indirectly created this productivity explosion, reversing decades of slow growth. They argue that the companies with the highest level of returns to their technology investment are doing more than just buying technology; they are inventing new forms of organizational capital to become digital organizations. These innovations include a cluster of organizational and business-process changes, including broader sharing of information, decentralized decision-making, linking pay and promotions to performance, pruning of non-core products and processes, and greater investments in training and education.

    Innovation continues through booms and busts. This book provides an essential guide for policy makers and economists who need to understand how information technology is transforming the economy and how it will create value in the coming decade.

  • Energy and Civilization: A History

    A comprehensive account of how energy has shaped society throughout history, from pre-agricultural foraging societies through today's fossil fuel-driven civilization.

    "I wait for new Smil books the way some people wait for the next 'Star Wars' movie. In his latest book, Energy and Civilization: A History, he goes deep and broad to explain how innovations in humans' ability to turn energy into heat, light, and motion have been a driving force behind our cultural and economic progress over the past 10,000 years.
    --Bill Gates, Gates Notes, Best Books of the Year


    Energy is the only universal currency; it is necessary for getting anything done. The conversion of energy on Earth ranges from terra-forming forces of plate tectonics to cumulative erosive effects of raindrops. Life on Earth depends on the photosynthetic conversion of solar energy into plant biomass. Humans have come to rely on many more energy flows--ranging from fossil fuels to photovoltaic generation of electricity--for their civilized existence. In this monumental history, Vaclav Smil provides a comprehensive account of how energy has shaped society, from pre-agricultural foraging societies through today's fossil fuel-driven civilization.

    Humans are the only species that can systematically harness energies outside their bodies, using the power of their intellect and an enormous variety of artifacts--from the simplest tools to internal combustion engines and nuclear reactors. The epochal transition to fossil fuels affected everything: agriculture, industry, transportation, weapons, communication, economics, urbanization, quality of life, politics, and the environment. Smil describes humanity's energy eras in panoramic and interdisciplinary fashion, offering readers a magisterial overview. This book is an extensively updated and expanded version of Smil's Energy in World History (1994). Smil has incorporated an enormous amount of new material, reflecting the dramatic developments in energy studies over the last two decades and his own research over that time.

  • An American Lens - Scenes from Alfred Steiglitz′s New York Secession

    In An American Lens, Jay Bochner looks at a series of milestones in the development of the American avant-garde that capture a pivotal period in artistic consciousness. He focuses on the multiple roles of Alfred Stieglitz -- as influential gallery owner, photographer, and impresario of the emerging art scene -- at a series of significant moments in his career. These close-ups offer a more intense and expanded understanding of the subject than the familiar long view.Bochner uses these scenes to recreate for today's readers the birth of modernism in America--what it was like to be an audience for the art of the early avant-garde. Moving from frame to frame, he shows us, for example, a single photograph by Stieglitz of a snowy night in 1893 and a short description by Stephen Crane of just such a snowfall; the preparation, the reception, and the aftermath of the famous Armory Show of modern art in 1913; Gertrude Stein's portraits in prose; New York at the dawn of Dada, with Paul Strand, Francis Picabia, and others; and the intersecting paths of Mina Loy, William Carlos Williams, and Marcel Duchamp in 1917. Bochner also examines Stieglitz's three great photographic series: his photographs of Georgia O'Keeffe, of clouds, and of skyscrapers. These sections of the book include many Stieglitz photos, including some rarely seen portraits of O'Keeffe.Stieglitz as impresario and artist achieved an almost mythical status, which some recent critics have worked to deflate -- casting him, for example, as Svengali to Georgia O'Keeffe's spellbound Trilby. Engaging in neither idolatry nor demolition, Bochner looks instead for the truth about the man and the myth. The scenes from American art in An American Lens create a new version of Stieglitz's biography, allowing us to reread his life and the life of his times by focusing intently on what is visible and not so visible in the art he left behind.

  • Karl Blossfeldt - Working Collages

    Newly discovered photographic collages by early-twentieth-century photographer Karl Blossfeldt.

    Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1932) achieved overnight fame in the late 1920s with the first publication of his photographs of plants. Those photographs, which revealed the inner structures of the organic forms, immediately made him a pioneer of New Objectivity--an innovative movement in art and photography of the 1920s and 1930s. Blossfeldt, however, was neither a trained photographer nor a botanist. He was a sculptor and art professor who did his photographic work to generate teaching material for his students.The publication of this book is the result of an extraordinary event--the 1997 discovery in Blossfeldt's estate of sixty-one previously unknown collages, in virtually mint condition, of photographic contact prints arranged on large cardboard sheets. Blossfeldt apparently used these to study the relation and similarity of the photographs and to compare them graphically and aesthetically. On some, Blossfeldt had made marks or handwritten notations. Others show lines for cropping. The collages, published here for the first time, unveil a hidden treasure of modern photography and cast fresh light on the systematic approach Blossfeldt used in his photographic studies. All collages are reproduced in four colors. Introducing the book is an essay by Swiss art historian Ulrike Meyer-Stump, a Lecturer at the Zurich University of the Arts. Not for sale in France, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, and Austria

  • Robot Futures

    A roboticist imagines life with robots that sell us products, drive our cars, even allow us to assume new physical form, and more.

    With robots, we are inventing a new species that is part material and part digital. The ambition of modern robotics goes beyond copying humans, beyond the effort to make walking, talking androids that are indistinguishable from people. Future robots will have superhuman abilities in both the physical and digital realms. They will be embedded in our physical spaces, with the ability to go where we cannot, and will have minds of their own, thanks to artificial intelligence. In Robot Futures, the roboticist Illah Reza Nourbakhsh considers how we will share our world with these creatures, and how our society could change as it incorporates a race of stronger, smarter beings.

    Nourbakhsh imagines a future that includes adbots offering interactive custom messaging; robotic flying toys that operate by means of "gaze tracking"; robot-enabled multimodal, multicontinental telepresence; and even a way that nanorobots could allow us to assume different physical forms. Nourbakhsh examines the underlying technology and the social consequences of each scenario. He also offers a counter-vision: a robotics designed to create civic and community empowerment. His book helps us understand why that is the robot future we should try to bring about.

  • A Gentle Introduction to Effective Computing in Quantitative Research: What Every Research Assistant Should Know

    A practical guide to using modern software effectively in quantitative research in the social and natural sciences.

    This book offers a practical guide to the computational methods at the heart of most modern quantitative research. It will be essential reading for research assistants needing hands-on experience; students entering PhD programs in business, economics, and other social or natural sciences; and those seeking quantitative jobs in industry. No background in computer science is assumed; a learner need only have a computer with access to the Internet. Using the example as its principal pedagogical device, the book offers tried-and-true prototypes that illustrate many important computational tasks required in quantitative research. The best way to use the book is to read it at the computer keyboard and learn by doing.

    The book begins by introducing basic skills: how to use the operating system, how to organize data, and how to complete simple programming tasks. For its demonstrations, the book uses a UNIX-based operating system and a set of free software tools: the scripting language Python for programming tasks; the database management system SQLite; and the freely available R for statistical computing and graphics. The book goes on to describe particular tasks: analyzing data, implementing commonly used numerical and simulation methods, and creating extensions to Python to reduce cycle time. Finally, the book describes the use of LaTeX, a document markup language and preparation system.

  • Velvet Revolution at the Synchrotron - Biology, Physics, and Change in Science

    Change in scientific practice and its implications for the status of scientific claims, examined through an analysis of three episodes at a synchrotron laboratory.

    After World War II, particle physics became a dominant research discipline in American academia. At many universities, alumni of the Manhattan Project and of Los Alamos were granted resources to start (or strengthen) programs of high-energy physics built around the promise of a new and more powerful particle accelerator, the synchrotron. The synchrotron was also a source of very intense X-rays, useful for research in solid states physics and in biology. As synchrotron X-ray science grew, the experimental practice of protein crystallography (used to determine the atomic structures of proteins and viruses), garnered funding, prestige, and acclaim. In Velvet Revolution at the Synchrotron, Park Doing examines the change in scientific practice at a synchrotron laboratory as biology rose to dominance over physics. He draws on his own observations and experiences at the Cornell University synchrotron, and considers the implications of that change for the status of scientific claims. Velvet Revolution at the Synchrotron is one of the few recent works in the sociology of science that engages specific scientific and technical claims through participant observation--recorded evocatively and engagingly--to address issues in the philosophy of science. Doing argues that bureaucratic change in science is neither "top-down" nor "bottom-up" but rather performed in and realized through recursively related forums of technical assertion and resistance. He considers the relationship of this change to the content of science, and the implications of this relationship for the project of laboratory studies begun in the late 1970s.

  • Strategies & Games - Theory & Practice

    Game theory has become increasingly popular among undergraduate aswell as business school students. This text is the first to provideboth a complete theoretical treatment of the subject and a variety ofreal-world applications, primarily in economics, but also in business, political science, and the law.

    Game theory has become increasingly popular among undergraduate as well as business school students. This text is the first to provide both a complete theoretical treatment of the subject and a variety of real-world applications, primarily in economics, but also in business, political science, and the law. Strategies and Games grew out of Prajit Dutta's experience teaching a course in game theory over the last six years at Columbia University.The book is divided into three parts: Strategic Form Games and Their Applications, Extensive Form Games and Their Applications, and Asymmetric Information Games and Their Applications. The theoretical topics include dominance solutions, Nash equilibrium, backward induction, subgame perfect equilibrium, repeated games, dynamic games, Bayes-Nash equilibrium, mechanism design, auction theory, and signaling. An appendix presents a thorough discussion of single-agent decision theory, as well as the optimization and probability theory required for the course.Every chapter that introduces a new theoretical concept opens with examples and ends with a case study. Case studies include Global Warming and the Internet, Poison Pills, Treasury Bill Auctions, and Final Jeopardy. Each part of the book also contains several chapter-length applications including Bankruptcy Law, the NASDAQ market, OPEC, and the Commons problem. This is also the first text to provide a detailed analysis of dynamic strategic interaction.

  • Between Worlds - A Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes 1910-1930

    Hundreds of primary documents from the Central European artistic avant-gardes, most of them translated into English for the first time.

    The avant-garde movements of Central Europe were an integral part of modernism's evolution as it reached its peak throughout the continent during the 1920s. Written documents--manifestoes, artists' statements, and reviews--were the lifeblood of these movements and, during the periods when political events conspired to isolate them, one of their few means of communication and exchange. Much of this crucial evidence has become lost to us, and the artistic avant-gardes of Central Europe have been a blind spot of modernist studies. Until their narratives have been recovered, the story of modernism will remain incomplete. In this book an international team of scholars has selected an essential compendium of documents that take an important step toward regaining this lost perspective. Between Worlds contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, the Czech lands, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia from 1910 to 1930. The manifestoes and magazines of Western European radical art circles are well known to Western scholars, but few have researched the pages of magazines such as Zenit, Integral, Punct, 75 HP, Tank, and Ma. We know about Italian Futurism but not about Polish Futurism. Few Westerners are aware that French surrealist magazines drew much of their inspiration from Czech publications. The hundreds of documents in the book, almost all of them translated into English for the first time, bring back into circulation landmark texts by the major writers, editors, artists, magazines, and movements of Central Europe. With this publication they are restored to their rightful place in the pantheon of modernism. Between Worlds is distributed for the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

  • Reinventing the Automobile - Personal Urban Mobility for the 21st Century

    This book provides a long-overdue vision for a new automobile era. The cars we drive today follow the same underlying design principles as the Model Ts of a hundred years ago and the tail-finned sedans of fifty years ago. In the twenty-first century, cars are still made for twentieth-century purposes. They are inefficient for providing personal mobility within cities -- where most of the world's people now live. In this pathbreaking book, William Mitchell and two industry experts reimagine the automobile, describing vehicles of the near future that are green, smart, connected, and fun to drive. They roll out four big ideas that will make this both feasible and timely.

    The fundamental reinvention of the automobile won't be easy, but it is an urgent necessity -- to make urban mobility more convenient and sustainable, to make cities more livable, and to help bring the automobile industry out of crisis.

  • Capital Markets - Institutions, Instruments, and Risk Management 5e

    The substantially revised fifth edition of a textbook covering the wide range of instruments available in financial markets, with a new emphasis on risk management.

    Over the last fifty years, an extensive array of instruments for financing, investing, and controlling risk has become available in financial markets, with demand for these innovations driven by the needs of investors and borrowers. The recent financial crisis offered painful lessons on the consequences of ignoring the risks associated with new financial products and strategies. This substantially revised fifth edition of a widely used text covers financial product innovation with a new emphasis on risk management and regulatory reform. Chapters from the previous edition have been updated, and new chapters cover material that reflects recent developments in financial markets.

    The book begins with an introduction to financial markets, offering a new chapter that provides an overview of risk--including the key elements of financial risk management and the identification and quantification of risk. The book then covers market participants, including a new chapter on collective investment products managed by asset management firms; the basics of cash and derivatives markets, with new coverage of financial derivatives and securitization; theories of risk and return, with a new chapter on return distributions and risk measures; the structure of interest rates and the pricing of debt obligations; equity markets; debt markets, including chapters on money market instruments, municipal securities, and credit sensitive securitized products; and advanced coverage of derivative markets. Each chapter ends with a review of key points and questions based on the material covered.

  • Religions de l'Antiquité, Vol. 3: Considérées Principalement dans Leurs Formes Symboliques Et Mythologiques; Seconde Partie (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Religions de l'Antiquite, Vol. 3: Considerees Principalement dans Leurs Formes Symboliques Et Mythologiques; Seconde Partie

    Nota. L'editeur croit devoir faire observer que, dans la distribution generale de l'ouvrage, les 3 tomes du texte for mant avec les Eclaircissements et les autres accessoires 6 vo.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Perception Beyond Inference - The Information Content of Visual Processes

    Proposing a new paradigm for perceptual science that goes beyond standard information theory and digital computation.

    This book breaks with the conventional model of perception that views vision as a mere inference to an objective reality on the basis of inverse optics. The authors offer the alternative view that perception is an expressive and awareness-generating process. Perception creates semantic information in such a way as to enable the observer to deal efficaciously with the chaotic and meaningless structure present at the physical boundary between the body and its surroundings. Vision is intentional by its very nature; visual qualities are essential and real, providing an aesthetic and meaningful interface to the structures of physics and the state of the brain. This view brings perception firmly in line with ethology and modern evolutionary biology and suggests new approaches in all disciplines that study, or require an understanding of, the ontology of mind.

    The book is the joint effort of a multidisciplinary group of authors. Topics covered include the relationships among stimuli, neuronal processes, and visual awareness. After considering the mind-dependent growing of information, the book treats time and dynamics; color, shape, and space; language and perception; perception, art, and design.

  • Impossible Languages

    An investigation into the possibility of impossible languages, searching for the indelible "fingerprint" of human language.

    Can there be such a thing as an impossible human language? A biologist could describe an impossible animal as one that goes against the physical laws of nature (entropy, for example, or gravity). Are there any such laws that constrain languages? In this book, Andrea Moro--a distinguished linguist and neuroscientist--investigates the possibility of impossible languages, searching, as he does so, for the indelible "fingerprint" of human language.

    Moro shows how the very notion of impossible languages has helped shape research on the ultimate aim of linguistics: to define the class of possible human languages. He takes us beyond the boundaries of Babel, to the set of properties that, despite appearances, all languages share, and explores the sources of that order, drawing on scientific experiments he himself helped design. Moro compares syntax to the reverse side of a tapestry revealing a hidden and apparently intricate structure. He describes the brain as a sieve, considers the reality of (linguistic) trees, and listens for the sound of thought by recording electrical activity in the brain. Words and sentences, he tells us, are like symphonies and constellations: they have no content of their own; they exist because we listen to them and look at them. We are part of the data.

  • Bibliothèque Des Sciences Et Des Beaux Arts, Vol. 3: Pour Les Mois de Janvier, Février, Mars, 1755; Première Partie (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Bibliotheque des Sciences Et des Beaux Arts, Vol. 3: Pour les Mois de Janvier, Fevrier, Mars, 1755; Premiere Partie

    23) q. Une Lettre du pere F. Paul de sas: bafiim ecrite en 1666. 'on General, rapportee dans la preface de l'hfi. Des Ordres Manafli pm (9' Relig.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Music and the Myth of Wholeness: Toward a New Aesthetic Paradigm

    A new theory of aesthetics and music, grounded in the collision between language and the body.

    In this book, Tim Hodgkinson proposes a theory of aesthetics and music grounded in the boundary between nature and culture within the human being. His analysis discards the conventional idea of the human being as an integrated whole in favor of a rich and complex field in which incompatible kinds of information--biological and cultural--collide. It is only when we acknowledge the clash of body and language within human identity that we can understand how art brings forth the special form of subjectivity potentially present in aesthetic experiences.

    As a young musician, Hodgkinson realized that music was, in some mysterious way, "of itself"--not isolated from life, but not entirely continuous with it, either. Drawing on his experiences as a musician, composer, and anthropologist, Hodgkinson shows how when we listen to music a new subjectivity comes to life in ourselves. The normal mode of agency is suspended, and the subjectivity inscribed in the music comes toward us as a formative "other" to engage with. But this is not our reproduction of the composer's own subjectivation; when we perform our listening of the music, we are sharing the formative risks taken by its maker. To examine this in practice, Hodgkinson looks at the work of three composers who have each claimed to stimulate a new way of listening: Pierre Schaeffer, John Cage, and Helmut Lachenmann.

  • Nouveau Manuel Complet d'Archéologie, Ou Traité Sur Les Antiquités Grecques, Étrusques, Romaines, Égyptiennes, Indiennes, Etc., Etc (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Nouveau Manuel Complet d'Archeologie, ou Traite sur les Antiquites Grecques, Etrusques, Romaines, Egyptiennes, Indiennes, Etc., Etc

    Ruines de l'aqucduc de Neron a Rome. Temple de Minerve Aptere restauration); Temple de Minerve Poliade a Athenes.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Statistical Analysis of fMRI Data

    An overview of statistical methods for analyzing data from fMRI experiments.

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which allows researchers to observe neural activity in the human brain noninvasively, has revolutionized the scientific study of the mind. An fMRI experiment produces massive amounts of highly complex data; researchers face significant challenges in analyzing the data they collect. This book offers an overview of the most widely used statistical methods of analyzing fMRI data. Every step is covered, from preprocessing to advanced methods for assessing functional connectivity. The goal is not to describe which buttons to push in the popular software packages but to help readers understand the basic underlying logic, the assumptions, the strengths and weaknesses, and the appropriateness of each method.

    The book covers all of the important current topics in fMRI data analysis, including the relation of the fMRI BOLD (blood oxygen-level dependent) response to neural activation; basic analyses done in virtually every fMRI article--preprocessing, constructing statistical parametrical maps using the general linear model, solving the multiple comparison problem, and group analyses; the most popular methods for assessing functional connectivity--coherence analysis and Granger causality; two widely used multivariate approaches, principal components analysis and independent component analysis; and a brief survey of other current fMRI methods. The necessary mathematics is explained at a conceptual level, but in enough detail to allow mathematically sophisticated readers to gain more than a purely conceptual understanding. The book also includes short examples of Matlab code that implement many of the methods described; an appendix offers an introduction to basic Matlab matrix algebra commands (as well as a tutorial on matrix algebra). A second appendix introduces multivariate probability distributions.

  • Louise Lawler

    Louise Lawler has devoted her art practice to investigating the life cycle of art objects. Her photographs depict art in the collector's home, the museum, the auction house, and the commercial gallery, on loading docks, and in storage closets. Her work offers a sustained meditation on the strategies of display that shape art's reception and distribution. The cumulative effect of Lawler's photographs is a silent insistence that context is the primary shaper of art's meaning. Informed by feminism and institutional critique, Lawler's witty, poignant, and trenchant photos frequently pay attention to a host of overlooked details -- almost Freudian slips -- that ineffably and tacitly shore up what we conventionally think of as art's "power." This book includes the earliest published text on Lawler's work; an examination of her ephemera (Lawler produced, among other things, matchbooks and paperweights); a rare interview with the artist, conducted by Douglas Crimp; a conversation between George Baker and Andrea Fraser on Lawler's work; and essays by writers including Rosalind Krauss, Rosalyn Deutsche, and Helen Molesworth, the volume's editor. The book traces the changing reception of Lawler's work from early preoccupations with appropriation to later discussions of affect.

  • Here / There: Telepresence, Touch, and Art at the Interface

    An examination of telepresence technologies through the lens of contemporary artistic experiments, from early video art through current "drone vision" works.

    Telepresence" allows us to feel present--through vision, hearing, and even touch--at a remote location by means of real-time communication technology. Networked devices such as video cameras and telerobots extend our corporeal agency into distant spaces. In Here/There, Kris Paulsen examines telepresence technologies through the lens of contemporary artistic experiments, from early video art through current "drone vision" works. Paulsen traces an arc of increasing interactivity, as video screens became spaces for communication and physical, tactile intervention. She explores the work of artists who took up these technological tools and questioned the aesthetic, social, and ethical stakes of media that allow us to manipulate and affect far-off environments and other people--to touch, metaphorically and literally, those who cannot touch us back.

    Paulsen examines 1970s video artworks by Vito Acconci and Joan Jonas, live satellite performance projects by Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz, and CCTV installations by Chris Burden. These early works, she argues, can help us make sense of the expansion of our senses by technologies that privilege real time over real space and model strategies for engagement and interaction with mediated others. They establish a political, aesthetic, and technological history for later works using cable TV infrastructures and the World Wide Web, including telerobotic works by Ken Goldberg and Wafaa Bilal and artworks about military drones by Trevor Paglen, Omar Fast, Hito Steyerl, and others. These works become a meeting place for here and there.

  • Architects of the Information Society - Thirty- Five Years of the Laboratory for Computer Science at MIT

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) has been responsible for some of the most significant technological achievements of the past few decades. Much of the hardware and software driving the information revolution has been, and continues to be, created at LCS. Anyone who sends and receives email, communicates with colleagues through a LAN, surfs the Web, or makes decisions using a spreadsheet is benefiting from the creativity of LCS members.LCS is an interdepartmental laboratory that brings together faculty, researchers, and students in a broad program of study, research, and experimentation. Their principal goal is to pursue innovations in information technology that will improve people's lives. LCS members have been instrumental in the development of ARPAnet, the Internet, the Web, Ethernet, time-shared computers, UNIX, RSA encryption, the X Windows system, NuBus, and many other technologies.This book, published in celebration of LCS's thirty-fifth anniversary, chronicles its history, achievements, and continued importance to computer science. The essays are complemented by historical photographs.

  • Advanced Manufacturing: The New American Innovation Policies

    How to rethink innovation and revitalize America's declining manufacturing sector by encouraging advanced manufacturing, bringing innovative technologies into the production process.

    The United States lost almost one-third of its manufacturing jobs between 2000 and 2010. As higher-paying manufacturing jobs are replaced by lower-paying service jobs, income inequality has been approaching third world levels. In particular, between 1990 and 2013, the median income of men without high school diplomas fell by an astonishing 20% between 1990 and 2013, and that of men with high school diplomas or some college fell by a painful 13%. Innovation has been left largely to software and IT startups, and increasingly U.S. firms operate on a system of "innovate here/produce there," leaving the manufacturing sector behind. In this book, William Bonvillian and Peter Singer explore how to rethink innovation and revitalize America's declining manufacturing sector. They argue that advanced manufacturing, which employs such innovative technologies as 3-D printing, advanced material, photonics, and robotics in the production process, is the key.

    Bonvillian and Singer discuss transformative new production paradigms that could drive up efficiency and drive down costs, describe the new processes and business models that must accompany them, and explore alternative funding methods for startups that must manufacture. They examine the varied attitudes of mainstream economics toward manufacturing, the post-Great Recession policy focus on advanced manufacturing, and lessons from the new advanced manufacturing institutes. They consider the problem of "startup scaleup," possible new models for training workers, and the role of manufacturing in addressing "secular stagnation" in innovation, growth, the middle classes, productivity rates, and related investment. As recent political turmoil shows, the stakes could not be higher.

  • The Next Great War? - The Roots of World War I and the Risk of U.S.-China Conflict

    Experts consider how the lessons of World War I can help prevent U.S.-China conflict.

    A century ago, Europe's diplomats mismanaged the crisis triggered by the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and the continent plunged into World War I, which killed millions, toppled dynasties, and destroyed empires. Today, as the hundredth anniversary of the Great War prompts renewed debate about the war's causes, scholars and policy experts are also considering the parallels between the present international system and the world of 1914. Are China and the United States fated to follow in the footsteps of previous great power rivals? Will today's alliances drag countries into tomorrow's wars? Can leaders manage power relationships peacefully? Or will East Asia's territorial and maritime disputes trigger a larger conflict, just as rivalries in the Balkans did in 1914?

    In The Next Great War?, experts reconsider the causes of World War I and explore whether the great powers of the twenty-first century can avoid the mistakes of Europe's statesmen in 1914 and prevent another catastrophic conflict. They find differences as well as similarities between today's world and the world of 1914--but conclude that only a deep understanding of those differences and early action to bring great powers together will likely enable the United States and China to avoid a great war.

    Contributors
    Alan Alexandroff, Graham Allison, Richard N. Cooper, Charles S. Maier, Steven E. Miller, Joseph S. Nye Jr., T. G. Otte, David K. Richards, Richard N. Rosecrance, Kevin Rudd, Jack Snyder, Etel Solingen, Arthur A. Stein, Stephen Van Evera

  • A Semantic Web Primer 3e

    A new edition of the widely used guide to the key ideas, languages, and technologies of the Semantic Web

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its uses. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this continuously evolving field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a textbook or for independent study by professionals, it concentrates on undergraduate-level fundamental concepts and techniques that will enable readers to proceed with building applications on their own and includes exercises, project descriptions, and annotated references to relevant online materials.

    The third edition of this widely used text has been thoroughly updated, with significant new material that reflects a rapidly developing field. Treatment of the different languages (OWL2, rules) expands the coverage of RDF and OWL, defining the data model independently of XML and including coverage of N3/Turtle and RDFa. A chapter is devoted to OWL2, the new W3C standard. This edition also features additional coverage of the query language SPARQL, the rule language RIF and the possibility of interaction between rules and ontology languages and applications. The chapter on Semantic Web applications reflects the rapid developments of the past few years. A new chapter offers ideas for term projects. Additional material, including updates on the technological trends and research directions, can be found at http: //www.semanticwebprimer.org.

  • The Pragmatic Turn: Toward Action-Oriented Views in Cognitive Science

    Experts from a range of disciplines assess the foundations and implications of a novel action-oriented view of cognition.

    Cognitive science is experiencing a pragmatic turn away from the traditional representation-centered framework toward a view that focuses on understanding cognition as "enactive." This enactive view holds that cognition does not produce models of the world but rather subserves action as it is grounded in sensorimotor skills. In this volume, experts from cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology, robotics, and philosophy of mind assess the foundations and implications of a novel action-oriented view of cognition.

    Their contributions and supporting experimental evidence show that an enactive approach to cognitive science enables strong conceptual advances, and the chapters explore key concepts for this new model of cognition. The contributors discuss the implications of an enactive approach for cognitive development; action-oriented models of cognitive processing; action-oriented understandings of consciousness and experience; and the accompanying paradigm shifts in the fields of philosophy, brain science, robotics, and psychology.

    Contributors
    Moshe Bar, Lawrence W. Barsalov, Olaf Blanke, Jeannette Bohg, Martin V. Butz, Peter F. Dominey, Andreas K. Engel, Judith M. Ford, Karl J. Friston, Chris D. Frith, Shaun Gallagher, Antonia Hamilton, Tobias Heed, Cecilia Heyes, Elisabeth Hill, Matej Hoffmann, Jakob Hohwy, Bernhard Hommel, Atsushi Iriki, Pierre Jacob, Henrik Jorntell, Jurgen Jost, James Kilner, Gunther Knoblich, Peter Konig, Danica Kragic, Miriam Kyselo, Alexander Maye, Marek McGann, Richard Menary, Thomas Metzinger, Ezequiel Morsella, Saskia Nagel, Kevin J. O'Regan, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Giovanni Pezzulo, Tony J. Prescott, Wolfgang Prinz, Friedemann Pulvermuller, Robert Rupert, Marti Sanchez-Fibla, Andrew Schwartz, Anil K. Seth, Vicky Southgate, Antonella Tramacere, John K. Tsotsos, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Gabriella Vigliocco, Gottfried Vosgerau

  • Keynes - Useful Economics for the World Economy

    Why Keynes is relevant to today's global economic crisis, and how Keynesian ideas can point the way to renewed economic growth.

    As the global economic crisis continues to cause damage, some policy makers have called for a more Keynesian approach to current economic problems. In this book, the economists Peter Temin and David Vines provide an accessible introduction to Keynesian ideas that connects Keynes's insights to today's global economy and offers readers a way to understand current policy debates. They survey economic thinking before Keynes and explain how difficult it was for Keynes to escape from conventional wisdom. They also set out the Keynesian analysis of a closed economy and expand the analysis to the international economy, using a few simple graphs to present Keynes's formal analyses in an accessible way. Finally, they discuss problems of today's world economy, showcasing the usefulness of a simple Keynesian approach to current economic policy choices. Keynesian ideas, they argue, can lay the basis for a return to economic growth.

  • Oeuvres de F.-B. Hoffman, Vol. 3: Critique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Oeuvres de F.-B. Hoffman, Vol. 3: Critique

    Voici une observation qui doit rendre les voya geurs plus circonspects dans la description qu'ils font des montagnes dont ils n'ont pas mesure la hauteur. Les cotes de plusieurs iles telles que Clara, l'alegranza etc., avaient offert a M. De Humboldt le spectacle le plus imposant quand on les voyait de la mer: quelle a ete sa surprise quand il a re connu que ces sommets si eleves en apparence n'avaient que cent ou cent vingt toises d'elevation! Rien n'est plus incertain dit - il que notre juge ment sur la grandeur des angles que sous-tendent les objets tout pres de l'horizon. Il attribue a de sem blables illusions l'opinion que l'on a eue long temps sur la grande hauteur des montagnes qui bordent le detroit de Magellan. L'auteur veut sans doute designer ici Samuel Wallis qui a vu des montagnes produgieuses sur la Terre de Feu, car je ne sache pas que Byron, Carteret ou Cook aient rien exagere a cet egard.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Art of Failure - An Essay on the Pain of Playing Video Games

    We may think of video games as being "fun," but in "The Art of Failure," Jesper Juul claims that this is almost entirely mistaken. When we play video games, our facial expressions are rarely those of happiness or bliss. Instead, we frown, grimace, and shout in frustration as we lose, or die, or fail to advance to the next level. Humans may have a fundamental desire to succeed and feel competent, but game players choose to engage in an activity in which they are nearly certain to fail and feel incompetent. So why do we play video games even though they make us unhappy? Juul examines this paradox. In video games, as in tragic works of art, literature, theater, and cinema, it seems that we want to experience unpleasantness even if we also dislike it. Reader or audience reaction to tragedy is often explained as catharsis, as a purging of negative emotions. But, Juul points out, this doesn't seem to be the case for video game players. Games do not purge us of unpleasant emotions; they produce them in the first place. What, then, does failure in video game playing do? Juul argues that failure in a game is unique in that when you fail in a game, you (not a character) are in some way inadequate. Yet games also motivate us to play more, in order to escape that inadequacy, and the feeling of escaping failure (often by improving skills) is a central enjoyment of games. Games, writes Juul, are the art of failure: the singular art form that sets us up for failure and allows us to experience it and experiment with it. "The Art of Failure" is essential reading for anyone interested in video games, whether as entertainment, art, or education.

  • The End of Energy - The Unmaking of America′s Environment Security, and Independence

    Forty years of energy incompetence: villains, failures of leadership, and missed opportunities.

    Americans take for granted that when we flip a switch the light will go on, when we turn up the thermostat the room will get warm, and when we pull up to the pump gas will be plentiful and relatively cheap. In The End of Energy, Michael Graetz shows us that we have been living an energy delusion for forty years. Until the 1970s, we produced domestically all the oil we needed to run our power plants, heat our homes, and fuel our cars. Since then, we have had to import most of the oil we use, much of it from the Middle East. And we rely on an even dirtier fuel--coal--to produce half of our electricity.

    Graetz describes more than forty years of energy policy incompetence and argues that we must make better decisions for our energy future. Despite thousands of pages of energy legislation since the 1970s (passed by a Congress that tended to elevate narrow parochial interests over our national goals), Americans have never been asked to pay a price that reflects the real cost of the energy they consume. Until Americans face the facts about price, our energy incompetence will continue--and along with it the unraveling of our environment, security, and independence.

  • Super Vision

    Leading contemporary artists, including Bridget Riley, Jeff Koons, Mona Hatoum, Andreas Gursky, and Yoko Ono, explore the ecstatic and the threatening aspects of contemporary visual experience.

    New technology enables super vision--both superhuman visual powers and actual supervision by surveillance. In Super Vision, which accompanies the inaugural exhibit at the new Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, a broad selection of important works in a variety of media expresses both the ecstatic and the threatening aspects of vision and reveals visual experience as a source of both pleasure and fear. These works reflect the digital era's profound shift in the nature of visuality itself--as computer graphics and imaging, digitization, and virtuality have transformed both the nature of representation and our relationship to it. Among the leading contemporary artists exploring the changing nature of contemporary visual experience in Super Vision are Bridget Riley, Anish Kapoor, and Gabriel Orozco, with works that bend, twist, and dissolve space, leaving us unsure of the boundaries between inside and outside, surface and depth, self and others. Other works by artists including Jeff Koons, Julie Mehretu, and Andreas Gursky, express aspects of virtuality--some explicitly, some more subtly--and explore the changes in the way we see and understand two-dimensional images. Vision in the twenty-first century is potentially everywhere, all the time; there is no way to escape it. Works by Sigmar Polke, Yoko Ono, Tony Oursler, Thomas Ruff, and others respond in complex ways to this disembodied and penetrating quality of vision. The many full-color images in Super Vision are accompanied by essays by exhibition curator Nicholas Baume, art historian David Joselit, and media theorist McKenzie Wark. Copublished with the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston.

  • Handbook of Collective Intelligence

    Experts describe the latest research in a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field, the study of groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seem intelligent.

    Intelligence does not arise only in individual brains; it also arises in groups of individuals. This is collective intelligence: groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seem intelligent. In recent years, a new kind of collective intelligence has emerged: interconnected groups of people and computers, collectively doing intelligent things. Today these groups are engaged in tasks that range from writing software to predicting the results of presidential elections. This volume reports on the latest research in the study of collective intelligence, laying out a shared set of research challenges from a variety of disciplinary and methodological perspectives. Taken together, these essays--by leading researchers from such fields as computer science, biology, economics, and psychology--lay the foundation for a new multidisciplinary field.

    Each essay describes the work on collective intelligence in a particular discipline--for example, economics and the study of markets; biology and research on emergent behavior in ant colonies; human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence; and cognitive psychology and the "wisdom of crowds" effect. Other areas in social science covered include social psychology, organizational theory, law, and communications.

    Contributors
    Eytan Adar, Ishani Aggarwal, Yochai Benkler, Michael S. Bernstein, Jeffrey P. Bigham, Jonathan Bragg, Deborah M. Gordon, Benjamin Mako Hill, Christopher H. Lin, Andrew W. Lo, Thomas W. Malone, Mausam, Brent Miller, Aaron Shaw, Mark Steyvers, Daniel S. Weld, Anita Williams Woolley

  • The Audio Programming Book

    This comprehensive handbook of mathematical and programming techniques for audio signal processing will be an essential reference for all computer musicians, computer scientists, engineers, and anyone interested in audio. Designed to be used by readers with varying levels of programming expertise, it not only provides the foundations for music and audio development but also tackles issues that sometimes remain mysterious even to experienced software designers. Exercises and copious examples (all cross-platform and based on free or open source software) make the book ideal for classroom use. Fifteen chapters and eight appendixes cover such topics as programming basics for C and C++ (with music-oriented examples), audio programming basics and more advanced topics, spectral audio programming; programming Csound opcodes, and algorithmic synthesis and music programming. Appendixes cover topics in compiling, audio and MIDI, computing, and math. An accompanying DVD provides an additional 40 chapters, covering musical and audio programs with micro-controllers, alternate MIDI controllers, video controllers, developing Apple Audio Unit plug-ins from Csound opcodes, and audio programming for the iPhone. The sections and chapters of the book are arranged progressively and topics can be followed from chapter to chapter and from section to section. At the same time, each section can stand alone as a self-contained unit. Readers will find The Audio Programming Book a trustworthy companion on their journey through making music and programming audio on modern computers.

  • Foundations of Machine Learning

    A new edition of a graduate-level machine learning textbook that focuses on the analysis and theory of algorithms.

    This book is a general introduction to machine learning that can serve as a textbook for graduate students and a reference for researchers. It covers fundamental modern topics in machine learning while providing the theoretical basis and conceptual tools needed for the discussion and justification of algorithms. It also describes several key aspects of the application of these algorithms. The authors aim to present novel theoretical tools and concepts while giving concise proofs even for relatively advanced topics.

    Foundations of Machine Learning is unique in its focus on the analysis and theory of algorithms. The first four chapters lay the theoretical foundation for what follows; subsequent chapters are mostly self-contained. Topics covered include the Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning framework; generalization bounds based on Rademacher complexity and VC-dimension; Support Vector Machines (SVMs); kernel methods; boosting; on-line learning; multi-class classification; ranking; regression; algorithmic stability; dimensionality reduction; learning automata and languages; and reinforcement learning. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. Appendixes provide additional material including concise probability review.

    This second edition offers three new chapters, on model selection, maximum entropy models, and conditional entropy models. New material in the appendixes includes a major section on Fenchel duality, expanded coverage of concentration inequalities, and an entirely new entry on information theory. More than half of the exercises are new to this edition.

  • Lexique Étymologique Des Termes Les Plus Usuels Du Breton Moderne (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lexique Etymologique des Termes les Plus Usuels du Breton Moderne

    Supposons qu'un mot breton soit absolument identique a un mot japonais de meme signification ce sera une circonstance fortuite a peine digne de remarque, jusqu'au jour ou l'on pourrait demontrer ou soupconner que ce mot eut ete, par exemple, rapporte du Japon par quelque matelot breton et naturalise tel quel en Bretagne: et, alors meme, la constatation de cette identite demeurerait une curio site isolee, presque sans interet, puisqu'il n'existe par ailleurs aucun lien historique ni linguistique entre la Bretagne et le Japon.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Dictionnaire de la Fable, Vol. 2: Ou Mythologie Grecque, Latine, Égyptienne, Celtique, Persanne, Syriaque, Indienne, Chinoise, Scandinave, Africaine, Américaine, Iconologique, Etc (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire de la Fable, Vol. 2: Ou Mythologie Grecque, Latine, Egyptienne, Celtique, Persanne, Syriaque, Indienne, Chinoise, Scandinave, Africaine, Americaine, Iconologique, Etc

    Hum, petit-filsde Gorgods roi es Cynetes 'parvenu a la couronne lia par des ois ses peu les encore barbares, leur apprit ab0urer la terre, fit succeder une nourriture plus delicate aux viandes sauvages qu'il detenait par ?il n'en avait trouve d'autres orsqu'il fuyait ns les bois la colere de son aieul defendit tout emploi servile ses sujets et les repartit en sept villes. Couronne fut pendant plusieurs siecles hereditaire dans sa famille. V.' Concours.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Dictionnaire de la Fable, Ou Mythologie Grecque, Latine, Egyptienne, Celtique, Persanne, Syriaque, Indienne, Chinoise, Scandinave, Africaine, Américaine, Iconologique, Etc, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire de la Fable, ou Mythologie Grecque, Latine, Egyptienne, Celtique, Persanne, Syriaque, Indienne, Chinoise, Scandinave, Africaine, Americaine, Iconologique, Etc, Vol. 1

    Fulgence, qui n'a vu que des allegorie5, Noel le Comte, qui n'y a trouve que des emblemes moraux, et Barrier, qui a voulu ramener la mythologie aux espli cations historiques, meritent tous des eloges pour avoir contribue, chacun a leur maniere, a debrouiller le chaos mythologique.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Architecture School - Three Centuries of Educating Architects in North America

    The first comprehensive history of architecture education in North America, offering a chronological overview and a topical lexicon.

    Rooted in the British apprenticeship system, the French Beaux-Arts, and the German polytechnical schools, architecture education in North America has had a unique history spanning almost three hundred years. Although architects in the United States and Canada began to identify themselves as professionals by the late eighteenth century, it was not until nearly a century later that North American universities began to offer formal architectural training; the first program was established at MIT in 1865. Today most architects receive their training within an academic setting that draws on the humanities, fine arts, applied science, and public service for its philosophy and methodology. This book, published in conjunction with the centennial of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA), provides the first comprehensive history of North American architecture education.

    Architecture School opens with six chronological essays, each devoted to a major period of development: before 1860; 1860-1920; 1920-1940; 1940-1968; 1968-1990; and 1990 to the present. This overview is followed by a "lexicon" containing shorter articles on more than two dozen topics that have figured centrally in archictecture education's history, from competitions and design pedagogy to research, structures, studio culture, and travel.

  • Digital Methods

    A proposal to repurpose Web-native techniques for use in social and cultural scholarly research.

    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals with broader questions. How can we study social media to learn something about society rather than about social media use? Rogers proposes repurposing Web-native techniques for research into cultural change and societal conditions. We can learn to reapply such "methods of the medium" as crawling and crowd sourcing, PageRank and similar algorithms, tag clouds and other visualizations; we can learn how they handle hits, likes, tags, date stamps, and other Web-native objects. By "thinking along" with devices and the objects they handle, digital research methods can follow the evolving methods of the medium.

    Rogers uses this new methodological outlook to examine such topics as the findings of inquiries into 9/11 search results, the recognition of climate change skeptics by climate-change-related Web sites, and the censorship of the Iranian Web. With Digital Methods, Rogers introduces a new vision and method for Internet research and at the same time applies them to the Web's objects of study, from tiny particles (hyperlinks) to large masses (social media).

  • L'Histoire Des Idées Théosophiques Dans l'Inde, Vol. 1: La Théosophie Brahmanique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from L'Histoire des Idees Theosophiques dans l'Inde, Vol. 1: La Theosophie Brahmanique

    L'histoire religieuse de l'inde nous offre d'abondants exemples de ces idees qu'on respire avec l'air dans lequel on vit, et qui sont en quelque sorte entrees dans la substance de l'ame collective. Une fois quelles ont recu droit de cite, on les retrouve, alterees quelquefois, le plus souvent immuables, jusque dans des creations qui semblent a premiere vue tout a fait originales. Ce que furent ces idees, comment elles ont pris naissance, comment elles ont evolue, comment elles ont passe d'un systeme a l'autre, parfois pour le plus grand dommage de la coherence et de la logique des doctrines, comment enfin elles ont lentement faconne une mentalite qui nous parait ala fois singulie rement attirante et lointaine, telles sont les questions qua la lumiere des textes originaux, je me propose d'examiner dans les pages qui suivent.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Model Checking

    Model checking is a technique for verifying finite state concurrent systems such as sequential circuit designs and communication protocols. It has a number of advantages over traditional approaches that are based on simulation, testing, and deductive reasoning. In particular, model checking is automatic and usually quite fast. Also, if the design contains an error, model checking will produce a counterexample that can be used to pinpoint the source of the error. The method, which was awarded the 1998 ACM Paris Kanellakis Award for Theory and Practice, has been used successfully in practice to verify real industrial designs, and companies are beginning to market commercial model checkers.

    The main challenge in model checking is dealing with the state space explosion problem. This problem occurs in systems with many components that can interact with each other or systems with data structures that can assume many different values. In such cases the number of global states can be enormous. Researchers have made considerable progress on this problem over the last ten years.

    This is the first comprehensive presentation of the theory and practice of model checking. The book, which includes basic as well as state-of-the-art techniques, algorithms, and tools, can be used both as an introduction to the subject and as a reference for researchers.

  • Wirelessness - Radical Empiricism in Network Cultures

    An account of the sensations associated with being entangled with wireless technologies that draws on the philosophical techniques of William James's radical empiricism.

    How has wirelessness--being connected to objects and infrastructures without knowing exactly how or where--become a key form of contemporary experience? Stretching across routers, smart phones, netbooks, cities, towers, Guangzhou workshops, service agreements, toys, and states, wireless technologies have brought with them sensations of change, proximity, movement, and divergence.

    In Wirelessness, Adrian Mackenzie draws on philosophical techniques from a century ago to make sense of this most contemporary postnetwork condition. The radical empiricism associated with the pragmatist philosopher William James, Mackenzie argues, offers fresh ways for matching the disordered flow of wireless networks, meshes, patches, and connections with felt sensations. For Mackenzie, entanglements with things, gadgets, infrastructures, and services--tendencies, fleeting nuances, and peripheral shades of often barely registered feeling that cannot be easily codified, symbolized, or quantified--mark the experience of wirelessness, and this links directly to James's expanded conception of experience.

    "Wirelessness" designates a tendency to make network connections in different times and places using these devices and services. Equally, it embodies a sensibility attuned to the proliferation of devices and services that carry information through radio signals. Above all, it means heightened awareness of ongoing change and movement associated with networks, infrastructures, location, and information. The experience of wirelessness spans several strands of media-technological change, and Mackenzie moves from wireless cities through signals, devices, networks, maps, and products, to the global belief in the expansion of wireless worlds.

  • Updating to Remain the Same: Habitual New Media

    What it means when media moves from the new to the habitual--when our bodies become archives of supposedly obsolescent media, streaming, updating, sharing, saving.

    New media--we are told--exist at the bleeding edge of obsolescence. We thus forever try to catch up, updating to remain the same. Meanwhile, analytic, creative, and commercial efforts focus exclusively on the next big thing: figuring out what will spread and who will spread it the fastest. But what do we miss in this constant push to the future? In Updating to Remain the Same, Wendy Hui Kyong Chun suggests another approach, arguing that our media matter most when they seem not to matter at all--when they have moved from "new" to habitual. Smart phones, for example, no longer amaze, but they increasingly structure and monitor our lives. Through habits, Chun says, new media become embedded in our lives--indeed, we become our machines: we stream, update, capture, upload, link, save, trash, and troll.

    Chun links habits to the rise of networks as the defining concept of our era. Networks have been central to the emergence of neoliberalism, replacing "society" with groupings of individuals and connectable "YOUS." (For isn't "new media" actually "NYOU media"?) Habit is central to the inversion of privacy and publicity that drives neoliberalism and networks. Why do we view our networked devices as "personal" when they are so chatty and promiscuous? What would happen, Chun asks, if, rather than pushing for privacy that is no privacy, we demanded public rights--the right to be exposed, to take risks and to be in public and not be attacked?

  • Minitel: Welcome to the Internet

    The first scholarly book in English on Minitel, the pioneering French computer network, offers a history of a technical system and a cultural phenomenon.

    A decade before the Internet became a medium for the masses in the United States, tens of millions of users in France had access to a network for e-mail, e-commerce, chat, research, game playing, blogging, and even an early form of online porn. In 1983, the French government rolled out Minitel, a computer network that achieved widespread adoption in just a few years as the government distributed free terminals to every French telephone subscriber. With this volume, Julien Mailland and Kevin Driscoll offer the first scholarly book in English on Minitel, examining it as both a technical system and a cultural phenomenon.

    Mailland and Driscoll argue that Minitel was a technical marvel, a commercial success, and an ambitious social experiment. Other early networks may have introduced protocols and software standards that continue to be used today, but Minitel foretold the social effects of widespread telecomputing. They examine the unique balance of forces that enabled the growth of Minitel: public and private, open and closed, centralized and decentralized. Mailland and Driscoll describe Minitel's key technological components, novel online services, and thriving virtual communities. Despite the seemingly tight grip of the state, however, a lively Minitel culture emerged, characterized by spontaneity, imagination, and creativity. After three decades of continuous service, Minitel was shut down in 2012, but the history of Minitel should continue to inform our thinking about Internet policy, today and into the future.

  • Recursive Macroeconomic Theory

    The substantially revised fourth edition of a widely used text, offering both an introduction to recursive methods and advanced material, mixing tools and sample applications.

    Recursive methods provide powerful ways to pose and solve problems in dynamic macroeconomics. Recursive Macroeconomic Theory offers both an introduction to recursive methods and more advanced material. Only practice in solving diverse problems fully conveys the advantages of the recursive approach, so the book provides many applications. This fourth edition features two new chapters and substantial revisions to other chapters that demonstrate the power of recursive methods.

    One new chapter applies the recursive approach to Ramsey taxation and sharply characterizes the time inconsistency of optimal policies. These insights are used in other chapters to simplify recursive formulations of Ramsey plans and credible government policies. The second new chapter explores the mechanics of matching models and identifies a common channel through which productivity shocks are magnified across a variety of matching models. Other chapters have been extended and refined. For example, there is new material on heterogeneous beliefs in both complete and incomplete markets models; and there is a deeper account of forces that shape aggregate labor supply elasticities in lifecycle models.

    The book is suitable for first- and second-year graduate courses in macroeconomics. Most chapters conclude with exercises; many exercises and examples use Matlab or Python computer programming languages.

  • Birdsong, Speech, and Language - Exploring the Evolution of Mind and Brain

    Prominent scholars consider the cognitive and neural similarities between birdsong and human speech and language.

    Scholars have long been captivated by the parallels between birdsong and human speech and language. In this book, leading scholars draw on the latest research to explore what birdsong can tell us about the biology of human speech and language and the consequences for evolutionary biology. After outlining the basic issues involved in the study of both language and evolution, the contributors compare birdsong and language in terms of acquisition, recursion, and core structural properties, and then examine the neurobiology of song and speech, genomic factors, and the emergence and evolution of language.

    Contributors
    Hermann Ackermann, Gabriel J.L. Beckers, Robert C. Berwick, Johan J. Bolhuis, Noam Chomsky, Frank Eisner, Martin Everaert, Michale S. Fee, Olga Feher, Simon E. Fisher, W. Tecumseh Fitch, Jonathan B. Fritz, Sharon M.H. Gobes, Riny Huijbregts, Eric Jarvis, Robert Lachlan, Ann Law, Michael A. Long, Gary F. Marcus, Carolyn McGettigan, Daniel Mietchen, Richard Mooney, Sanne Moorman, Kazuo Okanoya, Christophe Pallier, Irene M. Pepperberg, Jonathan F. Prather, Franck Ramus, Eric Reuland, Constance Scharff, Sophie K. Scott, Neil Smith, Ofer Tchernichovski, Carel ten Cate, Christopher K. Thompson, Frank Wijnen, Moira Yip, Wolfram Ziegler, Willem Zuidema

  • Development and Testing of Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Models - A Review

    A review of the theoretical twists and turns in the development of the Heckscher-Ohlin model and an empirical assessment of the basic model and three related theorems.

    No names are more closely associated with modern trade theory than Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin. The basic Heckscher-Ohlin proposition, according to which a country exports factors in abundant supply and imports factors in scarce supply, is a key component of modern trade theory. In this book, Robert Baldwin traces the development of the HO model, describing the historical twists and turns that have led to the basic modern theoretical model in use today. Baldwin not only presents a clear and cohesive view of the model's evolution but also reviews the results of empirical tests its various versions. Baldwin, who published his first theoretical article on the HO model in 1948, first surveys the development of the HO model and then assesses empirical tests of its predictions. Most discussions of empirical work on HO models confine themselves to the basic theorem, but Baldwin devotes a chapter to empirical tests of three related propositions: the Stolper-Samuelson theorem; the Rybczynski theorem; and the factor price equalization theorem. He concludes that the formulation and testing of these later models have improved economists' understanding of the forces shaping international trade, but that many empirical trade economists (himself included) were so enamored of the elegant but highly unrealistic factor price equalization models developed from the insights of Heckscher and Ohlin that they have neglected investigation of other models without this relationship.

  • Driverless: Intelligent Cars and the Road Ahead

    When human drivers let intelligent software take the wheel: the beginning of a new era in personal mobility.

    "Smart, wide-ranging, [and] nontechnical." -- Los Angeles Times

    "Anyone who wants to understand what's coming must read this fascinating book." -- Martin Ford , New York Times bestselling author of Rise of the Robots

    In the year 2014, Google fired a shot heard all the way to Detroit. Google's newest driverless car had no steering wheel and no brakes. The message was clear: cars of the future will be born fully autonomous, with no human driver needed. In the coming decade, self-driving cars will hit the streets, rearranging established industries and reshaping cities, giving us new choices in where we live and how we work and play.

    In this book, Hod Lipson and Melba Kurman offer readers insight into the risks and benefits of driverless cars and a lucid and engaging explanation of the enabling technology. Recent advances in software and robotics are toppling long-standing technological barriers that for decades have confined self-driving cars to the realm of fantasy. A new kind of artificial intelligence software called deep learning gives cars rapid and accurate visual perception. Human drivers can relax and take their eyes off the road.

    When human drivers let intelligent software take the wheel, driverless cars will offer billions of people all over the world a safer, cleaner, and more convenient mode of transportation. Although the technology is nearly ready, car companies and policy makers may not be. The authors make a compelling case for why government, industry, and consumers need to work together to make the development of driverless cars our society's next "Apollo moment."

  • Les Montmorency de France Et Les Montmorency d'Irlande: Ou Précis Historique Des Démarches Faites À l'Occasion de la Reprise Du Nom de Ses Ancètres ... La Généalogie Complète Et Détaillée Des Mont

    Excerpt from Les Montmorency de France Et les Montmorency d'Irlande: Ou Precis Historique des Demarches Faites a l'Occasion de la Reprise du Nom de Ses Ancetres par la Branche de Montmorency-Marisco-Morres; Avec la Genealogie Complete Et Detaillee des Montmorency d'Irlande


    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Undercover Surrealism - Georges Bataille and DOCUMENTS

    An exploration of the unsettling collisions of art and culture in Georges Bataille's revolutionary journal and a new consideration of twentieth-century masterpieces by Picasso, Miro, Dali, and others against the canvas of their renegade times.

    In the Paris art world of the 1920s, Georges Bataille and his journal DOCUMENTS represented a dissident branch of surrealism. Bataille--poet, philosopher, writer, and self-styled enemy within surrealism--used DOCUMENTS to put art into violent confrontation with popular culture, ethnography, film, and archaeology. Undercover Surrealism, taking the visual richness of DOCUMENTS as its starting point, recovers the explosive and vital intellectual context of works by Picasso, Dali, Miro, Giacometti, and others in 1920s Paris. Featuring 180 color images and translations of original texts from DOCUMENTS accompanied by essays and shorter descriptive texts, Undercover Surrealism recreates and recontextualizes Bataille's still unsettling approach to culture. Putting Picasso's Three Dancers back into its original context of sex, sacrifice, and violence, for example, then juxtaposing it with images of gang wars, tribal masks, voodoo ritual, Hollywood musicals, and jazz, makes the urgency and excitement of Bataille's radical ideas startlingly vivid to a twenty-first-century reader. Copublished by Hayward Gallery Publishing, London

  • The Details of Modern Architecture V 2 - 1928 to 1988

    This second volume of "The Details of Modern Architecture" continues the study of the relationships of the ideals of design and the realities of construction in modern architecture, beginning in the late 1920s and extending to the present day. It contains a wealth of new information on the construction of modern architecture at a variety of scales from minute details to general principles. There are over 500 illustrations, including 130 original photographs and 230 original axonometric drawings, arranged to explain the technical, aesthetic, and historical aspects of the building form.

  • The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings Boxed Set

    Immerse yourself in Middle-earth with Tolkien's classic masterpiece, telling the complete story of Bilbo Baggins and the Hobbits' epic encounters with Gandalf, Gollum, dragons and monsters, in the quest to destroy the One Ring. When they were first published, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings became instant classics. Treasured by readers young and old, these works of sweeping fantasy, steeped in unrivalled magic and otherworldliness have sold more than 150 million copies around the world. This new boxed set, published to mark the 75th anniversary of the publication of The Hobbit, offers readers a new opportunity to discover Tolkien's remarkable world of Middle-earth and to follow the complete story of Bilbo Baggins and the Hobbits' part in the epic quest for the Ring - beginning with Bilbo's fateful visit from Gandalf and culminating in the dramatic climax between Frodo and Gollum atop Mount Doom and Bilbo's departure to the Grey Havens.

  • Art & Innovation - The Xerox PARC Artist-in- Residence Program

    The idea behind Xerox's interdisciplinary Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is simple: if you put creative people in a hothouse setting, innovation will naturally emerge. PARC's Artist-in-Residence Program (PAIR) brings artists who use new media to PARC and pairs them with researchers who often use the same media, though in different contexts. This is radically different from most corporate support of the arts, where there is little intersection between the disciplines. The result is both interesting art and new scientific innovations.Art and Innovation explores the unique process that grew from this pairing of new media artists and scientists working at the frontier of developing technologies. In addition to discussing specific works created during several long-term residencies, the artists and researchers reveal the similarities and differences in their approaches and perspectives as they engage each other in a search for new methods for communication and creativity.Contributors: Marshall Bern, David Biegelsen, Michael Black, Jeanette Blomberg, John Seely Brown, Margaret Crane, Paul De Marinis, Jeanne C. Finley, Rich Gold, Craig Harris, Steve Harrison, David Levy, Constance Lewallen, Dale MacDonald, Judy Malloy, Cathy Marshall, Scott Minneman, John Muse, Susan Newman, Joel Slayton, Lucy Suchman, Randy Trigg, Stephen Wilson, Jon Winet, Pamela Z.

  • When I Was a Photographer

    The first complete English translation of Nadar's intelligent and witty memoir, a series of vignettes that capture his experiences in the early days of photography.

    Celebrated nineteenth-century photographer--and writer, actor, caricaturist, inventor, and balloonist--Felix Nadar published this memoir of his photographic life in 1900 at the age of eighty. Composed as a series of vignettes (we might view them as a series of "written photographs"), this intelligent and witty book offers stories of Nadar's experiences in the early years of photography, memorable character sketches, and meditations on history. It is a classic work, cited by writers from Walter Benjamin to Rosalind Krauss. This is its first and only complete English translation.

    In When I Was a Photographer (Quand j'etais photographe), Nadar tells us about his descent into the sewers and catacombs of Paris, where he experimented with the use of artificial lighting, and his ascent into the skies over Paris in a hot air balloon, from which he took the first aerial photographs. He recounts his "postal photography" during the 1870-1871 Siege of Paris--an amazing scheme involving micrographic images and carrier pigeons. He describes technical innovations and important figures in photography, and offers a thoughtful consideration of society and culture; but he also writes entertainingly about such matters as Balzac's terror of being photographed, the impact of a photograph on a celebrated murder case, and the difference between male and female clients. Nadar's memoir captures, as surely as his photographs, traces of a vanished era.

  • Faster, Smarter, Greener: The Future of the Car and Urban Mobility

    A call to redefine mobility so that it is connected, heterogeneous, intelligent, and personalized, as well as sustainable, adaptable, and city-friendly.

    The twentieth century was the century of the automobile; the twenty-first will see mobility dramatically re-envisioned. Automobiles altered cityscapes, boosted economies, and made personal mobility efficient and convenient for many. We had a century-long love affair with the car. But today, people are more attached to their smartphones than their cars. Cars are not always the quickest mode of travel in cities; and emissions from the rapidly growing number of cars threaten the planet. This book, by three experts from industry and academia, envisions a new world of mobility that is connected, heterogeneous, intelligent, and personalized (the CHIP architecture).

    The authors describe the changes that are coming. City administrators are shifting from designing cities for cars to designing cities for people. Nations and cities will increasingly employ targeted user fees and offer subsidies to nudge consumers toward more sustainable modes. The sharing economy is coaxing many consumers to shift from being owners of assets to being users of services. The auto industry is responding with connected cars that double as virtual travel assistants and by introducing autonomous driving.

    The CHIP architecture embodies an integrated, multimode mobility system that builds on ubiquitous connectivity, electrified and autonomous vehicles, and a marketplace open to innovation and entrepreneurship. Consumers will exercise choice on the basis of user experience and efficiency, aided by "intelligent advisors," accessible through their mobile devices.

    An innovative mobility architecture reconfigured for this century is a social and economic necessity; this book charts a course for achieving it.

  • Aluminum Dreams - The Making of Light Modernity

    How aluminum enabled a high-speed, gravity-defying American modernity even as other parts of the world paid the price in environmental damage and political turmoil.

    Aluminum shaped the twentieth century. It enabled high-speed travel and gravity-defying flight. It was the material of a streamlined aesthetic that came to represent modernity. And it became an essential ingredient in industrial and domestic products that ranged from airplanes and cars to designer chairs and artificial Christmas trees. It entered modern homes as packaging, foil, pots and pans and even infiltrated our bodies through food, medicine, and cosmetics. In Aluminum Dreams, Mimi Sheller describes how the materiality and meaning of aluminum transformed modern life and continues to shape the world today.

    Aluminum, Sheller tells us, changed mobility and mobilized modern life. It enabled air power, the space age and moon landings. Yet, as Sheller makes clear, aluminum was important not only in twentieth-century technology, innovation, architecture, and design but also in underpinning global military power, uneven development, and crucial environmental and health concerns. Sheller describes aluminum's shiny utopia but also its dark side. The unintended consequences of aluminum's widespread use include struggles for sovereignty and resource control in Africa, India, and the Caribbean; the unleashing of multinational corporations; and the pollution of the earth through mining and smelting (and the battle to save it). Using a single material as an entry point to understanding a global history of modernization and its implications for the future, Aluminum Dreams forces us to ask: How do we assemble the material culture of modernity and what are its environmental consequences?

    Aluminum Dreams includes a generous selection of striking images of iconic aluminum designs, many in color, drawn from advertisements by Alcoa, Bohn, Kaiser, and other major corporations, pamphlets, films, and exhibitions.

  • Critical Laboratory - The Writings of Thomas Hirschhorn

    Writings by Thomas Hirschhorn, collected for the first time, trace the development of the artist's ideas and artistic strategies.

    For the artist Thomas Hirschhorn, writing is a crucial tool at every stage of his artistic practice. From the first sketch of an idea to appeals to potential collaborators, from detailed documentation of projects to post-disassembly analysis, Hirschhorn's writings mark the trajectories of his work. This volume collects Hirschhorn's widely scattered texts, presenting many in English for the first time.

    In these writings, Hirschhorn discusses the full range of his art, from works on paper to the massive Presence and Production projects in public spaces. "Statements and Letters" address broad themes of aesthetic philosophy, politics, and art historical commitments. "Projects" consider specific artworks or exhibitions. "Interviews" capture the artist in dialogue with Benjamin Buchloh, Jacques Ranciere, and others. Throughout, certain continuities emerge: Hirschhorn's commitment to quotidian materials; the centrality of political and economic thinking in his work; and his commitment to art in the public sphere. Taken together, the texts serve to trace the artist's ideas and artistic strategies over the past two decades. Critical Laboratory also reproduces, in color, 33 Ausstellungen im offentlichen Raum 1998-1989, an out-of-print catalog of Hirschhorn's earliest works in public space.

  • Tower and Office - From Modernist Theory to Contemporary Practice

    A study of the complex relationship between technological development and the conceptual basis of architectural design, from World War II to early 1990s.

    In Tower and Office, Spanish architects Inaki Abalos and Juan Herreros look at the role and impact of advanced building technologies in American architecture since World War II. The war, they claim, marked the end of the first cycle of modernism, challenging the belief that technological progress alone could produce a perpetually better future. At the same time, the war was the source of powerful new structural models and construction methods. The authors examine the ways these technologies have been inflected over the last half century by more subjective and integrated processes of spatial organization.

    In the first part of the book, Abalos and Herreros focus on the work of Le Corbusier, revealing the degree of complexity achieved in his interpretation of the modern skyscraper. In the second part, they look at the intersection of technical and cultural determinants in the design of high-rise structures since World War II. Among the issues they consider are the evolution of the load-bearing frame, the impact of high-tech systems on tall buildings, and the transparent building skin. In the third part, they address developments in office design and planning, tracing an evolution from the repetitive and homogeneous office skyscraper to the present-day mixed-use structure. Overall they demonstrate how the objective technical analysis associated with modernist architectural theory has given way in recent building practice to a variety of flexible, pragmatic, and environmental approaches. These, they suggest, have opened the way to new urban and architectural forms.

  • Lord of the Rings (en anglais)

    A selection of six poster paintings from the definitive illustrated Lord of the Rings. The 50 paintings contained within the centenary edition of The Lord of the Rings in 1992 have themselves become classics and Alan Lee's interpretations are hailed as the most faithful to Tolkien's own vision. This new poster collection reproduces six of the most popular paintings from the book in a format suitable either for hanging as posters or mounting and framing.

  • A Second Modernism - MIT, Architecture, and the `Techno-Social` Moment

    An account of architecture's postwar ambition to transform itself into a research-oriented and technologically complex discipline of design expertise.

    After World War II, a second modernism emerged in architecture--an attempt, in architectural scholar Joan Ockman's words, "to transform architecture from a 'soft' aesthetic discipline into a 'hard, ' objectively verifiable field of design expertise." Architectural thought was influenced by linguistic, behavioral, computational, mediatic, cybernetic, and other urban and behavioral models, as well as systems-based and artificial intelligence theories. This nearly 1,000-page book examines the "techno-social" turn in architecture, taking MIT's School of Architecture and Planning as its exemplar.

    In essays and interviews, prominent architectural historians and educators examine the postwar "research-industrial" complex, its attendant cult of expertise, and its influence on life and letters both in America and abroad. Paying particular attention to the ways that technological thought affected the culture of the humanities, the social sciences, and architectural design, the book traces this shift toward complexity as it unfolded, from classroom practices to committee deliberations, from the challenges of research to the vicissitudes of funding. Looking closely at the ways that funded research drew academics towards a "problem-solving" and relevance-seeking mentality and away from the imported Bauhaus model of intuition and aesthetics, the book reveals how linguistics, information sciences, operations research, computer technology, and systems theory became part of architecture's expanded toolkit.

    This is a history not just of a school of architecture but of the research-oriented era itself. It offers a thoroughgoing exploration of the ways that policies, politics, and pedagogy transformed themselves in accord with the exponential growth of institutional power.

  • Carbon Capture and Storage: Efficient Legal Policies for Risk Governance and Compensation

    A theoretical and practical analysis of the complex liability issues raised by carbon capture and storage systems for containing greenhouse gases.

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems inject highly compressed carbon dioxide gas deep into geological formations in order to contain the gas, and its harmful effects on the planet, for the foreseeable future and beyond--for centuries or even millennia. Used effectively, CCS could lessen the impact of climate change while carbon-free energy sources are developed. And yet CCS is not widely deployed. In this book, Michael Faure and Roy Partain offer a theoretical and practical discussion of one of the main obstacles to CCS adoption: complex liability and compensation issues.

    Faure and Partain point out that current liability rules are unclear in their application to CCS. Causation is complicated, and the timeline of hundreds of years goes beyond the lifetimes of people or corporations. Examining the subject from legal and economic perspectives, they consider whether rules of civil liability can govern CCS risk; how a liability system might address the open-ended timeline; what role public and private regulatory measures could play; and whether compensation should be provided from public or private resources. They investigate the utility of different forms of insurance and of such financial tools as guarantees, deposits, and catastrophe bonds. They offer not only a rigorous framework for assessing policy but also a summary of policy recommendations they develop from their findings.

  • Marketing the Moon - The Selling of the Apollo Lunar Program

    In July 1969, ninety-four percent of American televisions were tuned to coverage of Apollo 11's mission to the moon. How did space exploration, once the purview of rocket scientists, reach a larger audience than My Three Sons? Why did a government program whose standard operating procedure had been secrecy turn its greatest achievement into a communal experience? In Marketing the Moon, David Meerman Scott and Richard Jurek tell the story of one of the most successful marketing and public relations campaigns in history: the selling of the Apollo program. Primed by science fiction, magazine articles, and appearances by Wernher von Braun on the "Tomorrowland" segments of the Disneyland prime time television show, Americans were a receptive audience for NASA's pioneering "brand journalism." Scott and Jurek describe sophisticated efforts by NASA and its many contractors to market the facts about space travel -- through press releases, bylined articles, lavishly detailed background materials, and fully produced radio and television features -- rather than push an agenda. American astronauts, who signed exclusive agreements with Life magazine, became the heroic and patriotic faces of the program. And there was some judicious product placement: Hasselblad was the "first camera on the moon"; Sony cassette recorders and supplies of Tang were on board the capsule; and astronauts were equipped with the Exer-Genie personal exerciser. Everyone wanted a place on the bandwagon. Generously illustrated with vintage photographs, artwork, and advertisements, many never published before, Marketing the Moon shows that when Neil Armstrong took that giant leap for mankind, it was a triumph not just for American engineering and rocketry but for American marketing and public relations.

  • Circuit Design and Simulation with VHDL 2ed

    A presentation of circuit synthesis and circuit simulation using VHDL (including VHDL 2008), with an emphasis on design examples and laboratory exercises.

    This text offers a comprehensive treatment of VHDL and its applications to the design and simulation of real, industry-standard circuits. It focuses on the use of VHDL rather than solely on the language, showing why and how certain types of circuits are inferred from the language constructs and how any of the four simulation categories can be implemented. It makes a rigorous distinction between VHDL for synthesis and VHDL for simulation. The VHDL codes in all design examples are complete, and circuit diagrams, physical synthesis in FPGAs, simulation results, and explanatory comments are included with the designs. The text reviews fundamental concepts of digital electronics and design and includes a series of appendixes that offer tutorials on important design tools including ISE, Quartus II, and ModelSim, as well as descriptions of programmable logic devices in which the designs are implemented, the DE2 development board, standard VHDL packages, and other features. All four VHDL editions (1987, 1993, 2002, and 2008) are covered.

    This expanded second edition is the first textbook on VHDL to include a detailed analysis of circuit simulation with VHDL testbenches in all four categories (nonautomated, fully automated, functional, and timing simulations), accompanied by complete practical examples. Chapters 1-9 have been updated, with new design examples and new details on such topics as data types and code statements. Chapter 10 is entirely new and deals exclusively with simulation. Chapters 11-17 are also entirely new, presenting extended and advanced designs with theoretical and practical coverage of serial data communications circuits, video circuits, and other topics. There are many more illustrations, and the exercises have been updated and their number more than doubled.

  • Truly Human Enhancement - A Philosophical Defense of Limits

    A nuanced discussion of human enhancement that argues for enhancement that does not significantly exceed what is currently possible for human beings.

    The transformative potential of genetic and cybernetic technologies to enhance human capabilities is most often either rejected on moral and prudential grounds or hailed as the future salvation of humanity. In this book, Nicholas Agar offers a more nuanced view, making a case for moderate human enhancement--improvements to attributes and abilities that do not significantly exceed what is currently possible for human beings. He argues against radical human enhancement, or improvements that greatly exceed current human capabilities.

    Agar explores notions of transformative change and motives for human enhancement; distinguishes between the instrumental and intrinsic value of enhancements; argues that too much enhancement undermines human identity; considers the possibility of cognitively enhanced scientists; and argues against radical life extension. Making the case for moderate enhancement, Agar argues that many objections to enhancement are better understood as directed at the degree of enhancement rather than enhancement itself. Moderate human enhancement meets the requirement of truly human enhancement. By radically enhancing human cognitive capabilities, by contrast, we may inadvertently create beings ("post-persons") with moral status higher than that of persons. If we create beings more entitled to benefits and protections against harms than persons, Agar writes, this will be bad news for the unenhanced. Moderate human enhancement offers a more appealing vision of the future and of our relationship to technology.

  • Bulletin Historique Et Littéraire, 1896, Vol. 45 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Bulletin Historique Et Litteraire, 1896, Vol. 45

    Mais, a quoi bon insister? A quoi bon nous demander ce que nous gagnons a voir un litterateur tel que M. Brune tiere refuser de rendre hommage a la verite, lorsqu'il s'agit de Calvin? Ne voit - ou pas clairement ce que gagnent ceux qui, a l'heure actuelle, inspirent la violente campagne de presse dirigee contre la Reforme et contre les protestants?

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Shaping of Middle-earth

    The fourth volume that contains the early myths and legends which led to the writing of Tolkien's epic tale of war, The Silmarillion. In this fourth volume of The History of Middle-earth, the shaping of the chronological and geographical structure of the legends of Middle-earth and Valinor is spread before us. We are introduced to the hitherto unknown Ambarkanta or "Shape of the World", the only account ever given of the nature of the imagined Universe, ccompanied by maps and diagrams of the world before and after the cataclyusms of The War of the Gods and the Downfall of Numenor. The first map of Beleriend is also reproduced and discussed. In The Annals of Valinor and The Annals of Beleriend we are shown how the chronology of the First Age was moulded: and the tale is told of Aelfwine, the Englishman who voyaged into the True West and came to Tol Eressea, Lonely Isle, where he learned the ancient history of Elves and Men. Also included are the original 'Silmarillion' of 1926, and the Quenta Noldorinwa of 1930 - the only version of the myths and legends of the First Age that J R R Tolkien completed to their end.

  • Histoire de la Peinture en Italie, Depuis la Renaissance des Beaux-Arts, Jusques Vers la Fin du Xviiie Siècle, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Histoire de la Peinture en Italie, Depuis la Renaissance des Beaux-Arts, Jusques Vers la Fin du Xviiie Siecle, Vol. 1

    Notre auteur a releve avec beaucoup de sagacite les erreurs historiques de plusieurs ecrivains qui l'avaient precede dans. La meme carriere. Un des morceaux les plus piquants de ce genre est celui ou il refute Baldz'nucci, qui avait imagine de prou ver par la metaphore ridicule d'un arbre genealo gique que tous les peintres de l'italie et du monde) sortaient-de l'ecole de Cz'mabue, ou descendaient de ses eleves. En prenant le ton de la critique... Lanzi s'anime et son langage loin de-'tomber dans cette prolixite trainante que l'on reproche aux pro sateurs italiens, se retranche dans une, logique serree qui semble ne laisser de place a aucune ob jection. C'est toujours de cette maniere judicieuse et savante qu'il combat les suppositions hasardees de ses predecesseurs: Il n'en apas moins parle avec la plus genereuse impartialite, du merite des au teurs qui ont ecrit sur la meme matiere.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Stuff of Bits : An Essay on the Materialities of Information

    An argument that the material arrangements of information--how it is represented and interpreted--matter significantly for our experience of information and information systems.

    Virtual entities that populate our digital experience, like e-books, virtual worlds, and online stores, are backed by the large-scale physical infrastructures of server farms, fiber optic cables, power plants, and microwave links. But another domain of material constraints also shapes digital living: the digital representations sketched on whiteboards, encoded into software, stored in databases, loaded into computer memory, and transmitted on networks. These digital representations encode aspects of our everyday world and make them available for digital processing. The limits and capacities of those representations carry significant consequences for digital society.

    In The Stuff of Bits, Paul Dourish examines the specific materialities that certain digital objects exhibit. He presents four case studies: emulation, the creation of a "virtual" computer inside another; digital spreadsheets and their role in organizational practice; relational databases and the issue of "the databaseable"; and the evolution of digital networking and the representational entailments of network protocols. These case studies demonstrate how a materialist account can offer an entry point to broader concerns--questions of power, policy, and polity in the realm of the digital.

  • Frontiers in Health Policy Research V 3

    This series presents economic research on health care and health policy issues. The papers are written primarily for a policy audience. Each volume contains approximately five papers from an annual conference held in Washington, D.C. Topics covered include the effects of health policy reforms, changes in health care organization and management, measurement of health outcomes, health care output and productivity, the role of health-related behavior, health and aging, health and children, and health care financing.

    ContributorsLaurence C. Baker, David M. Cutler, Matthew Eichner, Mark McClellan, Ellen Meara, Jonathan S. Skinner, Douglas O. Staiger, John E. Wennberg, David A. Wise

  • Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction

    The significantly expanded and updated new edition of a widely used text on reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence.

    Reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence, is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives while interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. In Reinforcement Learning, Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the field's key ideas and algorithms. This second edition has been significantly expanded and updated, presenting new topics and updating coverage of other topics.

    Like the first edition, this second edition focuses on core online learning algorithms, with the more mathematical material set off in shaded boxes. Part I covers as much of reinforcement learning as possible without going beyond the tabular case for which exact solutions can be found. Many algorithms presented in this part are new to the second edition, including UCB, Expected Sarsa, and Double Learning. Part II extends these ideas to function approximation, with new sections on such topics as artificial neural networks and the Fourier basis, and offers expanded treatment of off-policy learning and policy-gradient methods. Part III has new chapters on reinforcement learning's relationships to psychology and neuroscience, as well as an updated case-studies chapter including AlphaGo and AlphaGo Zero, Atari game playing, and IBM Watson's wagering strategy. The final chapter discusses the future societal impacts of reinforcement learning.

  • Chasing Men on Fire: The Story of the Search for a Pain Gene

    A thirty-year quest, from genes to pain-signaling neurons to people with a rare genetic disorder that makes them feel they are on fire.

    Two soldiers, both with wounds injuring the same nerve, show very different responses: one is disabled by neuropathic pain, unable to touch the injured limb because even the lightest contact triggers excruciating discomfort; the other notices numbness but no pain at all. Could the difference lie in their genes? In this book, described in the foreword by Nobel Laureate James Rothman as "so well written that it reads like a detective novel," Stephen Waxman recounts the search for a gene that controls pain--a search spanning more than thirty years and three continents.

    The story moves from genes to pain-signaling neurons that scream when they should be silent to people with a rare genetic disorder who feel they are on fire. Waxman explains that if pain-signaling neurons are injured by trauma or disease, they can become hyperactive and send pain signals to the brain even without external stimulus. Studying the hyperactive mutant pain gene in man on fire syndrome has pointed the way to molecules that produce pain more broadly within the general population, in the rest of us. Waxman's account of the many steps that led to discovery of the pain gene tells the story behind the science, of how science happens.

  • Histoire de la Langue Roumaine, Vol. 2: Le Seizième Siècle (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Histoire de la Langue Roumaine, Vol. 2: Le Seizieme Siecle

    Pour des raisons faciles a concevoir, le nombre des docu ments ecrits en roumain au xv1? siecle n'est pas bien conside rable; ils constituent neanmoins un element important pour 'etude de la langue. Il s'en faut cependant que tous ces docu ments soient d'une valeur egale; la plupart d'entre eux sont ecrits en un roumain barbare; ils trahissent les efforts qu'on faisait pour rendre par ecrit les mots dela langue parlee; la phonetique est parfois tellement alteree qu'il faut deviner les mots qu'on avait voulu ecrire; toutefois, il n'est pas impos sible d'y puiser des renseignements des plus precieux, puisque ce n'est que grace a eux qu'on peut mieux connaitre les parti cularites linguistiques propres a telle ou telle region; c'est aussi avec leur aide qu'on arrive a se faire une idee de ce qu'etait la syntaxe du xv1? siecle, les textes religieux offrant moins d'in teret a ce point de vue par le fait qu'ils reproduisent le plus souvent la syntaxe des modeles etrangers.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Fundamentals of Building Energy Dynamics

    "Fundamentals of Building Energy Dynamics" assesses how and why buildings use energy, and how energy use and peak demand can be reduced. It provides a basis for integrating energy efficiency and solar approaches in ways that will allow building owners and designers to balance the need to minimize initial costs, operating costs, and life-cycle costs with need to maintain reliable building operations and enhance environmental quality both inside and outside the building. Chapters trace the development of building energy systems and analyze the demand side of solar applications as a means for determining what portion of a building's energy requirements can potentially be met by solar energy.

  • The Last Art College - Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 1968-1978

    The long-awaited history of the art college that became an unlikely epicenter of the art world in the 1960s and 1970s.

    How did a small art college in Nova Scotia become the epicenter of art education--and to a large extent of the postmimimalist and conceptual art world itself--in the 1960s and 1970s? Like the unorthodox experiments and rich human resources that made Black Mountain College an improbable center of art a generation earlier, the activities and artists at Nova Scotia College of Art and Design (aka NSCAD) in the 1970s redefined the means and methods of art education and the shape of art far beyond Halifax.

    A partial list of visiting artists and faculty members at NSCAD would include Joseph Beuys, Sol LeWitt, Gerhard Richter, Dan Graham, Mel Bochner, Lucy Lippard, John Baldessari, Hans Haacke, Yvonne Rainer, Robert Frank, Jenny Holzer, Robert Morris, Eric Fischl, and Dara Birnbaum. Kasper Koenig and Benjamin Buchloh ran the NSCAD Press, publishing books by Hollis Frampton, Lawrence Weiner, Donald Judd, Daniel Buren, Michael Asher, Martha Rosler, and Michael Snow, among others. The Lithography Workshop produced early works by many of today's masters, including John Baldessari, Vito Acconci, and Claes Oldenburg. With The Last Art College, Garry Kennedy, the college's visionary president at the time, gives us the long-awaited documentary history of NSCAD during a formative era.

    From gallery openings to dance performances to visiting lectures to exhibitions to classroom projects, the book gives a rich historical and visual account of the school's activities, supplemented by details of specific events, reminiscences by faculty and students, accounts of artists' talks, and notes on memorable controversies.

  • La Vie Des Peintres Flamands, Allemands Et Hollandois, Vol. 3: Avec Des Portraits, Gravés En Taille-Donce, Une Indication de Leurs Principaux ... Leurs Différentes Manieres (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Vie des Peintres Flamands, Allemands Et Hollandois, Vol. 3: Avec des Portraits, Graves en Taille-Donce, une Indication de Leurs Principaux Ouvrages, Et des Reflexions sur Leurs Differentes Manieres

    Par M'. S Peintre Membre de l'academze epeaiGBP nacaGBPn E c de celle des Sciences, Belles - Lettres et Arts de Rouen et Professeur de l'ecole du Dessdn de la meme V ille.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Essentials of Programming Languages 3e (OIP)

    A new edition of a textbook that provides students with a deep, working understanding of the essential concepts of programming languages, completely revised, with significant new material.

    This book provides students with a deep, working understanding of the essential concepts of programming languages. Most of these essentials relate to the semantics, or meaning, of program elements, and the text uses interpreters (short programs that directly analyze an abstract representation of the program text) to express the semantics of many essential language elements in a way that is both clear and executable. The approach is both analytical and hands-on. The book provides views of programming languages using widely varying levels of abstraction, maintaining a clear connection between the high-level and low-level views. Exercises are a vital part of the text and are scattered throughout; the text explains the key concepts, and the exercises explore alternative designs and other issues. The complete Scheme code for all the interpreters and analyzers in the book can be found online through The MIT Press web site. For this new edition, each chapter has been revised and many new exercises have been added. Significant additions have been made to the text, including completely new chapters on modules and continuation-passing style. Essentials of Programming Languages can be used for both graduate and undergraduate courses, and for continuing education courses for programmers.

  • The "Public" Life of Photographs

    An exploration of the relationship between how photographs are made available to the public and how they are received and understood.

    Do we understand a photograph differently if we encounter it in a newspaper rather than a book? In a photo album as opposed to framed on a museum wall? The "Public" Life of Photographs explores how the various ways that photographs have been made available to the public have influenced their reception. The reproducibility of photography has been the necessary tool in the creation of a mass visual culture. This generously illustrated book explores historical instances of the "public" life of photographic images--tracing the steps from the creation of photographs to their reception.

    The contributors--international curators and scholars from a range of disciplines--examine the emergence of photography as mass culture: through studios and public spaces; by the press; through editorial strategies promoting popular and vernacular photography; and through the dissemination of photographic images in the art world. The contributing authors discuss such topics as how photographic images became objects of appropriation and collection; the faith in photographic truthfulness; Life magazine's traveling exhibitions and their effect on the magazine's "media hegemony"; and the curatorial challenges of making vernacular photographs accessible in an artistic environment.

    The "Public" Life of Photographs is the first volume in a series called RIC Books, which is copublished by MIT Press and the Ryerson Image Centre (RIC). The RIC, located at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada, is a museum dedicated to the exhibition, research, study and teaching of photography and related disciplines.


    Contributors
    Geoffrey Batchen, Nathalie Boulouch, Heather Diack, Andre Gunthert, Sophie Hackett, Vincent Lavoie, Olivier Lugon, Mary Panzer, Joel Snyder

  • The Unreliable Nation: Hostile Nature and Technological Failure in the Cold War

    An examination of how technological failures defined nature and national identity in Cold War Canada.

    Throughout the modern period, nations defined themselves through the relationship between nature and machines. Many cast themselves as a triumph of technology over the forces of climate, geography, and environment. Some, however, crafted a powerful alternative identity: they defined themselves not through the triumph of machines over nature, but through technological failures and the distinctive natural orders that caused them. In The Unreliable Nation, Edward Jones-Imhotep examines one instance in this larger history: the Cold War-era project to extend reliable radio communications to the remote and strategically sensitive Canadian North. He argues that, particularly at moments when countries viewed themselves as marginal or threatened, the identity of the modern nation emerged as a scientifically articulated relationship between distinctive natural phenomena and the problematic behaviors of complex groups of machines.

    Drawing on previously unpublished archival documents and recently declassified materials, Jones-Imhotep shows how Canadian defense scientists elaborated a distinctive "Northern" natural order of violent ionospheric storms and auroral displays, and linked it to a "machinic order" of severe and widespread radio disruptions throughout the country. Tracking their efforts through scientific images, experimental satellites, clandestine maps, and machine architectures, he argues that these scientists naturalized Canada's technological vulnerabilities as part of a program to reimagine the postwar nation. The real and potential failures of machines came to define Canada, its hostile Northern nature, its cultural anxieties, and its geo-political vulnerabilities during the early Cold War. Jones-Imhotep's study illustrates the surprising role of technological failures in shaping contemporary understandings of both nature and nation.

  • Géographie Sociale: La Mer, Populations Maritimes, Migrations, Pèches, Commerce, Domination de la Mer (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Geographie Sociale: La Mer, Populations Maritimes, Migrations, Peches, Commerce, Domination de la Mer

    I. La mer et les peuples maritimes. Definition de l'oecoumene maritime proprement dit. 3. Definition des migrations par voie de mer. 4. Definition des faisceaux de circulation. 5. Me thode generale d'exposition.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Glossaire Du Patois de Blonay (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Glossaire du Patois de Blonay

    Helas Mne Odin n'aura pas eu la supreme satisfaction de voir son oeuvre ache vee. Dans sa modestie et son desinteressement, elle n'a jamais songe a tirer de son long et patient effort le moindre avantage, ni pour elle-meme, ni pour les siens. Mais elle meritait de vivre assez pour jouir de l'estime et de la reconnaissance de ses concitoyens et du monde savant. Sa vie simple, digne, laborieuse, devouee, etait un exemple de vertu. Au terme d'une collaboration prolongee au dela de la mort par la confiance de Mme Odin et de ses heritiers, je rends a sa memoire l'hommage emu de mes regrets affectueux, de mon admiration et de mon profond respect.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Yorkshire Type Ammonites, Vol. 2: The Original Descriptions Reprinted, and Illustrated by Figures of the Types, Reproduced from Photographs Mainly by J. W. Tutcher (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Yorkshire Type Ammonites, Vol. 2: The Original Descriptions Reprinted, and Illustrated by Figures of the Types, Reproduced From Photographs Mainly by J. W. Tutcher

    In 1903 (quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. LIX, 461) some of these terms were expanded by the use of per and sab into six series of percentages of a base-line, the radius 100 (see also Mon. I. O. Amm., 1905, p. Cxcvii).

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • L'Acropole d'Athènes, Vol. 2 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from L'Acropole d'Athenes, Vol. 2

    C'est le seul temoignage de l'antiquite qui nous apprenne l'existence d'un ancien Parthenon. Ainsi avertis, pouvons-nous en retrouver les restes?

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Boundary Objects and Beyond - Working with Leigh Star

    The multifaceted work of the late Susan Leigh Star is explored through a selection of her writings and essays by friends and colleagues.

    Susan Leigh Star (1954-2010) was one of the most influential science studies scholars of the last several decades. In her work, Star highlighted the messy practices of discovering science, asking hard questions about the marginalizing as well as the liberating powers of science and technology. In the landmark work Sorting Things Out, Star and Geoffrey Bowker revealed the social and ethical histories that are deeply embedded in classification systems. Star's most celebrated concept was the notion of boundary objects: representational forms--things or theories--that can be shared between different communities, with each holding its own understanding of the representation.

    Unfortunately, Leigh was unable to complete a work on the poetics of infrastructure that further developed the full range of her work. This volume collects articles by Star that set out some of her thinking on boundary objects, marginality, and infrastructure, together with essays by friends and colleagues from a range of disciplines--from philosophy of science to organization science--that testify to the wide-ranging influence of Star's work.

    Contributors
    Ellen Balka, Eevi E. Beck, Dick Boland, Geoffrey C. Bowker, Janet Ceja Alcala, Adele E. Clarke, Les Gasser, James R. Griesemer, Gail Hornstein, John Leslie King, Cheris Kramarae, Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, Karen Ruhleder, Kjeld Schmidt, Brian Cantwell Smith, Susan Leigh Star, Anselm L. Strauss, Jane Summerton, Stefan Timmermans, Helen Verran, Nina Wakeford, Jutta Weber

  • Works of Game - On the Aesthetics of Games and Art

    An exploration of the relationship between games and art that examines the ways that both gamemakers and artists create game-based artworks.

    Games and art have intersected at least since the early twentieth century, as can be seen in the Surrealists' use of Exquisite Corpse and other games, Duchamp's obsession with Chess, and Fluxus event scores and boxes--to name just a few examples. Over the past fifteen years, the synthesis of art and games has clouded for both artists and gamemakers. Contemporary art has drawn on the tool set of videogames, but has not considered them a cultural form with its own conceptual, formal, and experiential affordances. For their part, game developers and players focus on the innate properties of games and the experiences they provide, giving little attention to what it means to create and evaluate fine art. In Works of Game, John Sharp bridges this gap, offering a formal aesthetics of games that encompasses the commonalities and the differences between games and art.

    Sharp describes three communities of practice and offers case studies for each. "Game Art," which includes such artists as Julian Oliver, Cory Arcangel, and JODI (Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmans) treats videogames as a form of popular culture from which can be borrowed subject matter, tools, and processes. "Artgames," created by gamemakers including Jason Rohrer, Brenda Romero, and Jonathan Blow, explore territory usually occupied by poetry, painting, literature, or film. Finally, "Artists' Games"--with artists including Blast Theory, Mary Flanagan, and the collaboration of Nathalie Pozzi and Eric Zimmerman--represents a more synthetic conception of games as an artistic medium. The work of these gamemakers, Sharp suggests, shows that it is possible to create game-based artworks that satisfy the aesthetic and critical values of both the contemporary art and game communities.

  • Traité de Versification Française: Où Sont Exposées Les Variations Successives Des Règles de Notre Poésie Et Les Fonctions de l'Accent Tonique Dans Le Vers Français (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traite de Versification Francaise: Ou Sont Exposees les Variations Successives des Regles de Notre Poesie Et les Fonctions de l'Accent Tonique dans le Vers Francais

    La versification frdqcais'e fut bcrnee d'abord a un petit nombre de regles, qui se multiplierent a me'sure que la langue devint plus polie et le sentiment de l'harmonie plu_s delicat. J' ai suivi pas a pas ces differentes phases, depuis les premiers essais de notre poesie. On verra toutes les modifications qu elle a subies sous le apport de la quantite syllabique, de la rime, de la cesure, etc. On verra les chan gemente qui ont au lieu dans la prononciation, et combien la poesie eclaue cette intereoeante question de grammaire. On verra comment nos vie'ux poetes ont groupe les vers, a quelles epoques remontent nos stances modernes, quels types anciens ont ete abandonnes, a mesure que l 'oreille: devenait plus exigeante. J' si souvent rapproche la poesie francaise de ses deux soeurs, la poesie/provencale eti' italienne.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Plastic Water - The Social and Material Life of Bottled Water

    How and why branded bottles of water have insinuated themselves into our daily lives, and what the implications are for safe urban water supplies.

    How did branded bottles of water insinuate themselves into our daily lives? Why did water become an economic good--no longer a common resource but a commercial product, in industry parlance a "fast moving consumer good," or FMCG? Plastic Water examines the processes behind this transformation. It goes beyond the usual political and environmental critiques of bottled water to investigate its multiplicity, examining a bottle of water's simultaneous existence as, among other things, a product, personal health resource, object of boycotts, and part of accumulating waste matter. Throughout, the book focuses on the ontological dimensions of drinking bottled water--the ways in which this habit enacts new relations and meanings that may interfere with other drinking water practices.

    The book considers the assemblage and emergence of a mass market for water, from the invention of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle in 1973 to the development of "hydration science" that accompanied the rise of jogging in the United States. It looks at what bottles do in the world, tracing drinking and disposal practices in three Asian cities with unreliable access to safe water: Bangkok, Chennai, and Hanoi. And it considers the possibility of ethical drinking, examining campaigns to "say no" to the bottle and promote the consumption of tap water in Canada, the United States, and Australia.

  • Fighting Corruption Is Dangerous: The Story Behind the Headlines

    A frontline account of how to fight corruption, from Nigeria's former finance minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala.

    In Fighting Corruption Is Dangerous, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala has written a primer for those working to root out corruption and disrupt vested interests. Drawing on her experience as Nigeria's finance minister and that of her team, she describes dangers, pitfalls, and successes in fighting corruption. She provides practical lessons learned and tells how anti-corruption advocates need to equip themselves. Okonjo-Iweala details the numerous ways in which corruption can divert resources away from development, rewarding the unscrupulous and depriving poor people of services.

    Okonjo-Iweala discovered just how dangerous fighting corruption could be when her 83-year-old mother was kidnapped in 2012 by forces who objected to some of the government's efforts at reforms led by Okonjo-Iweala--in particular a crackdown on fraudulent claims for oil subsidy payments, a huge drain on the country's finances. The kidnappers' first demand was that Okonjo-Iweala resign from her position on live television and leave the country. Okonjo-Iweala did not resign, her mother escaped, and the program of economic reforms continued. "Telling my story is risky," Okonjo-Iweala writes. "But not telling it is also dangerous." Her book ultimately leaves us with hope, showing that victories are possible in the fight against corruption.

  • Past Futures - Science Fiction, Space Travel, and Postwar Art of the Americas

    A sumptuously illustrated exploration of themes from science fiction and space travel, as imagined by artists across the Americas from the 1940s to the 1970s.

    From the 1940s to the 1970s, visionary artists from across the Americas reimagined themes from science fiction and space travel. They mapped extraterrestrial terrain, created dystopian scenarios amid fears of nuclear annihilation, and ingeniously deployed scientific and technological subjects and motifs. This book offers a sumptuously illustrated exploration of how artists from the United States and Latin America visualized the future. Inspired variously by the "golden age" of science fiction, the Cold War, the space race, and the counterculture, these artists expressed both optimism and pessimism about humanity's prospects.

    Past Futures showcases work by more than a dozen artists, including the biomorphic cosmic spaces and hybrid alien-totemic figures painted by the Chilean artist Roberto Matta (1911-2002); the utopian Hydrospatial City envisioned by Argentine Gyula Kosice (1924-); and Incidents of Mirror-Travel in the Yucatan, in which Robert Smithson (1938-1973) layered tropes of time travel atop Mayan ruins. The artists respond to science fiction in film and literature and the media coverage of the space race; link myths of Europeans' first encounters with the New World to contemporary space exploration; and project futures both idealized and dystopian.

    The book, which accompanies an exhibition at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, also includes an essay by the editor and curator mapping central themes; an exploration of how Latin American artists have depicted astronomic phenomena, utopian projects, and the modern machine; an essay on space-age art in Argentina during the 1960s; and a study of Smithson and science fiction.

    Essays
    Sarah Montross, Rodrigo Alonso, Rory O'Dea, Miguel Angel Fernandez Delgado, Candice Lin

    Artists include
    Rudy Ayoroa, Luis Benedit, Marcelo Bonevardi, Enrique Careaga, Enrique Castro-Cid, Vija Celmins, Carlos Colombino, Juan Downey, Fred Eversley, Mario Gallardo, Dan Graham, Nancy Graves, Raquel Forner, Peter Hutchinson, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Gyula Kosice, Roberto Matta, Emilio Renart, Robert Smithson, Michelle Stuart, Rufino Tamayo, Horacio Zabala

  • Les Chats: Histoire, Moeurs, Observations, Anecdotes (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Chats: Histoire, Moeurs, Observations, Anecdotes

    Comme tous. - les etres qui provoquent les caresses, qui en donnent en recoivent comme les femmes, si le chat a ete beaucoup aime par les uns, il ne lui a pas ete par donne par les autres, surtout par les meta phy51c1ens.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • A Play of Bodies: How We Perceive Videogames

    An investigation of the embodied engagement between the playing body and the videogame: how player and game incorporate each other.

    Our bodies engage with videogames in complex and fascinating ways. Through an entanglement of eyes-on-screens, ears-at-speakers, and muscles-against-interfaces, we experience games with our senses. But, as Brendan Keogh argues in A Play of Bodies, this corporal engagement goes both ways; as we touch the videogame, it touches back, augmenting the very senses with which we perceive. Keogh investigates this merging of actual and virtual bodies and worlds, asking how our embodied sense of perception constitutes, and becomes constituted by, the phenomenon of videogame play. In short, how do we perceive videogames?

    Keogh works toward formulating a phenomenology of videogame experience, focusing on what happens in the embodied engagement between the playing body and the videogame, and anchoring his analysis in an eclectic series of games that range from mainstream to niche titles. Considering smartphone videogames, he proposes a notion of co-attentiveness to understand how players can feel present in a virtual world without forgetting that they are touching a screen in the actual world. He discusses the somatic basis of videogame play, whether games involve vigorous physical movement or quietly sitting on a couch with a controller; the sometimes overlooked visual and audible pleasures of videogame experience; and modes of temporality represented by character death, failure, and repetition. Finally, he considers two metaphorical characters: the "hacker," representing the hegemonic, masculine gamers concerned with control and configuration; and the "cyborg," less concerned with control than with embodiment and incorporation.

  • Flash - Building the Interactive Web

    How Flash rose and fell as the world's most ubiquitous yet divisive software platform, enabling the development and distribution of a world of creative content.

    Adobe Flash began as a simple animation tool and grew into a multimedia platform that offered a generation of creators and innovators an astonishing range of opportunities to develop and distribute new kinds of digital content. For the better part of a decade, Flash was the de facto standard for dynamic online media, empowering amateur and professional developers to shape the future of the interactive Web. In this book, Anastasia Salter and John Murray trace the evolution of Flash into one of the engines of participatory culture.

    Salter and Murray investigate Flash as both a fundamental force that shaped perceptions of the web and a key technology that enabled innovative interactive experiences and new forms of gaming. They examine a series of works that exemplify Flash's role in shaping the experience and expectations of web multimedia. Topics include Flash as a platform for developing animation (and the "Flashimation" aesthetic); its capacities for scripting and interactive design; games and genres enabled by the reconstruction of the browser as a games portal; forms and genres of media art that use Flash; and Flash's stance on openness and standards--including its platform-defining battle over the ability to participate in Apple's own proprietary platforms.

    Flash's exit from the mobile environment in 2011 led some to declare that Flash was dead. But, as Salter and Murray show, not only does Flash live, but its role as a definitive cross-platform tool continues to influence web experience.

  • The Science of Managing Our Digital Stuff

    Why we organize our personal digital data the way we do and how design of new PIM systems can help us manage our information more efficiently.

    Each of us has an ever-growing collection of personal digital data: documents, photographs, PowerPoint presentations, videos, music, emails and texts sent and received. To access any of this, we have to find it. The ease (or difficulty) of finding something depends on how we organize our digital stuff. In this book, personal information management (PIM) experts Ofer Bergman and Steve Whittaker explain why we organize our personal digital data the way we do and how the design of new PIM systems can help us manage our collections more efficiently.

    Bergman and Whittaker report that many of us use hierarchical folders for our personal digital organizing. Critics of this method point out that information is hidden from sight in folders that are often within other folders so that we have to remember the exact location of information to access it. Because of this, information scientists suggest other methods: search, more flexible than navigating folders; tags, which allow multiple categorizations; and group information management. Yet Bergman and Whittaker have found in their pioneering PIM research that these other methods that work best for public information management don't work as well for personal information management.

    Bergman and Whittaker describe personal information collection as curation: we preserve and organize this data to ensure our future access to it. Unlike other information management fields, in PIM the same user organizes and retrieves the information. After explaining the cognitive and psychological reasons that so many prefer folders, Bergman and Whittaker propose the user-subjective approach to PIM, which does not replace folder hierarchies but exploits these unique characteristics of PIM.

  • Abrégé Du Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, d'Après La Première Édition Publiée En 1835, Vol. 2: Contenant Tous Les Mots Et Définitions Donnés Par ... Consacrés Par l'Usage; Les Étymologies;

    Excerpt from Abrege du Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, d'Apres la Premiere Edition Publiee en 1835, Vol. 2: Contenant Tous les Mots Et Definitions Donnes par l'Academie; Un Certain Nombre de Mots Nouveaux Consacres par l'Usage; Les Etymologies; Les Principes de Grammaire Francaise; Extraits du Dictionnaire de l'Academie

    Iconographie. S. F. Description des images, des tableaux, etc. La connaissance des monuments antiques, tels que les bustes, les peintures, etc.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Liquid Power - Contested Hydro-Modernities in Twentieth-Century Spain

    An examination of the central role of water politics and engineering in Spain's modernization, illustrating water's part in forging, maintaining, and transforming social power.

    In this book, Erik Swyngedouw explores how water becomes part of the tumultuous processes of modernization and development. Using the experience of Spain as a lens to view the interplay of modernity and environmental transformation, Swyngedouw shows that every political project is also an environmental project.

    In 1898, Spain lost its last overseas colony, triggering a period of post-imperialist turmoil still referred to as El Disastre. Turning inward, the nation embarked on "regeneration" and modernization. Water played a central role in this; during a turbulent period from the twentieth century into the twenty-first--through the Franco years and into the new era of liberal democracy--Spain's waterscapes were completely transformed, with large-scale projects that ranged from dam construction to irrigation to desalinization. Swyngedouw describes the contested political-ecological process that marked this transformation, showing that the Spain's diverse and contested paths to modernization were predicated on particular trajectories of environmental transformation.

    After laying out his theoretical perspectives, Swyngedouw analyzes three periods of Spain's political-ecological modernization: the aspirations and stalled modernization of the early twentieth century; the accelerated efforts under the authoritarian Franco regime--which included six hundred dams, expanded hydroelectricity, and massive irrigation; and the changing hydro-social landscape under social democracy. Offering an innovative perspective on the relationship of nature and society, Liquid Power illuminates the political nature of nature.

  • Lexique de Topographie Romaine (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lexique de Topographie Romaine

    Rome ancienne se sont enrichies d mnombrables elements nouveaux, les details se sont precises, les questions controversees se sont eclairees on peut dire, sans exageration, que la topographie de Rome s'est renouvelee pendant la derniere partie de ce siecle.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Le Pèlerin de l'Absolu: Pour Faire Suite Au Mendiant Ingrat À Mon Journal, À Quatre ANS de Captivité À Cochons-Sur-Marne, À l'Invendable, Et Au Vieux de la Montagne, 1910-1912 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Le Pelerin de l'Absolu: Pour Faire Suite au Mendiant Ingrat a Mon Journal, a Quatre Ans de Captivite a Cochons-sur-Marne, a l'Invendable, Et au Vieux de la Montagne, 1910-1912

    En attendant que cela se debrouille, je tra vaille au Vieux de la Montagne, 5? volume de ce Journal qui commence au Mendiant Ingrat.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Sound Art - Sound as a Medium of Art

    Essays and images that map art's new sonic cosmos, illustrated in color throughout.

    This milestone volume maps fifty years of artists' engagement with sound. Since the beginning of the new millennium, numerous historical and critical works have established sound art as an artistic genre in its own right, with an accepted genealogy that begins with Futurism, Dada, and Fluxus, as well as disciplinary classifications that effectively restrict artistic practice to particular tools and venues. This book, companion volume to a massive exhibition at ZKM Karlsruhe, goes beyond these established disciplinary divides to chart the evolution and the full potential of sound as a medium of art. The book begins with an extensive overview by volume editor Peter Weibel that considers the history of sound as media art, examining work by visual artists, composers, musicians, and architects alike. Subsequent essays examine sound experiments in antiquity, sonification of art and science, and internet-based sound art. Contributors then survey the global field of sound art research and practice, in essays that describe the past, present, and future of sound art in Germany, Japan, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Canada, Turkey, Australia, and Scandinavia. The texts are accompanied by an extensive photographic documentation of the ZKM exhibition.

    Texts by

    Achille Bonito Oliva, Dmitry Bulatov, Germano Celant, Seth Cluett, Christoph Cox, Julia Gerlach, Ryo Ikeshiro und/and Atau Tanaka, Caleb Kelly, Brandon LaBelle, Christof Migone, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Daniel Muzyczuk, Tony Myatt, Irene Noy, Giuliano Obici, Carsten Seiffarth und/and Bernd Schulz, Basak Senova, Linnea Semmerling, Morten Sondergaard, Alexandra Supper, David Toop und/and Adam Parkinson, Peter Weibel, Dajuin Yao, Siegfried Zielinski

  • La Bulgarie Danubienne Et Le Balkan: Études de Voyage (1860-1880) (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Bulgarie Danubienne Et le Balkan: Etudes de Voyage (1860-1880)

    La Bulgarie, ce pays qui vit naitre Alexandre le Grand, qui recut de l'empereur Trajan la civilisation romaine et de Byzance la religion chretienne, qui fut enfin soumis par les Turcs au regne du Croissant, est, de nosjours, le theatre d'un etonnant spectacle. On y voit renaitre un peuple, qu'une triste destinee avait, depuis des siecles, condamne a la mort politique. L'empire des Osmanlis tombe en lambeaux, car, pas plus en Europe qu'en Asie, en Egypte, a Tunis, la Porte n'a su creer a ses sujetsydes conditions favorables d'existence.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Lost Road: And Other Writings

    The fifth volume of the History of Middle-earth, containing the early myths and legends which led to the writing of Tolkien's epic tale of war, The Silmarillion. At the end of 1937, J R R Tolkien reluctantly set aside his work on the myths and heroic legends of Valinor and Middle-earth and began The Lord of the Rings. This fifth volume of The History of Middle-earth completes the examination of his writing up to that time. Later forms of The Annals of Valinor and The Annals of Beleriand had been composed, The Silmarillion was nearing completion in a greatly amplified form, and a new Map had been made. The legend of the Downfall of Numenor had entered the work, including those central ideas: the World Made Round and the Straight Path into the vanished West. Closely associated with this was the abandoned `time-travel' story The Lost Road, linking the world of Numenor and Middle-earth with the legends of many other times and peoples. Also included in this volume is the The Lhammas, as essay on the complex languages and dialects of Middle-earth, and an `etymological dictionary' containing an extensive account of Elvish vocabularies.

  • Recueil Général Et Complet Des Fabliaux Des Xiiie Et Xive Siècles Imprimés Ou Inédits, Vol. 5: Publiés Avec Notes Et Variantes d'Après Les Manuscrits (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Recueil General Et Complet des Fabliaux des Xiiie Et Xive Siecles Imprimes ou Inedits, Vol. 5: Publies Avec Notes Et Variantes d'Apres les Manuscrits

    Si li conte tot mot a mor Comment cele borgoise amot (@i mult estoit pres sa voisine. S'ele l'en puet faire saisine.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Problem with Software: Why Smart Engineers Write Bad Code

    An industry insider explains why there is so much bad software--and why academia doesn't teach programmers what industry wants them to know.

    Why is software so prone to bugs? So vulnerable to viruses? Why are software products so often delayed, or even canceled? Is software development really hard, or are software developers just not that good at it? In The Problem with Software, Adam Barr examines the proliferation of bad software, explains what causes it, and offers some suggestions on how to improve the situation.

    For one thing, Barr points out, academia doesn't teach programmers what they actually need to know to do their jobs: how to work in a team to create code that works reliably and can be maintained by somebody other than the original authors. As the size and complexity of commercial software have grown, the gap between academic computer science and industry has widened. It's an open secret that there is little engineering in software engineering, which continues to rely not on codified scientific knowledge but on intuition and experience.

    Barr, who worked as a programmer for more than twenty years, describes how the industry has evolved, from the era of mainframes and Fortran to today's embrace of the cloud. He explains bugs and why software has so many of them, and why today's interconnected computers offer fertile ground for viruses and worms. The difference between good and bad software can be a single line of code, and Barr includes code to illustrate the consequences of seemingly inconsequential choices by programmers. Looking to the future, Barr writes that the best prospect for improving software engineering is the move to the cloud. When software is a service and not a product, companies will have more incentive to make it good rather than "good enough to ship.

  • Unlocking Energy Innovation - How America Can Build a Low-Cost, Low-Carbon Energy System

    Experts outline a plan to overhaul the U.S. energy innovation system for accelerated, large-scale adoption of reliable, low-cost, low-carbon energy technologies.

    Energy innovation offers us our best chance to solve the three urgent and interrelated problems of climate change, worldwide insecurity over energy supplies, and rapidly growing energy demand. But if we are to achieve a timely transition to reliable, low-cost, low-carbon energy, the U.S. energy innovation system must be radically overhauled.

    Unlocking Energy Innovation outlines an up-to-the-minute plan for remaking America's energy innovation system by tapping the country's entrepreneurial strengths and regional diversity in both the public and private spheres. "Business as usual" will not fill the energy innovation gap. Only the kind of systemic, transformative changes to our energy innovation system described in this provocative book will help us avert the most dire scenarios and achieve a sustainable and secure energy future.

  • Oeuvres de Monsieur de Saint-Evremond, Vol. 4: Publiées Sur Ses Manuscrits, Avec La Vie de l'Auteur (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Oeuvres de Monsieur de Saint-Evremond, Vol. 4: Publiees sur Ses Manuscrits, Avec la Vie de l'Auteur

    Lettre a Madamela Duchefl'e Mazarin. 33 Pour Mademoifelie de Beverweert. Lettre a Mademoifelle de Beuerweert Defenfe de quelques Pieces de Theatre de Mr.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension

    On the basis of a decade's work on syntactic-comprehension disorders, primarily in the Neurolinguistics Laboratory of the Montreal Neurological Hospital, David Caplan and Nancy Hildebrandt present an original theory of these disturbances of language function. They suggest in this wide-ranging study that syntactic structure breaks down after damage to the brain because of specific impairments in the parsing processes and a general decrease in the amount of computational space that can be devoted to that function.

    Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension includes detailed single-case analyses and large-group studies, as well as a broad review of the literature on aphasia. It also provides introductions to syntactic structures and parsing for the reader unfamiliar with these subjects. It develops a general framework for viewing disorders in this area and for identifying a number of specific aspects of the breakdown of syntactic comprehension.The authors' richly detailed empirical linguistic database and their careful use of experimental materials enable them to bring the results of their research to bear on several aspects of theories of syntactic structure (Chomsky's theory) and parsing (the Berwick-Weinberg parser) and to use these theories to describe and explain aphasic phenomena. Moreover, the combination of population and group studies allows them to investigate the neurological basis of syntactic disorders in addition to the psychological and linguistic aspects.

    Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension is included in the series Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition, edited by John C. Marshall.

  • Grundlagen Der Geometrie (Classic Reprint)

    Einerseits versteht man unter Geometrie die zwei- und dreidimensionale euklidische Geometrie, die Elementargeometrie, die auch im Schulunterricht gelehrt wird und die sich mit Punkten, Geraden, Ebenen, Abständen, Winkeln etc. beschäftigt, sowie diejenigen Begriffsbildungen und Methoden, die im Zuge einer systematischen und mathematischen Behandlung dieses Themas entwickelt wurden. Andererseits umfasst der Begriff Geometrie eine Reihe von großen Teilgebieten der Mathematik. Der Autor beschreibt im vorliegenden Lehrbuch die fünf Axiomgruppen, die Lehre von den Proportionen und den Flächeninhalten in der Ebene, den Desarguesschen und Pascalschen Satz und anderes mehr. Illustriert mit zahlreichen Figuren. Nachdruck der Originalausgabe aus dem Jahre 1903.

  • Tim Rollins and K.O.S. - A History

    A critical history and comprehensive catalog of the celebrated and controversial works created by activist and artist Tim Rollins and Kids of Survival.

    In August 1981, artist and activist Tim Rollins was recruited by the principal of Intermediate School 52 in the South Bronx to develop a curriculum that combined art-making with lessons in reading and writing for students classified as "at risk." On the first day of school, Rollins told his students, "Today we are going to make art, but we are also going to make history." This book unfolds that history, offering the first comprehensive catalog of work created collaboratively by Rollins and several generations of students, now known as the "Kids of Survival". Rollins and his students developed a way of working that combined art-making with reading literature and writing personal narratives: Rollins or a student would read aloud from classic literary texts by such authors as Shakespeare and Orwell while the rest of the class drew or wrote on the pages being read, connecting the stories to their own experiences. Often, Rollins and his students (who later named themselves "Kids of Survival" or K.O.S.) cut out book pages and laid them on a grid on canvas before undertaking their graphic interventions. This process developed into the group's signature style, which they applied to literary texts, musical scores, and other printed matter. This book and the accompanying major museum retrospective document the history of the groundbreaking practice of Tim Rollins and K.O.S., with full color images of paintings, drawings, sculptures, and prints. These include a caricature of Jesse Helms with an animal body drawn on the pages of Animal Farm; graffiti-like images painted in acrylic on the pages of Frankenstein; a gleaming pattern of fantastical golden horns on Kafka's Amerika; and a series of red letter A's on The Scarlet Letter. Essays byJulie Ault, Susan Cahan, David Deitcher, Eleanor Heartney, Larry Rinder, James Romaine Interview with the artist by Ian Berry

  • Contract Theory

    A comprehensive introduction to contract theory, emphasizing common themes and methodologies as well as applications in key areas.

    Despite the vast research literature on topics relating to contract theory, only a few of the field's core ideas are covered in microeconomics textbooks. This long-awaited book fills the need for a comprehensive textbook on contract theory suitable for use at the graduate and advanced undergraduate levels. It covers the areas of agency theory, information economics, and organization theory, highlighting common themes and methodologies and presenting the main ideas in an accessible way. It also presents many applications in all areas of economics, especially labor economics, industrial organization, and corporate finance. The book emphasizes applications rather than general theorems while providing self-contained, intuitive treatment of the simple models analyzed. In this way, it can also serve as a reference for researchers interested in building contract-theoretic models in applied contexts.The book covers all the major topics in contract theory taught in most graduate courses. It begins by discussing such basic ideas in incentive and information theory as screening, signaling, and moral hazard. Subsequent sections treat multilateral contracting with private information or hidden actions, covering auction theory, bilateral trade under private information, and the theory of the internal organization of firms; long-term contracts with private information or hidden actions; and incomplete contracts, the theory of ownership and control, and contracting with externalities. Each chapter ends with a guide to the relevant literature. Exercises appear in a separate chapter at the end of the book.

  • Finn and Hengest

    The story of Finn and Hengest, an obscure and allusive tale, was interpreted by Tolkien in this persuasive and original book. The editor studied under the author at university and was chosen by Tolkien to undertake the work of publishing the book.

  • Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet

    How solar could spark a clean-energy transition through transformative innovation -- creative financing, revolutionary technologies, and flexible energy systems. Solar energy, once a niche application for a limited market, has become the cheapest and fastest-growing power source on earth. What's more, its potential is nearly limitless -- every hour the sun beams down more energy than the world uses in a year. But in Taming the Sun, energy expert Varun Sivaram warns that the world is not yet equipped to harness erratic sunshine to meet most of its energy needs. And if solar's current surge peters out, prospects for replacing fossil fuels and averting catastrophic climate change will dim. Innovation can brighten those prospects, Sivaram explains, drawing on firsthand experience and original research spanning science, business, and government. Financial innovation is already enticing deep-pocketed investors to fund solar projects around the world, from the sunniest deserts to the poorest villages. Technological innovation could replace today's solar panels with coatings as cheap as paint and employ artificial photosynthesis to store intermittent sunshine as convenient fuels. And systemic innovation could add flexibility to the world's power grids and other energy systems so they can dependably channel the sun's unreliable energy. Unleashing all this innovation will require visionary public policy: funding researchers developing next-generation solar technologies, refashioning energy systems and economic markets, and putting together a diverse clean energy portfolio. Although solar can't power the planet by itself, it can be the centerpiece of a global clean energy revolution. A Council on Foreign Relations Book

  • Recycling Reconsidered - The Present Failure and Future Promise of Environmental Action in the United States

    Recycling is widely celebrated as an environmental success story. The accomplishments of the recycling movement can be seen in municipal practice, a thriving private recycling industry, and widespread public support and participation. In the United States, more people recycle than vote. But, as Samantha MacBride points out in this book, the goals of recycling -- saving the earth (and trees), conserving resources, and greening the economy -- are still far from being realized. The vast majority of solid wastes are still burned or buried. MacBride argues that, since the emergence of the recycling movement in 1970, manufacturers of products that end up in waste have successfully prevented the implementation of more onerous, yet far more effective, forms of sustainable waste policy. Recycling as we know it today generates the illusion of progress while allowing industry to maintain the status quo and place responsibility on consumers and local government.

    MacBride offers a series of case studies in recycling that pose provocative questions about whether the current ways we deal with waste are really the best ways to bring about real sustainability and environmental justice. She does not aim to debunk or discourage recycling but to help us think beyond recycling as it is today.

  • Programming Distributed Computing Systems - A Foundational Approach

    Starting from the premise that understanding the foundations of concurrent programming is key to developing distributed computing systems, this book first presents the fundamental theories of concurrent computing and then introduces the programming languages that help develop distributed computing systems at a high level of abstraction. The major theories of concurrent computation -- including the π-calculus, the actor model, the join calculus, and mobile ambients -- are explained with a focus on how they help design and reason about distributed and mobile computing systems. The book then presents programming languages that follow the theoretical models already described, including Pict, SALSA, and JoCaml. The parallel structure of the chapters in both part one (theory) and part two (practice) enable the reader not only to compare the different theories but also to see clearly how a programming language supports a theoretical model. The book is unique in bridging the gap between the theory and the practice of programming distributed computing systems. It can be used as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in computer science or as a reference for researchers in the area of programming technology for distributed computing. By presenting theory first, the book allows readers to focus on the essential components of concurrency, distribution, and mobility without getting bogged down in syntactic details of specific programming languages. Once the theory is understood, the practical part of implementing a system in an actual programming language becomes much easier.

  • Confidence Games - Lawyers, Accountants, and the Tax Shelter Industry

    The rise and fall of a tax shelter industry that enabled some of America's richest citizens to avoid paying their fair share of taxes.

    For ten boom-powered years at the turn of the twenty-first century, some of America's most prominent law and accounting firms created and marketed products that enabled the very rich--including newly minted dot-com millionaires--to avoid paying their fair share of taxes by claiming benefits not recognized by law. These abusive domestic tax shelters bore such exotic names as BOSS, BLIPS, and COBRA and were developed by such prestigious firms as KPMG and Ernst & Young. They brought in hundreds of millions of dollars in fees from clients and bilked the U.S. Treasury of billions in revenues before the IRS and Justice Department stepped in with civil penalties and criminal prosecutions. In Confidence Games, Tanina Rostain and Milton Regan describe the rise and fall of the tax shelter industry during this period, offering a riveting account of the most serious episode of professional misconduct in the history of the American bar.

    Rostain and Regan describe a beleaguered IRS preoccupied by attacks from antitax and antigovernment politicians; heightened competition for professional services; the relaxation of tax practitioner norms against aggressive advice; and the creation of complex financial instruments that made abusive shelters harder to detect. By 2004, the tax shelter boom was over, leaving failed firms, disgraced professionals, and prison sentences in its wake. Rostain and Regan's cautionary tale remains highly relevant today, as lawyers and accountants continue to face intense competitive pressure and regulators still struggle to keep pace with accelerating financial risk and innovation.

  • Atari to Zelda : Japan's Videogames in Global Contexts

    The cross-cultural interactions of Japanese videogames and the West, from DIY localization by fans to corporate strategies of "Japaneseness."

    In the early days of arcades and Nintendo, many players didn't recognize Japanese games as coming from Japan; they were simply new and interesting games to play. But since then, fans, media, and the games industry have thought further about the "Japaneseness" of particular games. Game developers try to decide whether a game's Japaneseness is a selling point or stumbling block; critics try to determine what elements in a game express its Japaneseness--cultural motifs or technical markers. Games were "localized," subjected to sociocultural and technical tinkering. In this book, Mia Consalvo looks at what happens when Japanese games travel outside Japan, and how they are played, thought about, and transformed by individuals, companies, and groups in the West.

    Consalvo begins with players, first exploring North American players' interest in Japanese games (and Japanese culture in general) and then investigating players' DIY localization of games, in the form of ROM hacking and fan translating. She analyzes several Japanese games released in North America and looks in detail at the Japanese game company Square Enix. She examines indie and corporate localization work, and the rise of the professional culture broker. Finally, she compares different approaches to Japaneseness in games sold in the West and considers how Japanese games have influenced Western games developers. Her account reveals surprising cross-cultural interactions between Japanese games and Western game developers and players, between Japaneseness and the market.

  • Dictionnaire Des Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 50: Dans Lequel on Traite Méthodiquement Des Différens Êtres de la Nature, Considérés Soit En Eux-Mèmes, ... a l'Utilite Qu'en Peuvent Retirer La

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 50: Dans Lequel On Traite Methodiquement des Differens Etres de la Nature, Consideres Soit en Eux-Memes, d'Apres l'Etat Actuel de Nos Connoissances, Soit Relativement A l'Utilite qu'en Peuvent Retirer la Medecine, l'Agriculture, le Commerce Et les Artes

    La femelle est generalement en dessus d'un vert-olive plus fonce, et passant au brun noiratre en dessous. En biver, lors que le male perd sa livree, son plumage ressemble a celui de la femelle.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Networked Affect

    Investigations of affective experiences that emerge in online settings that range from Facebook discussion forums to "smart" classrooms.

    Our encounters with websites, avatars, videos, mobile apps, discussion forums, GIFs, and nonhuman intelligent agents allow us to experience sensations of connectivity, interest, desire, and attachment--as well as detachment, boredom, fear, and shame. Some affective online encounters may arouse complex, contradictory feelings that resist dualistic distinctions. In this book, leading scholars examine the fluctuating and altering dynamics of affect that give shape to online connections and disconnections. Doing so, they tie issues of circulation and connectivity to theorizations of networked affect. Their diverse investigations--considering subjects that range from online sexual dynamics to the liveliness of computer code--demonstrate the value of affect theories for Internet studies.

    The contributors investigate networked affect in terms of intensity, sensation, and value. They explore online intensities that range from Tumblr practices in LGBTQ communities to visceral reactions to animated avatars; examine the affective materiality of software in such platforms as steampunk culture and nonprofit altporn; and analyze the ascription of value to online activities including the GTD ("getting things done") movement and the accumulation of personal digital materials.

    Contributors
    James Ash, Alex Cho, Jodi Dean, Melissa Gregg, Ken Hillis, Kylie Jarrett, Tero Karppi, Stephen Maddison, Susanna Paasonen, Jussi Parikka, Michael Petit, Jennifer Pybus, Jenny Sunden, Veronika Tzankova

  • Economic Dynamics in Discrete Time

    A unified, comprehensive, and up-to-date introduction to the analytical and numerical tools for solving dynamic economic problems.

    This book offers a unified, comprehensive, and up-to-date treatment of analytical and numerical tools for solving dynamic economic problems. The focus is on introducing recursive methods--an important part of every economist's set of tools--and readers will learn to apply recursive methods to a variety of dynamic economic problems. The book is notable for its combination of theoretical foundations and numerical methods. Each topic is first described in theoretical terms, with explicit definitions and rigorous proofs; numerical methods and computer codes to implement these methods follow. Drawing on the latest research, the book covers such cutting-edge topics as asset price bubbles, recursive utility, robust control, policy analysis in dynamic New Keynesian models with the zero lower bound on interest rates, and Bayesian estimation of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models.

    The book first introduces the theory of dynamical systems and numerical methods for solving dynamical systems, and then discusses the theory and applications of dynamic optimization. The book goes on to treat equilibrium analysis, covering a variety of core macroeconomic models, and such additional topics as recursive utility (increasingly used in finance and macroeconomics), dynamic games, and recursive contracts. The book introduces Dynare, a widely used software platform for handling a range of economic models; readers will learn to use Dynare for numerically solving DSGE models and performing Bayesian estimation of DSGE models. Mathematical appendixes present all the necessary mathematical concepts and results. Matlab codes used to solve examples are indexed and downloadable from the book's website. A solutions manual for students is available for sale from the MIT Press; a downloadable instructor's manual is available to qualified instructors.

  • The Blockchain and the New Architecture of Trust

    How the blockchain--a system built on foundations of mutual mistrust--can become trustworthy.

    The blockchain entered the world on January 3, 2009, introducing an innovative new trust architecture: an environment in which users trust a system--for example, a shared ledger of information--without necessarily trusting any of its components. The cryptocurrency Bitcoin is the most famous implementation of the blockchain, but hundreds of other companies have been founded and billions of dollars invested in similar applications since Bitcoin's launch. Some see the blockchain as offering more opportunities for criminal behavior than benefits to society. In this book, Kevin Werbach shows how a technology resting on foundations of mutual mistrust can become trustworthy.

    The blockchain, built on open software and decentralized foundations that allow anyone to participate, seems like a threat to any form of regulation. In fact, Werbach argues, law and the blockchain need each other. Blockchain systems that ignore law and governance are likely to fail, or to become outlaw technologies irrelevant to the mainstream economy. That, Werbach cautions, would be a tragic waste of potential. If, however, we recognize the blockchain as a kind of legal technology that shapes behavior in new ways, it can be harnessed to create tremendous business and social value.

  • Constitutions Et Règlements de l'Université Laval: Publiés Par Ordre Du Conseil Universitaire (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Constitutions Et Reglements de l'Universite Laval: Publies par Ordre du Conseil Universitaire

    Cette deference absolue aux volontes du Saint - Siege, l'universite Laval l'a toujours regardee comme la base solide sur laquelle elle devait s'appuyer. Il nous est permis d'esperer qu'elle ne cessera jamais de suivre la voie que Rome lui a tracee, seul et sur moyen de pro curer efficacement la gloire de Dieu et le vrai bien de la patrie.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Materializing Six Years - Lucy R. Lippard and the Emergence of Conceptual Art

    Lucy R. Lippard's famous book, itself resembling an exhibition, is now brought full circle in an exhibition (and catalog) resembling her book.

    "Conceptual art, for me, means work in which the idea is paramount and the material form is secondary, lightweight, ephemeral, cheap, unpretentious and/or 'dematerialized.'"
    --Lucy R. Lippard, Six Years

    In 1973 the critic and curator Lucy R. Lippard published Six Years, a book with possibly the longest subtitle in the bibliography of art: The dematerialization of the art object from 1966 to 1972: a cross-reference book of information on some esthetic boundaries: consisting of a bibliography into which are inserted a fragmented text, art works, documents, interviews, and symposia, arranged chronologically and focused on so-called conceptual or information or idea art with mentions of such vaguely designated areas as minimal, anti-form, systems, earth, or process art, occurring now in the Americas, Europe, England, Australia, and Asia (with occasional political overtones) edited and annotated by Lucy R. Lippard. Six Years, sometimes referred to as a conceptual art object itself, not only described and embodied the new type of art-making that Lippard was intent on identifying and cataloging, it also exemplified a new way of criticizing and curating art. Nearly forty years later, the Brooklyn Museum takes Lippard's celebrated experiment in curated concatenation as a template, turning a book that resembled an exhibition into an exhibition materializing the ideas in her book.

    The artworks and essays featured in this publication recall the thrill that was tangible in Lippard's original documentation, reminding us that during the late sixties and early seventies all possible social and material parameters of art (making) were played with, worked over, inverted, reduced, expanded, and rejected. By tracing Lippard's own activities in those years, the book also documents the early blurring of boundaries among critical, curatorial, and artistic practices.

    With more than 200 images of work by dozens of artists (printed in color throughout), this book brings Lippard's curatorial experiment full circle.

  • Borges and Memory - Encounters with the Human Brain

    A scientist's exploration of the working of memory begins with a story by Borges about a man who could not forget.

    Imagine the astonishment felt by neuroscientist Rodrigo Quian Quiroga when he found a fantastically precise interpretation of his research findings in a story written by the great Argentinian fabulist Jorge Luis Borges fifty years earlier. Quian Quiroga studies the workings of the brain--in particular how memory works--one of the most complex and elusive mysteries of science. He and his fellow neuroscientists have at their disposal sophisticated imaging equipment and access to information not available just twenty years ago. And yet Borges seemed to have imagined the gist of Quian Quiroga's discoveries decades before he made them.

    The title character of Borges's Funes the Memorious remembers everything in excruciatingly particular detail but is unable to grasp abstract ideas. Quian Quiroga found neurons in the human brain that respond to abstract concepts but ignore particular details, and, spurred by the way Borges imagined the consequences of remembering every detail but being incapable of abstraction, he began a search for the origins of Funes. Borges's widow, Maria Kodama, gave him access to her husband's personal library, and Borges's books led Quian Quiroga to reread earlier thinkers in philosophy and psychology. He found that just as Borges had perhaps dreamed the results of Quian Quiroga's discoveries, other thinkers--William James, Gustav Spiller, John Stuart Mill--had perhaps also dreamed a story like Funes.

    With Borges and Memory, Quian Quiroga has given us a fascinating and accessible story about the workings of the brain that the great creator of Funes would appreciate.

  • Typographic Communications Today

    With over 900 illustrations, more than 500 in color, it is an essential reference book for graphic artists and designers and for those who, regardless of profession are involved in design choices.

    Suddenly, the universe of people making typographical decisions has expanded. Effective visual communication through the informed manipulation of the size and style of type, its placement on a two dimensional surface, its integration with graphic material, and the quality of its reproduction is within reach of anyone who has a computer. Typographic Communications Today places this phenomenon in historical perspective, covering the whole of 20th century graphic design. With over 900 illustrations, more than 500 in color, it is an essential reference book for graphic artists and designers and for those who, regardless of profession are involved in design choices. It clarifies the options available in this new era of print while at the same time examining the new technologies in the context of art history. The numerous quotations by first rate designers make this a treasury of good thinking about the hows and whys of typographic design. Types are displayed and grid systems employed as they are being discussed. Gottschall's lively commentary examines the many typographic solutions designers have evolved for communication problems, beginning with the creative solutions devised by artists, painters, architects, poets and concluding with the new opportunities and challenges posed by computers and laser technology.

    Several chapters focus on how these technologies have changed the ways typefaces are being designed and used. Gottschall explains how terminals, output devices, networks, scanners, and software have revolutionized the world of typesetting and given graphic designers a whole new set of tools, freedoms, and restrictions. The chapter Bits, Bytes, and Typographic Design, for example, offers a state of the art review of keyboarding on terminals, image scanning, electronic filing, and networking. Not only does Gottschall discuss the role of personal computers and word processing software, he also reviews the packages and languages available from all of the major corporate players Apple, Xerox, Wang, IBM AT&T, Interleaf, and many others and evaluates the future of such possibilities as X-ray chip etching. Edward M. Gottschall is Vice Chairman of International Typeface Corporation and Editor of U&lc magazine.

  • From Groups to Individuals - Evolution and Emerging Individuality

    The biological and philosophical implications of the emergence of new collective individuals from associations of living beings.

    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature's paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together--as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis--new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the biological and philosophical implications of the emergence of these new collective individuals from associations of living beings. The topics they consider range from metaphysical issues to biological research on natural selection, sociobiology, and symbiosis.

    The contributors investigate individuality and its relationship to evolution and the specific concept of organism; the tension between group evolution and individual adaptation; and the structure of collective individuals and the extent to which they can be defined by the same concept of individuality. These new perspectives on evolved individuality should trigger important revisions to both philosophical and biological conceptions of the individual.

    Contributors
    Frederic Bouchard, Ellen Clarke, Jennifer Fewell, Andrew Gardner, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Charles J. Goodnight, Matt Haber, Andrew Hamilton, Philippe Huneman, Samir Okasha, Thomas Pradeu, Scott Turner, Minus van Baalen

  • Leçons Sur Les Invariants Intégraux: Cours Professé À La Faculté Des Sciences de Paris (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lecons sur les Invariants Integraux: Cours Professe a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris

    Cet ouvrage est la reproduction d'un cours professe pendant le semestre d'ete 1920-1921 a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Quantum Algorithms via Linear Algebra - A Primer

    Quantum computing explained in terms of elementary linear algebra, emphasizing computation and algorithms and requiring no background in physics.

    This introduction to quantum algorithms is concise but comprehensive, covering many key algorithms. It is mathematically rigorous but requires minimal background and assumes no knowledge of quantum theory or quantum mechanics. The book explains quantum computation in terms of elementary linear algebra; it assumes the reader will have some familiarity with vectors, matrices, and their basic properties, but offers a review of all the relevant material from linear algebra. By emphasizing computation and algorithms rather than physics, this primer makes quantum algorithms accessible to students and researchers in computer science without the complications of quantum mechanical notation, physical concepts, and philosophical issues.

    After explaining the development of quantum operations and computations based on linear algebra, the book presents the major quantum algorithms, from seminal algorithms by Deutsch, Jozsa, and Simon through Shor's and Grover's algorithms to recent quantum walks. It covers quantum gates, computational complexity, and some graph theory. Mathematical proofs are generally short and straightforward; quantum circuits and gates are used to illuminate linear algebra; and the discussion of complexity is anchored in computational problems rather than machine models.

    Quantum Algorithms via Linear Algebra is suitable for classroom use or as a reference for computer scientists and mathematicians.

  • Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe: U.S. Technological Collaboration and Nonproliferation

    How America used its technological leadership in the 1950s and the 1960s to foster European collaboration and curb nuclear proliferation, with varying degrees of success.

    In the 1950s and the 1960s, U.S. administrations were determined to prevent Western European countries from developing independent national nuclear weapons programs. To do so, the United States attempted to use its technological pre-eminence as a tool of "soft power" to steer Western European technological choices toward the peaceful uses of the atom and of space, encouraging options that fostered collaboration, promoted nonproliferation, and defused challenges to U.S. technological superiority. In Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe, John Krige describes these efforts and the varying degrees of success they achieved.

    Krige explains that the pursuit of scientific and technological leadership, galvanized by America's Cold War competition with the Soviet Union, was also used for techno-political collaboration with major allies. He examines a series of multinational arrangements involving shared technological platforms and aimed at curbing nuclear proliferation, and he describes the roles of the Department of State, the Atomic Energy Commission, and NASA. To their dismay, these agencies discovered that the use of technology as an instrument of soft power was seriously circumscribed, by internal divisions within successive administrations and by external opposition from European countries. It was successful, Krige argues, only when technological leadership was embedded in a web of supportive "harder" power structures.

  • Blind Vision - The Neuroscience of Visual Impairment

    An investigation of the effects of blindness and other types of visual deficit on cognitive abilities.

    Can a blind person see? The very idea seems paradoxical. And yet, if we conceive of seeing as the ability to generate internal mental representations that may contain visual details, the idea of blind vision becomes a concept subject to investigation. In this book, Zaira Cattaneo and Tomaso Vecchi examine the effects of blindness and other types of visual deficit on the development and functioning of the human cognitive system. Drawing on behavioral and neurophysiological data, Cattaneo and Vecchi analyze research on mental imagery, spatial cognition, and compensatory mechanisms at the sensorial, cognitive, and cortical levels in individuals with complete or profound visual impairment. They find that our brain does not need our eyes to see.

    Cattaneo and Vecchi address critical questions of broad importance: the relationship of visual perception to imagery and working memory and the extent to which mental imagery depends on normal vision; the functional and neural relationships between vision and the other senses; the specific aspects of the visual experience that are crucial to cognitive development or specific cognitive mechanisms; and the extraordinary plasticity of the brain--as illustrated by the way that, in the blind, the visual cortex may be reorganized to support other perceptual or cognitive funtions. In the absence of vision, the other senses work as functional substitutes and are often improved. With Blind Vision, Cattaneo and Vecchi take on the tyranny of the visual, pointing to the importance of the other senses in cognition.

  • Make It New - The History of Silicon Valley Design

    The role of design in the formation of the Silicon Valley ecosystem of innovation.

    California's Silicon Valley is home to the greatest concentration of designers in the world: corporate design offices at flagship technology companies and volunteers at nonprofit NGOs; global design consultancies and boutique studios; research laboratories and academic design programs. Together they form the interconnected network that is Silicon Valley. Apple products are famously "Designed in California," but, as Barry Katz shows in this first-ever, extensively illustrated history, the role of design in Silicon Valley began decades before Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak dreamed up Apple in a garage.

    Offering a thoroughly original view of the subject, Katz tells how design helped transform Silicon Valley into the most powerful engine of innovation in the world. From Hewlett-Packard and Ampex in the 1950s to Google and Facebook today, design has provided the bridge between research and development, art and engineering, technical performance and human behavior. Katz traces the origins of all of the leading consultancies--including IDEO, frog, and Lunar--and shows the process by which some of the world's most influential companies came to place design at the center of their business strategies. At the same time, universities, foundations, and even governments have learned to apply "design thinking" to their missions. Drawing on unprecedented access to a vast array of primary sources and interviews with nearly every influential design leader--including Douglas Engelbart, Steve Jobs, and Don Norman--Katz reveals design to be the missing link in Silicon Valley's ecosystem of innovation.

  • The Marketplace of Attention - How Audiences Take Shape in a Digital Age

    How do media find an audience when there is an endless supply of content but a limited supply of public attention?

    Feature films, television shows, homemade videos, tweets, blogs, and breaking news: digital media offer an always-accessible, apparently inexhaustible supply of entertainment and information. Although choices seems endless, public attention is not. How do digital media find the audiences they need in an era of infinite choice? In The Marketplace of Attention, James Webster explains how audiences take shape in the digital age.

    Webster describes the factors that create audiences, including the preferences and habits of media users, the role of social networks, the resources and strategies of media providers, and the growing impact of media measures--from ratings to user recommendations. He incorporates these factors into one comprehensive framework: the marketplace of attention. In doing so, he shows that the marketplace works in ways that belie our greatest hopes and fears about digital media.

    Some observers claim that digital media empower a new participatory culture; others fear that digital media encourage users to retreat to isolated enclaves. Webster shows that public attention is at once diverse and concentrated--that users move across a variety of outlets, producing high levels of audience overlap. So although audiences are fragmented in ways that would astonish midcentury broadcasting executives, Webster argues that this doesn't signal polarization. He questions whether our preferences are immune from media influence, and he describes how our encounters with media might change our tastes. In the digital era's marketplace of attention, Webster claims, we typically encounter ideas that cut across our predispositions. In the process, we will remake the marketplace of ideas and reshape the twenty-first century public sphere.

  • The Energy System: Technology, Economics, Markets, and Policy

    A comprehensive textbook that integrates tools from technology, economics, markets, and policy to approach energy issues using a dynamic systems and capital-centric perspective.

    The global energy system is the vital foundation of modern human industrial society. Traditionally studied through separate disciplines of engineering, economics, environment, or public policy, this system can be fully understood only by using an approach that integrates these tools. This textbook is the first to take a dynamic systems perspective on understanding energy systems, tracking energy from primary resource to final energy services through a long and capital-intensive supply chain bounded by both macroeconomic and natural resource systems.

    The book begins with a framework for understanding how energy is transformed as it moves through the system with the aid of various types of capital, its movement influenced by a combination of the technical, market, and policy conditions at the time. It then examines the three primary energy subsystems of electricity, transportation, and thermal energy, explaining such relevant topics as systems thinking, cost estimation, capital formation, market design, and policy tools. Finally, the book reintegrates these subsystems and looks at their relation to the economic system and the ecosystem that they inhabit. Practitioners and theorists from any field will benefit from a deeper understanding of both existing dynamic energy system processes and potential tools for intervention.

  • Macroeconomics in Times of Liquidity Crises: Searching for Economic Essentials

    An examination of Liquidity Crunch in triggering and characterizing financial crises.

    Since the subprime mortgage crisis that began in 2007, advanced economies have felt a nagging sense of insecurity. In parallel, the profession has witnessed phenomena that are alien to mainstream macroeconomic models. Financial crises are systemic, occurring simultaneously in different economies. In this book, Guillermo Calvo focuses on liquidity factors as a commonality in financial crises. Specifically, he examines the role of "liquidity crunch" in triggering crises. He also identifies a fundamental (but overlooked) idea in Keynes's General Theory, termed by Calvo the price theory of money, to rationalize the resiliency of the U.S. dollar when other dollar-backed assets suffered a devastating liquidity crunch.

    Calvo shows that a sharp focus on liquidity reveals some characteristics of liquid assets that are easy to miss otherwise. He argues for liquidity's centrality, presenting what he calls the Liquidity Approach. He shows that simple extensions of standard monetary models help rationalize the implications of the liquidity crunch, and then examines slightly more technical models that highlight liquidity issues. He explores the empirical effects of liquidity crunch by studying systemic sudden stops (of capital inflows), presuming that they are triggered by liquidity crunch-type phenomena.

  • Parallel Presents - The Art of Pierre Huyghe

    Over the past two decades, French artist Pierre Huyghe has produced an extraordinary body of work in constant dialogue with temporality. Investigating the possibility of a hypothetical mode of timekeeping -- "parallel presents" -- Huyghe has researched the architecture of the incomplete, directed a puppet opera, founded a temporary school, established a pirate television station, staged celebrations, scripted scenarios, and journeyed to Antarctica in search of a mythological penguin. In this first book-length art historical examination of Huyghe and his work, Amelia Barikin traces the artist's continual negotiation with the time codes of contemporary society. Barikin finds in Huyghe's projects an alternate way of thinking about history -- a "topological historicity" that deprograms (or reprograms) temporal formats. Barikin offers pioneering analyses of Huyghe's lesser-known early works as well as sustained readings of later, critically acclaimed projects, including "No Ghost Just a Shell "(2000), "L'Expedition scintillante "(2002), and "A Journey That Wasn't "(2005). She emphasizes Huyghe's concepts of "freed time" and "the open present," in which anything might happen.

    Bringing together an eclectic array of subjects and characters -- from moon walking to situationist practices, from Snow White to Gilles Deleuze -- "Parallel Presents" offers a highly original account of the driving forces behind Huyghe's work."

  • Principes de Géométrie Analytique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Principes de Geometrie Analytique

    Je dois en terminant, remercier mes collegues MM. Cl. Gui chard et Ernest Lebon du concours qu'ils ont bien voulu me preter pour la correction des epreuves; je me reproche rais d'oublier mon excellent editeur M. Gauthier - Villars. Malgre toutes les difficultes nees d'une guerre ou la France combat pour la liberte et le salut du monde, il n'a pas craint de me faire confiance, d'accueillir et de mener a bien cette publication avec tout le soin auquel il nous a habitues.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Software Design Decoded: 66 Ways Experts Think

    An engaging, illustrated collection of insights revealing the practices and principles that expert software designers use to create great software.

    What makes an expert software designer? It is more than experience or innate ability. Expert software designers have specific habits, learned practices, and observed principles that they apply deliberately during their design work. This book offers sixty-six insights, distilled from years of studying experts at work, that capture what successful software designers actually do to create great software.

    The book presents these insights in a series of two-page illustrated spreads, with the principle and a short explanatory text on one page, and a drawing on the facing page. For example, "Experts generate alternatives" is illustrated by the same few balloons turned into a set of very different balloon animals. The text is engaging and accessible; the drawings are thought-provoking and often playful.

    Organized into such categories as "Experts reflect," "Experts are not afraid," and "Experts break the rules," the insights range from "Experts prefer simple solutions" to "Experts see error as opportunity." Readers learn that "Experts involve the user"; "Experts take inspiration from wherever they can"; "Experts design throughout the creation of software"; and "Experts draw the problem as much as they draw the solution."

    One habit for an aspiring expert software designer to develop would be to read and reread this entertaining but essential little book. The insights described offer a guide for the novice or a reference for the veteran--in software design or any design profession.

    A companion web site provides an annotated bibliography that compiles key underpinning literature, the opportunity to suggest additional insights, and more.

  • Dieu, l'Homme Et La Parole, Ou La Langue Primitive (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Dieu, l'Homme Et la Parole, ou la Langue Primitive

    A mlle epoque fut etablie Beziers, comme dans plu sieurs autres villes. Une societe archeologique. J. Azans. Qui on etait un des fondateurs. Fut, des la premiere reunion. Appele a la presidence par les suffrages unanimes de ses collegues, et, depuis lors, sa reelection a eu lieu, 'a chaque renouvellement du bureau. Avec la meme unanimite.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Economic Growth 2e

    The long-awaited second edition of an important textbook on economic growth--a major revision incorporating the most recent work on the subject.

    This graduate level text on economic growth surveys neoclassical and more recent growth theories, stressing their empirical implications and the relation of theory to data and evidence. The authors have undertaken a major revision for the long-awaited second edition of this widely used text, the first modern textbook devoted to growth theory. The book has been expanded in many areas and incorporates the latest research. After an introductory discussion of economic growth, the book examines neoclassical growth theories, from Solow-Swan in the 1950s and Cass-Koopmans in the 1960s to more recent refinements; this is followed by a discussion of extensions to the model, with expanded treatment in this edition of heterogenity of households. The book then turns to endogenous growth theory, discussing, among other topics, models of endogenous technological progress (with an expanded discussion in this edition of the role of outside competition in the growth process), technological diffusion, and an endogenous determination of labor supply and population. The authors then explain the essentials of growth accounting and apply this framework to endogenous growth models. The final chapters cover empirical analysis of regions and empirical evidence on economic growth for a broad panel of countries from 1960 to 2000. The updated treatment of cross-country growth regressions for this edition uses the new Summers-Heston data set on world income distribution compiled through 2000.

  • Open Space: The Global Effort for Open Access to Environmental Satellite Data

    An examination of environmental satellite data sharing policies, offering a model of data-sharing policy development, case and practical recommendations for increasing global data sharing.

    Key to understanding and addressing climate change is continuous and precise monitoring of environmental conditions. Satellites play an important role in collecting climate data, offering comprehensive global coverage that can't be matched by in situ observation. And yet, as Mariel Borowitz shows in this book, much satellite data is not freely available but restricted; this remains true despite the data-sharing advocacy of international organizations and a global open data movement. Borowitz examines policies governing the sharing of environmental satellite data, offering a model of data-sharing policy development and applying it in case studies from the United States, Europe, and Japan--countries responsible for nearly half of the unclassified government Earth observation satellites.

    Borowitz develops a model that centers on the government agency as the primary actor while taking into account the roles of such outside actors as other government officials and non-governmental actors, as well as the economic, security, and normative attributes of the data itself. The case studies include the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS); the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT); and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA). Finally, she considers the policy implications of her findings for the future and provides recommendations on how to increase global sharing of satellite data.

  • China's Next Strategic Advantage: From Imitation to Innovation

    A book for everyone who does business with China or in China.

    The history-making development of the Chinese economy has entered a new phase. China is moving aggressively from a strategy of imitation to one of innovation. Driven both by domestic needs and by global ambition, China is establishing itself at the forefront of technological innovation. Western businesses need to prepare for a tidal wave of innovation from China that is about to hit Western markets, and Chinese businesses need to understand the critical importance of innovation in their future.

    Experts George Yip and Bruce McKern explain this epic transformation and propose strategies for both Western and Chinese companies. This book is for everyone who does business with China or in China, or is interested in the development of the world's fastest-growing economy. Western CEOs can learn from Chinese companies and can create an effective innovation process in China, for China and the world. Chinese CEOs can benefit from understanding the strategies of their peers as they strive to enter foreign markets. And all Western businesses should prepare for disruption from their new competitors.

    Yip and McKern provide case studies of successful firms, outline ten ways in which the managerial and innovative capabilities of these firms differ from those of Western firms, and describe how multinationals doing business in China can become part of the Chinese ecosystem of new knowledge and technology. Yip and McKern argue that these innovation capabilities will be the basis for creating world-class products and services to meet the challenges of a new era of global competition.

  • Contact Warhol: Photography Without End

    Andy Warhol's daily practice of photography during the last decade of his life, examined and documented for the first time.

    "A picture means I know where I was every minute. That's why I take pictures."
    --Andy Warhol

    From 1976 until his death in 1987, Andy Warhol was never without his camera. He snapped photos at discos, dinner parties, flea markets, and wrestling matches. Friends, boyfriends, business associates, socialites, celebrities, passers by: all captured Warhol's attention--at least for the moment he looked through the lens. In a way, Warhol's daily photography practice anticipated our current smart phone habits--our need to record our friends, our families, and our food. Warhol printed only about 17 percent of the 130,000 exposures he left on contact sheets. In 2014, Stanford's Cantor Center for the Arts acquired the 3,600 contact sheets from the Warhol Foundation. This book examines and documents for the first time these contact sheets and photographs--Warhol's final body of work

    Peggy Phelan and Richard Meyer analyze the contact sheets, never before seen, and their importance in Warhol's oeuvre. Accompanying their text and other essays are reproductions of contact sheets, photographs, and other visual material. The contact sheets present Warhol's point of view, unedited; we know where he was every minute because a photograph remembers it.

    Copublished with the Cantor Arts Center

  • Dynamic Economics - Quantitative Methods and Applications

    An integrated approach to the empirical application of dynamic optimization programming models, for students and researchers.

    This book is an effective, concise text for students and researchers that combines the tools of dynamic programming with numerical techniques and simulation-based econometric methods. Doing so, it bridges the traditional gap between theoretical and empirical research and offers an integrated framework for studying applied problems in macroeconomics and microeconomics.

    In part I the authors first review the formal theory of dynamic optimization; they then present the numerical tools and econometric techniques necessary to evaluate the theoretical models. In language accessible to a reader with a limited background in econometrics, they explain most of the methods used in applied dynamic research today, from the estimation of probability in a coin flip to a complicated nonlinear stochastic structural model. These econometric techniques provide the final link between the dynamic programming problem and data. Part II is devoted to the application of dynamic programming to specific areas of applied economics, including the study of business cycles, consumption, and investment behavior. In each instance the authors present the specific optimization problem as a dynamic programming problem, characterize the optimal policy functions, estimate the parameters, and use models for policy evaluation.

    The original contribution of Dynamic Economics: Quantitative Methods and Applications lies in the integrated approach to the empirical application of dynamic optimization programming models. This integration shows that empirical applications actually complement the underlying theory of optimization, while dynamic programming problems provide needed structure for estimation and policy evaluation.

  • Monetary Theory and Policy 3e

    This text presents a comprehensive treatment of the most important topics in monetary economics, focusing on the primary models monetary economists have employed to address topics in theory and policy. It covers the basic theoretical approaches, shows how to do simulation work with the models, and discusses the full range of frictions that economists have studied to understand the impacts of monetary policy. Among the topics presented are money-in-the-utility function, cash-in-advance, and search models of money; informational, portfolio, and nominal rigidities; credit frictions; the open economy; and issues of monetary policy, including discretion and commitment, policy analysis in new Keynesian models, and monetary operating procedures. The use of models based on dynamic optimization and nominal rigidities in consistent general equilibrium frameworks, relatively new when introduced to students in the first edition of this popular text, has since become the method of choice of monetary policy analysis. This third edition reflects the latest advances in the field, incorporating new or expanded material on such topics as monetary search equilibria, sticky information, adaptive learning, state-contingent pricing models, and channel systems for implementing monetary policy. Much of the material on policy analysis has been reorganized to reflect the dominance of the new Keynesian approach. Monetary Theory and Policy continues to be the only comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of monetary economics, not only the leading text in the field but also the standard reference for academics and central bank researchers.

  • The Stack - On Software and Sovereignty

    What has planetary-scale computation done to our geopolitical realities ? It takes different forms at different scales - from energy and mineral sourcing and subterranean cloud infrastructure to urban software and massive universal addressing systems ; from interfaces drawn by the augmentation of the hand and eye to users identified by self-quantification and the arrival of legions of sensors, algorithms, and robots. Together, how do these distort and deform modern political geographies and produce new territories in their own image ? In The Stack : On Software and Sovereignty, Benjamin H. Bratton proposes that these different genres of computation - smart grids, cloud platforms, mobile apps, smart cities, the Internet of Things, automation - can be seen not as so many species evolving on their own, but as forming a coherent whole : an accidental megastructure called The Stack that is both a computational apparatus and a new governing architecture. We are inside The Stack and it is inside us. In an account that is both theoretical and technical, drawing on political philosophy, architectural theory, and software studies, Bratton explores six layers of The Stack : Earth, Cloud, City, Address, Interface, User. Each is mapped on its own terms and understood as a component within the larger whole built from hard and soft systems intermingling - not only computational forms but also social, human, and physical forces. This model, informed by the logic of the multilayered structure of protocol "stacks," in which network technologies operate within a modular and vertical order, offers a comprehensive image of our emerging infrastructure and a platform for its ongoing reinvention. The Stack is an interdisciplinary design brief for a new geopolitics that works with and for planetary-scale computation. Interweaving the continental, urban, and perceptual scales, it shows how we can better build, dwell within, communicate with, and govern our worlds. - thestack.org

  • Waves and Forms - Electronic Music Devices and Computer Encodings in China

    An examination of the relationship between technical objects and culture in contemporary China, drawing on concepts from science and technology studies.

    Technical objects constrain what users do with them. They are not neutral entities but embody information, choices, values, assumptions, or even mistakes embedded by designers. What happens when a technology is designed in one culture and used in another? What happens, for example, when a Chinese user is confronted by Roman-alphabet-embedded interfaces? In this book, Basile Zimmermann examines the relationship between technical objects and culture in contemporary China, drawing on concepts from science and technology studies (STS). He presents a new theoretical framework for "culture" based on the notions of waves and forms, which provides a powerful descriptive toolkit for technology and culture.

    The materials Zimmermann uses to develop and illustrate his theoretical arguments come from three groups of case studies about the use of technical devices in today's China. The first and most extensive group consists of observations of electronic music devices in Beijing; the second is a study of a Chinese networking site, "Happy Network"; and the third is a collection of personal, small-scale observations on the way Chinese characters behave when located in alphabet-encoded devices such as mobile phones, web pages, or printed documents. Zimmermann discusses well-known frameworks from STS and combines them with propositions and topics from Chinese studies. Each of the case studies advances his theoretical argument. Zimmermann's account shows how cultural differences can be integrated into STS research, and how sinologists can turn their attention from ancient texts and traditional art to everyday things in present-day China.

  • Financial Markets & Monetary Policy

    In this second collection of his writings on financial markets (the first, On Exchange Rates, covered international finance), Jeffrey Frankel turns his attention to domestic markets, with special attention to how national monetary policy is handled.

    The decade of the 1980s left many central bankers disillusioned with monetarism, so that the question of the optimal nominal anchor remains an open one. In this second collection of his writings on financial markets (the first, On Exchange Rates, covered international finance), Jeffrey Frankel turns his attention to domestic markets, with special attention to how national monetary policy is handled. The fifteen papers are divided into three sections, each introduced by the author. They cover, respectively, optimal portfolio diversification, indicators of expected inflation, and the determination of monetary policy in the face of uncertainty. In the first section, Frankel explores what information the theory of optimal portfolio diversification can give the macroeconomist. In the second section, he considers what economic variables central bankers might use to gauge whether monetary policy is too tight or too loose. And in the final section, he looks at the range of uncertainty over policy effects and how that complicates coordination of macroeconomic policymaking. The book concludes with a sympathetic analysis of nominal GDP targeting.

  • Making Design Theory

    A new approach to theory development for practice-driven research, proposing that theory is something made in and through design.

    Tendencies toward "academization" of traditionally practice-based fields have forced design to articulate itself as an academic discipline, in theoretical terms. In this book, Johan Redstrom offers a new approach to theory development in design research-one that is driven by practice, experimentation, and making. Redstrom does not theorize from the outside, but explores the idea that, just as design research engages in the making of many different kinds of things, theory might well be one of those things it is making.

    Redstrom proposes that we consider theory not as stable and constant but as something unfolding--something acted as much as articulated, inherently fluid and transitional. Redstrom describes three ways in which theory, in particular formulating basic definitions, is made through design: the use of combinations of fluid terms to articulate issues; the definition of more complex concepts through practice; and combining sets of definitions made through design into "programs." These are the building blocks for creating conceptual structures to support design.

    Design seems to thrive on the complexities arising from dichotomies: form and function, freedom and method, art and science. With his idea of transitional theory, Redstrom departs from the traditional academic imperative to pick a side--theory or practice, art or science. Doing so, he opens up something like a design space for theory development within design research.

  • Bicycle Design - An Illustrated History

    The bicycle ranks as one of the most enduring, most widely used vehicles in the world, with more than a billion produced during almost two hundred years of cycling history. This book offers an authoritative and comprehensive account of the bicycle's technical and historical evolution, from the earliest velocipedes (invented to fill the need for horseless transport during a shortage of oats) to modern racing bikes, mountain bikes, and recumbents. It traces the bicycle's development in terms of materials, ergonomics, and vehicle physics, as carried out by inventors, entrepreneurs, and manufacturers.

    Written by two leading bicycle historians and generously illustrated with historic drawings, designs, and photographs, "Bicycle Design" describes the key stages in the evolution of the bicycle, beginning with the counterintuitive idea of balancing on two wheels in line, through the development of tension-spoked wheels, indirect drives (employing levers, pulleys, chains, and chainwheels), and pneumatic tires. The authors examine the further development of the bicycle for such specific purposes as racing, portability, and all-terrain use; and they describe the evolution of bicycle components including seats, transmission, brakes, lights (at first candle-based), and carriers (racks, panniers, saddlebags, child seats, and sidecars). They consider not only commercially successful designs but also commercial failures that pointed the way to future technological developments. And they debunk some myths about bicycles -- for example, the mistaken but often-cited idea that Leonardo sketched a chain-drive bike in his notebooks. Despite the bicycle's long history and mass appeal, its technological history has been neglected. This volume, with its engaging and wide-ranging coverage, fills that gap. It will be the starting point for all future histories of the bicycle.

  • Aperçu d'Une Histoire de la Langue Grecque (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Apercu d'une Histoire de la Langue Grecque

    Un grand travail a ete fait dans les dernieres annees sur l'histoire de la langue grecque. La comparaison ete minutieusement poursuivie avec les autres langues indo - europeennes. Les textes litteraires conserves ont ete rapproches les uns des autres, et l'on a fixe l'histoire des principaux faits linguistiques qu'ils_presentent. Les inscriptions, etudiees avec soin, ont fourni des documents authentiques, grace auxquels on a pu situer a leur place historique et geographique les donnees fournies par les textes. Les papyrus sont venus donner une idee de la langue courante de l'epoque hellenistique, et ont, depuis M. Deissmann, permis par comparaison d'uti liser certains textes litteraires. Ces recherches ne sont pas achevees, et l'on est loin d'avoir tire des donnees connues tout ce qu 'elles peuvent fournir. Mais il semble qu' on puisse marquer des maintenant les lignes principales du developpement sans risquer de se tromper autrement que dans le detail.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Nonhuman Photography

    A new philosophy of photography that goes beyond humanist concepts to consider imaging practices from which the human is absent, as both subject and agent.

    Today, in the age of CCTV, drones, medical body scans, and satellite images, photography is increasingly decoupled from human agency and human vision. In Nonhuman Photography, Joanna Zylinska offers a new philosophy of photography, going beyond the human-centric view to consider imaging practices from which the human is absent. Zylinska argues further that even those images produced by humans, whether artists or amateurs, entail a nonhuman, mechanical element--that is, they involve the execution of technical and cultural algorithms that shape our image-making devices as well as our viewing practices. At the same time, she notes, photography is increasingly mobilized to document the precariousness of the human habitat and tasked with helping us imagine a better tomorrow. With its conjoined human-nonhuman agency and vision, Zylinska claims, photography functions as both a form of control and a life-shaping force.

    Zylinska explores the potential of photography for developing new modes of seeing and imagining, and presents images from her own photographic project, Active Perceptual Systems. She also examines the challenges posed by digitization to established notions of art, culture, and the media. In connecting biological extinction and technical obsolescence, and discussing the parallels between photography and fossilization, she proposes to understand photography as a light-induced process of fossilization across media and across time scales.

  • Mémoires Pour Servir a l'Histoire Du Droit Public de la France En Matieres d'Impôts: Ou Recueil de Ce Qui s'Est Passé de Plus Intéressant a la Cour ... 1775; Avec Une Table Générale Des Matieres

    Excerpt from Memoires pour Servir A l'Histoire du Droit Public de la France en Matieres d'Impots: Ou Recueil de ce Qui s'Est Passe de Plus Interessant A la Cour des Aides, Depuis 1756 Jusqu'au Mois de Juin 1775; Avec une Table Generale des Matieres

    Ce font l'a des titres precieux pour la Cour des Aides. Les faits qui lui ont merite la bienveillance des Rois l'amour des Citoyens feroient la matiere de l'hifloire dont nous parlons. La Nation y verroit avec recomoiflance le detail des difierents travaux dont la Compagnie s'efl occu pee, les combats qu'elle a foutenus en plus d'une occafion, pour defendre les malheureux contre l'injufiice des tyrans du Peuple; enfin les violentes fecoufles dont elle a partage l'horreur avec les autres Cours qui fembloient menacer d'une ruine prochaine toute la Magiflrature.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Our Selfish Tax Laws: Toward Tax Reform That Mirrors Our Better Selves

    Why tax law is not just a pocketbook issue but a reflection of what and whom we, as a society, value.

    Most of us think of tax as a pocketbook issue: how much we owe, how much we'll get back, how much we can deduct. In Our Selfish Tax Laws, Anthony Infanti takes a broader view, considering not just how taxes affect us individually but how the tax system reflects our culture and society. He finds that American tax laws validate and benefit those who already possess power and privilege while starkly reflecting the lines of difference and discrimination in American society based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity, immigration status, and disability. Infanti argues that instead of focusing our tax reform discussions on which loopholes to close or which deductions to allow, we should consider how to make our tax system reflect American ideals of inclusivity rather than institutionalizing exclusion.

    After describing the theoretical and intellectual underpinnings of his argument, Infanti offers two comparative case studies, examining the treatment of housing tax expenditures and the unit of taxation in the United States, Canada, France, and Spain to show how tax law reflects its social and cultural context. Then, drawing on his own work and that of other critical tax scholars, Infanti explains how the discourse surrounding tax reform masks the many ways that the American tax system rewards and reifies privilege. To counter this, Infanti urges us to work together to create a society with a tax system that respects and values all Americans.

  • Algorithms in Structural Molecular Biology

    An overview of algorithms important to computational structural biology that addresses such topics as NMR and design and analysis of proteins.

    Using the tools of information technology to understand the molecular machinery of the cell offers both challenges and opportunities to computational scientists. Over the past decade, novel algorithms have been developed both for analyzing biological data and for synthetic biology problems such as protein engineering. This book explains the algorithmic foundations and computational approaches underlying areas of structural biology including NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance); X-ray crystallography; and the design and analysis of proteins, peptides, and small molecules.

    Each chapter offers a concise overview of important concepts, focusing on a key topic in the field. Four chapters offer a short course in algorithmic and computational issues related to NMR structural biology, giving the reader a useful toolkit with which to approach the fascinating yet thorny computational problems in this area. A recurrent theme is understanding the interplay between biophysical experiments and computational algorithms. The text emphasizes the mathematical foundations of structural biology while maintaining a balance between algorithms and a nuanced understanding of experimental data. Three emerging areas, particularly fertile ground for research students, are highlighted: NMR methodology, design of proteins and other molecules, and the modeling of protein flexibility.

    The next generation of computational structural biologists will need training in geometric algorithms, provably good approximation algorithms, scientific computation, and an array of techniques for handling noise and uncertainty in combinatorial geometry and computational biophysics. This book is an essential guide for young scientists on their way to research success in this exciting field.

  • A Composer′s Guide to Game Music

    A comprehensive, practical guide to composing video game music, from acquiring the necessary skills to finding work in the field.

    Music in video games is often a sophisticated, complex composition that serves to engage the player, set the pace of play, and aid interactivity. Composers of video game music must master an array of specialized skills not taught in the conservatory, including the creation of linear loops, music chunks for horizontal resequencing, and compositional fragments for use within a generative framework. In A Composer's Guide to Game Music, Winifred Phillips -- herself an award-winning composer of video game music -- provides a comprehensive, practical guide that leads an aspiring video game composer from acquiring the necessary creative skills to understanding the function of music in games to finding work in the field.

    Musicians and composers may be drawn to game music composition because the game industry is a multibillion-dollar, employment-generating economic powerhouse, but, Phillips writes, the most important qualification for a musician who wants to become a game music composer is a love of video games. Phillips offers detailed coverage of essential topics, including musicianship and composition experience; immersion; musical themes; music and game genres; workflow; working with a development team; linear music; interactive music, both rendered and generative; audio technology, from mixers and preamps to software; and running a business.

    A Composer's Guide to Game Music offers indispensable guidance for musicians and composers who want to deploy their creativity in a dynamic and growing industry, protect their musical identities while working in a highly technical field, and create great music within the constraints of a new medium.

  • Coding Literacy: How Computer Programming Is Changing Writing

    How the theoretical tools of literacy help us understand programming in its historical, social and conceptual contexts.

    The message from educators, the tech community, and even politicians is clear: everyone should learn to code. To emphasize the universality and importance of computer programming, promoters of coding for everyone often invoke the concept of "literacy," drawing parallels between reading and writing code and reading and writing text. In this book, Annette Vee examines the coding-as-literacy analogy and argues that it can be an apt rhetorical frame. The theoretical tools of literacy help us understand programming beyond a technical level, and in its historical, social, and conceptual contexts. Viewing programming from the perspective of literacy and literacy from the perspective of programming, she argues, shifts our understandings of both. Computer programming becomes part of an array of communication skills important in everyday life, and literacy, augmented by programming, becomes more capacious.

    Vee examines the ways that programming is linked with literacy in coding literacy campaigns, considering the ideologies that accompany this coupling, and she looks at how both writing and programming encode and distribute information. She explores historical parallels between writing and programming, using the evolution of mass textual literacy to shed light on the trajectory of code from military and government infrastructure to large-scale businesses to personal use. Writing and coding were institutionalized, domesticated, and then established as a basis for literacy. Just as societies demonstrated a "literate mentality" regardless of the literate status of individuals, Vee argues, a "computational mentality" is now emerging even though coding is still a specialized skill.

  • Rule of Law, Misrule of Men

    A passionate call for citizen action to uphold the rule of law when government does not.

    This book is a passionate call for citizen action to uphold the rule of law when government does not. Arguing that post-9/11 legislation and foreign policy severed the executive branch from the will of the people, Elaine Scarry in Rule of Law, Misrule of Men offers a fierce defense of the people's role as guarantor of our democracy. She begins with the groundswell of local resistance to the 2001 Patriot Act, when hundreds of towns, cities, and counties passed resolutions refusing compliance with the information-gathering the act demanded, showing that citizens can take action against laws that undermine the rights of citizens and noncitizens alike.

    Scarry, once described in the New York Times Sunday Magazine as "known for her unflinching investigations of war, torture, and pain," then turns to the conduct of the Iraqi occupation, arguing that the Bush administration led the country onto treacherous moral terrain, violating the Geneva Conventions and the armed forces' own most fundamental standards. She warns of the damage done to democracy when military personnel must choose between their own codes of warfare and the illegal orders of their civilian superiors. If our military leaders uphold the rule of law when civilian leaders do not, might we come to prefer them? Finally, reviewing what we know now about the Bush administration's crimes, Scarry insists that prosecution--whether local, national, or international--is essential to restoring the rule of law, and she shows how a brave town in Vermont has taken up the challenge.

    Throughout the book, Scarry finds hope in moments where citizens withheld their consent to grievous crimes, finding creative ways to stand by their patriotism.

  • Les Essais de Michel de Montaigne, Vol. 5: Lexique de la Langue Des Essais, Et Index Des Noms Propres (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Essais de Michel de Montaigne, Vol. 5: Lexique de la Langue des Essais, Et Index des Noms Propres

    Notre amitie s'etait liee sous les auspices de Montaigne. Sans que nous nous soyons jamais rencontres, elle a grandi a la faveur d'une correspondance de vingt annees ou Montaigne a eu la part du lion. Miss Grace Norton a souhaite qu'elle se prolongeat dans cette collaboration toute devouee a Montaigne.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Typologies

    An encyclopedic collection of all known Becher industrial studies, arranged by building type. Bernd and Hilla Becher's photography can be considered conceptual art, typological study, and topological documentation. Their work can be linked to the Neue Sachlichkeit movement of the 1920s and to such masters of German photography as Karl Blossfeldt, August Sander, and Albert Renger-Patzsch. Their photographs of industrial structures, taken over the course of forty years, are the most important body of work in independent objective photography. A keynote of their contributions to "industrial archaeology" has been their creation of typologies of different types of buildings; this book, which accompanies a major retrospective exhibition, collects all known Becher studies of industrial building types and presents them as a visual encyclopedia.Each chapter is devoted to a different structure-water towers, coal bunkers, winding towers, breakers (ore, coal, and stone), lime kilns, grain elevators, blast furnaces, steel mills, and factory facades. These are organized according to typologies, most of which are presented as tableaux or suites of about twelve images each. The book contains close to 2000 individual images. The accompanying text by Armin Zweite is an essential art historical consideration of the Bechers' work. This ultimate Becher book stands as a capstone to the Bechers' unique body of work.

  • Literary Gaming

    A new analytical framework for understanding literary videogames, the literary-ludic spectrum, illustrated by close readings of selected works.

    In this book, Astrid Ensslin examines literary videogames--hybrid digital artifacts that have elements of both games and literature, combining the ludic and the literary. These works can be considered verbal art in the broadest sense (in that language plays a significant part in their aesthetic appeal); they draw on game mechanics; and they are digital-born, dependent on a digital medium (unlike, for example, conventional books read on e-readers). They employ narrative, dramatic, and poetic techniques in order to explore the affordances and limitations of ludic structures and processes, and they are designed to make players reflect on conventional game characteristics. Ensslin approaches these hybrid works as a new form of experimental literary art that requires novel ways of playing and reading. She proposes a systematic method for analyzing literary-ludic (L-L) texts that takes into account the analytic concerns of both literary stylistics and ludology.

    After establishing the theoretical underpinnings of her proposal, Ensslin introduces the L-L spectrum as an analytical framework for literary games. Based on the phenomenological distinction between deep and hyper attention, the L-L spectrum charts a work's relative emphases on reading and gameplay. Ensslin applies this analytical toolkit to close readings of selected works, moving from the predominantly literary to the primarily ludic, from online hypermedia fiction to Flash fiction to interactive fiction to poetry games to a highly designed literary "auteur" game. Finally, she considers her innovative analytical methodology in the context of contemporary ludology, media studies, and literary discourse analysis.

  • Heredity Explored: Between Public Domain and Experimental Science, 1850-1930

    Investigations of how the understanding of heredity developed in scientific, medical, agro-industrial, and political contexts of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    This book examines the wide range of scientific and social arenas in which the concept of inheritance gained relevance in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Although genetics emerged as a scientific discipline during this period, the idea of inheritance also played a role in a variety of medical, agricultural, industrial, and political contexts.

    The book, which follows an earlier collection, Heredity Produced (covering the period 1500 to 1870), addresses heredity in national debates over identity, kinship, and reproduction; biopolitical conceptions of heredity, degeneration, and gender; agro-industrial contexts for newly emerging genetic rationality; heredity and medical research; and the genealogical constructs and experimental systems of genetics that turned heredity into a representable and manipulable object. Taken together, the essays in Heredity Explored show that a history of heredity includes much more than the history of genetics, and that knowledge of heredity was always more than the knowledge formulated as Mendelism. It was the broader public discourse of heredity in all its contexts that made modern genetics possible.

    Contributors
    Caroline Arni, Christophe Bonneuil, Christina Brandt, Luis Campos, Jean-Paul Gaudilliere, Bernd Gausemeier, Jean Gayon, Veronika Lipphardt, Ilana Lowy, J. Andrew Mendelsohn, Staffan Muller-Wille, Diane B. Paul, Theodore M. Porter, Alain Pottage, Hans-Jorg Rheinberger, Marsha L. Richmond, Helga Satzinger, Judy Johns Schloegel, Alexander von Schwerin, Hamish G. Spencer, Ulrike Vedder

  • The Digital Rights Movement - The Role of Technology in Subverting Digital Copyright

    The evolution of activism against the expansion of copyright in the digital domain, with case studies of resistance including eBook and iTunes hacks.

    The movement against restrictive digital copyright protection arose largely in response to the excesses of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998. In The Digital Rights Movement, Hector Postigo shows that what began as an assertion of consumer rights to digital content has become something broader: a movement concerned not just with consumers and gadgets but with cultural ownership. Increasingly stringent laws and technological measures are more than incoveniences; they lock up access to our "cultural commons."

    Postigo describes the legislative history of the DMCA and how policy "blind spots" produced a law at odds with existing and emerging consumer practices. Yet the DMCA established a political and legal rationale brought to bear on digital media, the Internet, and other new technologies. Drawing on social movement theory and science and technology studies, Postigo presents case studies of resistance to increased control over digital media, describing a host of tactics that range from hacking to lobbying.

    Postigo discusses the movement's new, user-centered conception of "fair use" that seeks to legitimize noncommercial personal and creative uses such as copying legitimately purchased content and remixing music and video tracks. He introduces the concept of technological resistance--when hackers and users design and deploy technologies that allows access to digital content despite technological protection mechanisms--as the flip side to the technological enforcement represented by digital copy protection and a crucial tactic for the movement.

  • Grounded Phonology

    This breakthrough study argues for a significant link between phonetics and phonology. Its authors propose that phonological rules and representations are tightly constrained by the interaction of formal conditions drawn from a limited universal pool and substantive conditions of a phonetically motivated nature. They support this proposal through principled accounts of a variety of topics such as vowel harmony, neutrality, and under specification.Unlike much work on this topic, Archangeli and Pulleyblank provide an explicit account of their assumptions, defined in a comprehensive theory of phonological rules and representations. The authors survey an impressive range of data, including an investigation of cross-linguistic patterns of ATR Harmony. They demonstrate that their theory is flexible enough to account for variation in individual phonological systems, yet it is firmly constrained by a small set of well-motivated principles. Extensive references throughout the book to published and unpublished work provide a valuable roadmap through this semicharted terrain.The approach in Grounded Phonology is modular, in that it presents a theory composed of subtheories, each of which is independently motivated, and the role of each module is to constrain the range of possibilities (of wellformedness)in its domain. Differences among languages can arise from differing intramodular selections or from interaction among modules.Diana Archangeli is Associate Professor in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Arizona. Douglas Pulleyblank is Associate Professor in the Department of Linguistics at the University of British Columbia.

  • Oeuvres Complètes de Jean Racine, Vol. 7: Avec Le Commentaire (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Completes de Jean Racine, Vol. 7: Avec le Commentaire

    Jean Desmarets de saint-sorlin de l'academie francaise, mort en 1676. Sa comedie des Visionnaz'res avait eu un succes prodigieux.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Outer Limits of Reason - What Science, Mathematics, and Logic Cannot Tell Us

    Many books explain what is known about the universe. This book investigates what cannot be known. Rather than exploring the amazing facts that science, mathematics, and reason have revealed to us, this work studies what science, mathematics, and reason tell us cannot be revealed. In The Outer Limits of Reason, Noson Yanofsky considers what cannot be predicted, described, or known, and what will never be understood. He discusses the limitations of computers, physics, logic, and our own thought processes.

    Yanofsky describes simple tasks that would take computers trillions of centuries to complete and other problems that computers can never solve; perfectly formed English sentences that make no sense; different levels of infinity; the bizarre world of the quantum; the relevance of relativity theory; the causes of chaos theory; math problems that cannot be solved by normal means; and statements that are true but cannot be proven. He explains the limitations of our intuitions about the world -- our ideas about space, time, and motion, and the complex relationship between the knower and the known.

    Moving from the concrete to the abstract, from problems of everyday language to straightforward philosophical questions to the formalities of physics and mathematics, Yanofsky demonstrates a myriad of unsolvable problems and paradoxes. Exploring the various limitations of our knowledge, he shows that many of these limitations have a similar pattern and that by investigating these patterns, we can better understand the structure and limitations of reason itself. Yanofsky even attempts to look beyond the borders of reason to see what, if anything, is out there.

  • Why Only Us: Language and Evolution

    Berwick and Chomsky draw on recent developments in linguistic theory to offer an evolutionary account of language and humans' remarkable, species-specific ability to acquire it.

    "A loosely connected collection of four essays that will fascinate anyone interested in the extraordinary phenomenon of language."
    --
    New York Review of Books

    We are born crying, but those cries signal the first stirring of language. Within a year or so, infants master the sound system of their language; a few years after that, they are engaging in conversations. This remarkable, species-specific ability to acquire any human language--"the language faculty"--raises important biological questions about language, including how it has evolved. This book by two distinguished scholars--a computer scientist and a linguist--addresses the enduring question of the evolution of language.

    Robert Berwick and Noam Chomsky explain that until recently the evolutionary question could not be properly posed, because we did not have a clear idea of how to define "language" and therefore what it was that had evolved. But since the Minimalist Program, developed by Chomsky and others, we know the key ingredients of language and can put together an account of the evolution of human language and what distinguishes us from all other animals.

    Berwick and Chomsky discuss the biolinguistic perspective on language, which views language as a particular object of the biological world; the computational efficiency of language as a system of thought and understanding; the tension between Darwin's idea of gradual change and our contemporary understanding about evolutionary change and language; and evidence from nonhuman animals, in particular vocal learning in songbirds.

  • Histoire Littéraire de l'Afrique Chrétienne Depuis Les Origines Jusqu'a l'Invasion Arabe, Vol. 6: Littérature Donatiste Au Temps de Saint Augustin (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Histoire Litteraire de l'Afrique Chretienne Depuis les Origines Jusqu'a l'Invasion Arabe, Vol. 6: Litterature Donatiste au Temps de Saint Augustin

    Comme tout bon Donatiste, il fut bientot en guerre avec les Catholiques. Il les combattit d'aho1d dans son diocese, puis jusqu'au bout de la Numidie, puis a Carthage et dans toute l'afrique. Il allait lutter contre eux sans t1eve, par tous les moyens jusqu 'a son dernier jour.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Introduction to Industrial Organization

    An issue-driven introduction to industrial organization, thoroughly updated and revised.

    The study of industrial organization (IO)--the analysis of the way firms compete with one another--has become a key component of economics and of such related disciplines as finance, strategy, and marketing. This book provides an issue-driven introduction to industrial organization. Although formal in its approach, it is written in a way that requires only basic mathematical training. It includes a vast array of examples, from both within and outside the United States. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and revised.

    In addition to updated examples, this edition presents a more systematic treatment of public policy implications. It features added advanced sections, with analytical treatment of ideas previously presented verbally; and exercises, which allow for a deeper and more formal understanding of each topic. The new edition also includes an introduction to such empirical methods as demand estimation and equilibrium identification. Supplemental material is available online.

  • Asylum - Inside the Closed World of State Mental Hospitals

    Powerful photographs of the grand exteriors and crumbling interiors of America's abandoned state mental hospitals.

    For more than half the nation's history, vast mental hospitals were a prominent feature of the American landscape. From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth, over 250 institutions for the insane were built throughout the United States; by 1948, they housed more than a half million patients. The blueprint for these hospitals was set by Pennsylvania hospital superintendant Thomas Story Kirkbride: a central administration building flanked symmetrically by pavilions and surrounded by lavish grounds with pastoral vistas. Kirkbride and others believed that well-designed buildings and grounds, a peaceful environment, a regimen of fresh air, and places for work, exercise, and cultural activities would heal mental illness. But in the second half of the twentieth century, after the introduction of psychotropic drugs and policy shifts toward community-based care, patient populations declined dramatically, leaving many of these beautiful, massive buildings--and the patients who lived in them--neglected and abandoned.

    Architect and photographer Christopher Payne spent six years documenting the decay of state mental hospitals like these, visiting seventy institutions in thirty states. Through his lens we see splendid, palatial exteriors (some designed by such prominent architects as H. H. Richardson and Samuel Sloan) and crumbling interiors--chairs stacked against walls with peeling paint in a grand hallway; brightly colored toothbrushes still hanging on a rack; stacks of suitcases, never packed for the trip home. Accompanying Payne's striking and powerful photographs is an essay by Oliver Sacks (who described his own experience working at a state mental hospital in his book Awakenings). Sacks pays tribute to Payne's photographs and to the lives once lived in these places, "where one could be both mad and safe."

  • The Future Is Not What It Used to Be - Climate Change and Energy Scarcity

    A hard look at the twin challenges of climate change and energy scarcity that examines historical precedents and allows no room for complacency.

    The future is not what it used to be because we can no longer rely on the comforting assumption that it will resemble the past. Past abundance of fuel, for example, does not imply unending abundance. Infinite growth on a finite planet is not possible.

    In this book, Jorg Friedrichs argues that industrial society itself is transitory, and he examines the prospects for our civilization's coming to terms with its two most imminent choke points: climate change and energy scarcity. He offers a thorough and accessible account of these two challenges as well as the linkages between them.

    Friedrichs contends that industrial civilization cannot outlast our ability to burn fossil fuels and that the demise of industrial society would entail cataclysmic change, including population decreases. To understand the social and political implications, he examines historical cases of climate stress and energy scarcity: devastating droughts in the ancient Near East; the Little Ice Age in the medieval Far North; the Japanese struggle to prevent "fuel starvation" from 1918 to 1945; the "totalitarian retrenchment" of the North Korean governing class after the end of Soviet oil deliveries; and Cuba's socioeconomic adaptation to fuel scarcity in the 1990s. He draws important lessons about the likely effects of climate and energy disruptions on different kinds of societies.

    The warnings of climate scientists are met by denial and inaction, while energy experts offer little guidance on the effects of future scarcity. Friedrichs suggests that to confront our predicament we must affirm our core values and take action to transform our way of life. Whether we are private citizens or public officials, complacency is not an option: climate change and energy scarcity are emerging facts of life.

  • Unfinished Tales: Of Numenor and Middle-Earth

    A new B-format edition of JRR Tolkien's legacy of short stories which inhabit the realm of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. Unfinished Tales is a collection of narratives ranging in time from the Elder Days of Middle-earth to the end of the War of the Ring, and provides those who have read The Lord of the Rings with a whole collection of background and new stories from the twentieth century's most acclaimed popular author. The book concentrates on the realm of Middle-earth and comprises such elements as Gandalf's lively account of how it was that he came to send the Dwarves to the celebrated party at Bag-End, the emergence of the sea-god Ulmo before the eyes of Tuor on the coast of Beleriand, and an exact description of the military organization of the Riders of Rohan. Unfinished Tales also contains the only story about the long ages of Numenor before its downfall, and all that is known about such matters as the Five Wizards, the Palantiri and the legend of Amroth. The tales were collated and edited by JRR Tolkien's son and literary heir, Christopher Tolkien, who provides a short commentary on each story, helping the reader to fill in the gaps and put each story into the context of the rest of his father's writings.

  • Super Power, Spoony Bards, and Silverware: The Super Nintendo Entertainment System

    How the Super Nintendo Entertainment System embodied Nintendo's resistance to innovation and took the company from industry leadership to the margins of videogaming.

    This is a book about the Super Nintendo Entertainment System that is not celebratory or self-congratulatory. Most other accounts declare the Super NES the undisputed victor of the "16-bit console wars" of 1989-1995. In this book, Dominic Arsenault reminds us that although the SNES was a strong platform filled with high-quality games, it was also the product of a short-sighted corporate vision focused on maintaining Nintendo's market share and business model. This led the firm to fall from a dominant position during its golden age (dubbed by Arsenault the "ReNESsance") with the NES to the margins of the industry with the Nintendo 64 and GameCube consoles. Arsenault argues that Nintendo's conservative business strategies and resistance to innovation during the SNES years explain its market defeat by Sony's PlayStation.

    Extending the notion of "platform" to include the marketing forces that shape and constrain creative work, Arsenault draws not only on game studies and histories but on game magazines, boxes, manuals, and advertisements to identify the technological discourses and business models that formed Nintendo's Super Power. He also describes the cultural changes in video games during the 1990s that slowly eroded the love of gamer enthusiasts for the SNES as the Nintendo generation matured. Finally, he chronicles the many technological changes that occurred through the SNES's lifetime, including full-motion video, CD-ROM storage, and the shift to 3D graphics. Because of the SNES platform's architecture, Arsenault explains, Nintendo resisted these changes and continued to focus on traditional gameplay genres.

  • Bulletin d'Histoire Ecclésiastique Et d'Archéologie Religieuse Des Diocèses de Valence, Digne, Gap, Grenoble Et Viviers, 1885-6, Vol. 6 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Bulletin d'Histoire Ecclesiastique Et d'Archeologie Religieuse des Dioceses de Valence, Digne, Gap, Grenoble Et Viviers, 1885-6, Vol. 6

    En 1557, un second concile des trois provinces provencales fut tenu dans l'eglise de Saint - Ruf, pres d'avignon, le 5 de cembre, auquel assisterent, a l'exception de deux, tous les eveques du midi en deca du Rhone, au nombre de vingt. Cette fois, Hugues Aimeric se trouvait avec ses collegues, et il coo pera a la redaction des nombreux canons disciplinaires qui furent adoptes dans cette assemblee. Le P. De Sainte - Marthe, par suite de sa chronologie erronee, fait figurer dans ce synode comme eveque de Saint - Paul, Hugues Adhemar, qui, dit-il, contribua beaucoup aux tres saintes ordonnances qui y furent faites. Assurement, ce prelat suppose ne put: ni assister au concile ni prendre une part quelconque a ses travaux.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science

    These original essays explore the philosophical implications of Newton's work.

    These original essays explore the philosophical implications of Newton's work. They address a wide range of topics including Newton's influence on his contemporaries and successors such as Locke and Kant, and his views on the methodology of science, on absolute space and time, and on the Deity.Howard Stein compares Newton's refusal to lock natural philosophy into a preexisting system with the more rigid philosophical predilections of his near-contemporaries Christian Huygens and John Locke. Richard Arthur's commentary provides a useful gloss on Stein's essay. Lawrence Sklar puzzles over Newton's attempts to provide a unified treatment of the various "real quantities": absolute space, time, and motion. According to Phillip Bricker's responding essay, however, the distinctions Sklar draws do not go to the heart of the debate between realists and representationalists. J. E. McGuire and John Carriero debate Newtons views of the relationship between the Deity and the nature of time and space. Peter Achinstein looks at the tension between Newton's methodological views and his advocacy of a corpuscular theory of light; he suggests that Newton could justify the latter by a "weak" inductive inference, but R.I.G. Hughes believes that this inference involves an induction Newton would be unwilling to make. Immanuel Kant's critique of Newton's view of gravity is discussed and amplified by Michael Friedman. In response, Robert DiSalle raises a number of problems for Friedman's analysis. Errol Harris and Philip Grier extend the discussion to the present day and look at the ethical implications of Newton's work.

    Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science is included in the Johns Hopkins Series on the History and Philosophy of Science.

  • The Largest Art: A Measured Manifesto for a Plural Urbanism

    Why urban design is larger than architecture: the foundational qualities of urban design, examples and practitioners

    Urban design in practice is incremental, but architects imagine it as scaled-up architecture--large, ready-to-build pop-up cities. This paradox of urban design is rarely addressed; indeed, urban design as a discipline lacks a theoretical foundation. In The Largest Art, Brent Ryan argues that urban design encompasses more than architecture, and he provides a foundational theory of urban design beyond the architectural scale. In a "declaration of independence" for urban design, Ryan describes urban design as the largest of the building arts, with qualities of its own.

    Ryan distinguishes urban design from its sister arts by its pluralism: plural scale, ranging from an alleyway to a region; plural time, because it is deeply enmeshed in both history and the present; plural property, with many owners; plural agents, with many makers; and plural form, with a distributed quality that allows it to coexist with diverse elements of the city. Ryan looks at three well-known urban design projects through the lens of pluralism: a Brancusi sculptural ensemble in Romania, a Bronx housing project, and a formally and spatially diverse grouping of projects in Ljubljana, Slovenia. He revisits the thought of three plural urbanists working between 1960 and 1980: David Crane, Edmund Bacon, and Kevin Lynch. And he tells three design stories for the future, imaginary scenarios of plural urbanism in locations around the world.

    Ryan concludes his manifesto with three signal considerations urban designers must acknowledge: eternal change, inevitable incompletion, and flexible fidelity. Cities are ceaselessly active, perpetually changing. It is the urban designer's task to make art with aesthetic qualities that can survive perpetual change.

  • Machine Art in the Twentieth Century

    An investigation of artists' engagement with technical systems, tracing art historical lineages that connect works of different periods.

    "Machine art" is neither a movement nor a genre, but encompasses diverse ways in which artists engage with technical systems. In this book, Andreas Broeckmann examines a variety of twentieth- and early twenty-first-century artworks that articulate people's relationships with machines. In the course of his investigation, Broeckmann traces historical lineages that connect art of different periods, looking for continuities that link works from the end of the century to developments in the 1950s and 1960s and to works by avant-garde artists in the 1910s and 1920s. An art historical perspective, he argues, might change our views of recent works that seem to be driven by new media technologies but that in fact continue a century-old artistic exploration.

    Broeckmann investigates critical aspects of machine aesthetics that characterized machine art until the 1960s and then turns to specific domains of artistic engagement with technology: algorithms and machine autonomy, looking in particular at the work of the Canadian artist David Rokeby; vision and image, and the advent of technical imaging; and the human body, using the work of the Australian artist Stelarc as an entry point to art that couples the machine to the body, mechanically or cybernetically. Finally, Broeckmann argues that systems thinking and ecology have brought about a fundamental shift in the meaning of technology, which has brought with it a rethinking of human subjectivity. He examines a range of artworks, including those by the Japanese artist Seiko Mikami, whose work exemplifies the shift.

  • A Treatise on the Law of Instruction to Juries in Civil and Criminal Cases, Vol. 2: With Form of Instructions Approved by the Courts (Classic Reprint)

    1. X. 1905, Janaceks bedeutendes Klavierwerk, das ublicherweise als Sonate bezeichnet wird, hatte ein bewegtes Schicksal. Die Komposition bestand ursprunglich aus drei Satzen und wurde vom Tod eines tschechischen Arbeiters, der wahrend einer Demonstration in Brunn vom Militar erschossen wurde, inspiriert. Kurz vor der Urauffuhrung des Werkes im Jahre 1906 vernichtete der Komponist jedoch zunachst den letzten Satz und anschliessend, nach einer privaten Auffuhrung des Stucks in Prag, auch noch die verbliebenen beiden Satze. Erst wahrend der Feierlichkeiten zu Janaceks siebzigstem Geburtstag brachte die Pianistin, die das Werk uraufgefuhrt hatte, den Mut auf, es noch einmal fur den Komponisten aus ihren eigenen Noten zu spielen. Daraufhin entschied Janacek schliesslich, das Werk doch noch verlegen zu lassen. Der Notentext, der auf der Kritischen Gesamtausgabe der Werke von Leos Janacek basiert, ist mit praxisorientierten Fingersatzvorschlagen versehen. - Neues ausfuhrliches Vorwort von Jiri Zahradka (tschech./engl./dt.) - Praxiserprobte Fingersatze - Barenreiter-Urtext auf dem aktuellen Stand der Janacek-Forschung

  • Streaming, Sharing, Stealing: Big Data and the Future of Entertainment

    How big data is transforming the creative industries, and how those industries can use lessons from Netflix, Amazon, and Apple to fight back.

    "[The authors explain] gently yet firmly exactly how the internet threatens established ways and what can and cannot be done about it. Their book should be required for anyone who wishes to believe that nothing much has changed."
    --The Wall Street Journal

    "Packed with examples, from the nimble-footed who reacted quickly to adapt their businesses, to laggards who lost empires."
    --Financial Times

    Traditional network television programming has always followed the same script: executives approve a pilot, order a trial number of episodes, and broadcast them, expecting viewers to watch a given show on their television sets at the same time every week. But then came Netflix's House of Cards. Netflix gauged the show's potential from data it had gathered about subscribers' preferences, ordered two seasons without seeing a pilot, and uploaded the first thirteen episodes all at once for viewers to watch whenever they wanted on the devices of their choice.

    In this book, Michael Smith and Rahul Telang, experts on entertainment analytics, show how the success of House of Cards upended the film and TV industries--and how companies like Amazon and Apple are changing the rules in other entertainment industries, notably publishing and music. We're living through a period of unprecedented technological disruption in the entertainment industries. Just about everything is affected: pricing, production, distribution, piracy. Smith and Telang discuss niche products and the long tail, product differentiation, price discrimination, and incentives for users not to steal content. To survive and succeed, businesses have to adapt rapidly and creatively. Smith and Telang explain how.

    How can companies discover who their customers are, what they want, and how much they are willing to pay for it? Data. The entertainment industries, must learn to play a little "moneyball." The bottom line: follow the data.

  • Rogue Archives: Digital Cultural Memory and Media Fandom

    An examination of how nonprofessional archivists, especially media fans, practice cultural preservation on the Internet and how "digital cultural memory" differs radically from print-era archiving.

    The task of archiving was once entrusted only to museums, libraries, and other institutions that acted as repositories of culture in material form. But with the rise of digital networked media, a multitude of self-designated archivists--fans, pirates, hackers--have become practitioners of cultural preservation on the Internet. These nonprofessional archivists have democratized cultural memory, building freely accessible online archives of whatever content they consider suitable for digital preservation. In Rogue Archives, Abigail De Kosnik examines the practice of archiving in the transition from print to digital media, looking in particular at Internet fan fiction archives.

    De Kosnik explains that media users today regard all of mass culture as an archive, from which they can redeploy content for their own creations. Hence, "remix culture" and fan fiction are core genres of digital cultural production. De Kosnik explores, among other things, the anticanonical archiving styles of Internet preservationists; the volunteer labor of online archiving; how fan archives serve women and queer users as cultural resources; archivists' efforts to attract racially and sexually diverse content; and how digital archives adhere to the logics of performance more than the logics of print. She also considers the similarities and differences among free culture, free software, and fan communities, and uses digital humanities tools to quantify and visualize the size, user base, and rate of growth of several online fan archives.

  • Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots 2e

    The second edition of a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of mobile robotics, from algorithms to mechanisms.

    Mobile robots range from the Mars Pathfinder mission's teleoperated Sojourner to the cleaning robots in the Paris Metro. This text offers students and other interested readers an introduction to the fundamentals of mobile robotics, spanning the mechanical, motor, sensory, perceptual, and cognitive layers the field comprises. The text focuses on mobility itself, offering an overview of the mechanisms that allow a mobile robot to move through a real world environment to perform its tasks, including locomotion, sensing, localization, and motion planning. It synthesizes material from such fields as kinematics, control theory, signal analysis, computer vision, information theory, artificial intelligence, and probability theory. The book presents the techniques and technology that enable mobility in a series of interacting modules. Each chapter treats a different aspect of mobility, as the book moves from low-level to high-level details. It covers all aspects of mobile robotics, including software and hardware design considerations, related technologies, and algorithmic techniques.

    This second edition has been revised and updated throughout, with 130 pages of new material on such topics as locomotion, perception, localization, and planning and navigation. Problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter. Bringing together all aspects of mobile robotics into one volume, Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots can serve as a textbook or a working tool for beginning practitioners.

    Curriculum developed by Dr. Robert King, Colorado School of Mines, and Dr. James Conrad, University of North Carolina-Charlotte, to accompany the National Instruments LabVIEW Robotics Starter Kit, are available. Included are 13 (6 by Dr. King and 7 by Dr. Conrad) laboratory exercises for using the LabVIEW Robotics Starter Kit to teach mobile robotics concepts.

  • How to Catch a Robot Rat - When Biology Inspires Innovation

    How biology has inspired technology -- from a watch with an alarm modeled on a cricket's noisemaking to a robot that can dance.

    Humans have modeled their technology on nature for centuries. The inventor of paper was inspired by a wasp's nest; Brunelleschi demonstrated the principles of his famous dome with an egg; a Swiss company produced a wristwatch with an alarm modeled on the sound-producing capabilities of a cricket. Today, in the era of the "new bionics," engineers aim to reproduce the speed and maneuverability of the red tuna in a submarine; cochlear implants send sound signals to the auditory nerve of a hearing-impaired person; and robots replicate a baby's cognitive development. How to Catch a Robot Rat examines past, present, and future attempts to apply the methods and systems found in nature to the design of objects and devices.

    The authors look at "natural technology transfers" how the study of nature inspired technological breakthroughs -- including the cricket-inspired watch; Velcro, which duplicates the prickly burrs of a burdock flower; and self-sharpening blades that are modeled on rats' self-sharpening teeth. They examine autonomous robots that imitate animals and their behaviors -- for example, the development of an unmanned microdrone that could fly like an albatross. And they describe hybrids of natural and artificial systems: neuroprostheses translating the thought of quadriplegics; and a nanorobot controlled by muscle cells. Some of the ideas described have outstripped technology's capacity to realize them; nature has had more than three billion years to perfect its designs, humankind not quite so long.

  • Discovering the Human Connectome

    A pioneer in the field outlines new empirical and computational approaches to mapping the neural connections of the human brain.

    Crucial to understanding how the brain works is connectivity, and the centerpiece of brain connectivity is the connectome, a comprehensive description of how neurons and brain regions are connected. In this book, Olaf Sporns surveys current efforts to chart these connections--to map the human connectome. He argues that the nascent field of connectomics has already begun to influence the way many neuroscientists collect, analyze, and think about their data. Moreover, the idea of mapping the connections of the human brain in their entirety has captured the imaginations of researchers across several disciplines including human cognition, brain and mental disorders, and complex systems and networks. Discovering the Human Connectome offers the first comprehensive overview of current empirical and computational approaches in this rapidly developing field.

  • Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis

    A conceptual and analytical framework for understanding economic institutions and institutional change.

    Markets are one of the most salient institutions produced by humans, and economists have traditionally analyzed the workings of the market mechanism. Recently, however, economists and others have begun to appreciate the many institution-related events and phenomena that have a significant impact on economic performance. Examples include the demise of the communist states, the emergence of Silicon Valley and e-commerce, the European currency unification, and the East Asian financial crises.

    In this book Masahiko Aoki uses modern game theory to develop a conceptual and analytical framework for understanding issues related to economic institutions. The wide-ranging discussion considers how institutions evolve, why their overall arrangements are robust and diverse across economies, and why they do or do not change in response to environmental factors such as technological progress, global market integration, and demographic change.

  • Learning Networks - A Field Guide to Teaching & Learning Online

    "[A] book that should be on the shelf of every educator, elementary school teachers as well as university professors, interested in exploring CMC technologies.... "Learning Networks" is an important contribution to computer science, information sciences, and education".
    -- J. R. Miller, "Information Processing and Management" Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) technologies such as electronic mail, bulletin board services, computer conferencing systems, and the World Wide Web are having a profound effect on education. "Learning Networks" is a complete guide to the use of these new technologies at the primary, secondary, university, and adult education levels. Drawing on the authors' own considerable experience of teaching and learning online, it describes the learning networks that are available as well as new examples of learning networks that can be created.

  • Phantasmal Media - An Approach to Imagination, Computation, and Expression

    An argument that great expressive power of computational media arises from the construction of phantasms--blends of cultural ideas and sensory imagination.

    In Phantasmal Media, D. Fox Harrell considers the expressive power of computational media. He argues, forcefully and persuasively, that the great expressive potential of computational media comes from the ability to construct and reveal phantasms--blends of cultural ideas and sensory imagination. These ubiquitous and often-unseen phantasms--cognitive phenomena that include sense of self, metaphors, social categories, narrative, and poetic thinking--influence almost all our everyday experiences. Harrell offers an approach for understanding and designing computational systems that have the power to evoke these phantasms, paying special attention to the exposure of oppressive phantasms and the creation of empowering ones. He argues for the importance of cultural content, diverse worldviews, and social values in computing. The expressive power of phantasms is not purely aesthetic, he contends; phantasmal media can express and construct the types of meaning central to the human condition.

    Harrell discusses, among other topics, the phantasm as an orienting perspective for developers; expressive epistemologies, or data structures based on subjective human worldviews; morphic semiotics (building on the computer scientist Joseph Goguen's theory of algebraic semiotics); cultural phantasms that influence consensus and reveal other perspectives; computing systems based on cultural models; interaction and expression; and the ways that real-world information is mapped onto, and instantiated by, computational data structures.

    The concept of phantasmal media, Harrell argues, offers new possibilities for using the computer to understand and improve the human condition through the human capacity to imagine.

  • Histoire Universelle Des Théâtres de Toutes Les Nations, Depuis Thespis Jusqu'à Nos Jours, Vol. 10: Ire Partie (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Histoire Universelle des Theatres de Toutes les Nations, Depuis Thespis Jusqu'a Nos Jours, Vol. 10: Ire Partie

    Les le&eurs qui delireront avoir des connaif fauces plus etendues. Fur cette matiere peuvent confulter le jeconcl V ol. Du Theatre d'honneur de la Colomoiere ils y trouvemntles details les Plus crt confiancies fur_ tout ce, qui concerne les combats a outrance details etant abfolument etrangers a notre ouvrage nous allons Pallet a celui que nous avons promis.de donner relativement au Che Valier Bayard tout ce qui regarde ce grand hom nie ell fait pour plaire pour interelier.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Snapshot Photography - The Lives of Images

    An examination of the contradictions within a form of expression that is both public and private, specific and abstract, conventional and countercultural.

    Snapshots capture everyday occasions. Taken by amateur photographers with simple point-and-shoot cameras, snapshots often commemorate something that is private and personal; yet they also reflect widely held cultural conventions. The poses may be formulaic, but a photograph of loved ones can evoke a deep affective response. In Snapshot Photography, Catherine Zuromskis examines the development of a form of visual expression that is both public and private.

    Scholars of art and culture tend to discount snapshot photography; it is too ubiquitous, too unremarkable, too personal. Zuromskis argues for its significance. Snapshot photographers, she contends, are not so much creating spontaneous records of their lives as they are participating in a prescriptive cultural ritual. A snapshot is not only a record of interpersonal intimacy but also a means of linking private symbols of domestic harmony to public ideas of social conformity.

    Through a series of case studies, Zuromskis explores the social life of snapshot photography in the United States in the latter half of the twentieth century. She examines the treatment of snapshot photography in the 2002 film One Hour Photo and in the television crime drama Law and Order: Special Victims Unit; the growing interest of collectors and museum curators in "vintage" snapshots; and the "snapshot aesthetic" of Andy Warhol and Nan Goldin. She finds that Warhol's photographs of the Factory community and Goldin's intense and intimate photographs of friends and family use the conventions of the snapshot to celebrate an alternate version of "family values."

    In today's digital age, snapshot photography has become even more ubiquitous and ephemeral--and, significantly, more public. But buried within snapshot photography's mythic construction, Zuromskis argues, is a site of democratic possibility.

  • Discrete Choice Theory of Product Differentation

    This important study shows that an understanding of product differentiation is crucial to understanding how modern market economies function and that differentiated markets can be analyzed using discrete choice models of consumer behavior.

    Product differentiation - in quality, packaging, design, color, and style - has an important impact on consumer choice. It also provides a rich source of data that has been largely unexplored because there has been no generally accepted way to model the information available. This important study shows that an understanding of product differentiation is crucial to understanding how modern market economies function and that differentiated markets can be analyzed using discrete choice models of consumer behavior. It provides a valuable synthesis of existing, often highly technical work in both differentiated markets and discrete choice models and extends this work to establish a coherent theoretical underpinning for research in imperfect competition.The discrete choice approach provides an ideal framework for describing the demands for differentiated products and can be used for studying most product differentiation models in the literature. By introducing extra dimensions of product heterogeneity, the framework also provides richer models of firm location. Discrete Choice Theory of Product Differentiation introduces students and researchers to the field, starting at the beginning and moving through to frontier research. The first four chapters detail the consumer-theoretic foundations underlying choice probability systems (including an overview of the main models used in the psychological theory of choice), while the next four chapters apply the probabilistic choice approach to oligopoly models of product differentiation, product selection, and location choice. The final chapter suggests various extensions of the models presented as well topics for further research.

  • The Eye of History: When Images Take Positions

    An exploration of the interaction of aesthetics and politics in Bertolt Brecht's "photoepigrams."

    From 1938 to 1955, Bertolt Brecht created montages of images and text, filling his working journal (Arbeitsjournal) and his idiosyncratic atlas of images, War Primer, with war photographs clipped from magazines and adding his own epigrammatic commentary. In this book, Georges Didi-Huberman explores the interaction of politics and aesthetics in these creations, explaining how they became the means for Brecht, a wandering poet in exile, to "take a position" about the Nazi war in Europe. Illustrated with pages from the Arbeitsjournal and War Primer and contextual images including Raoul Hausmann's poem-posters and Walter Benjamin's drawings, The Eye of History offers a new view of important but little-known works by Brecht.

    Didi-Huberman shows that Brecht took positions without taking sides; he used these montages to challenge the viewpoints of the press and propose other readings, to offer a stylistic and political response to the inescapable visibility of historical events enabled by the photographic medium. Brecht's montages disrupt and scrutinize this visibility by juxtaposing representations of war found in magazines with his own epigrams--a "documentary lyricism" that dismounts and remounts modern history. The montages created meaningful disorder, exposing the truth by disorganizing--a process Didi-Huberman calls a "dialectic of the monteur." These works are examples of "the eyes of history"--when seeing may simultaneously deepen and critique historical knowledge. The montages Didi-Huberman argues, are Brecht's most Benjaminian works.

  • Elements of Argumentation

    Background and techniques for formalizing deductive argumentation in a logic-based framework for artificial intelligence.

    Logic-based formalizations of argumentation, which assume a set of formulae and then lay out arguments and counterarguments that can be obtained from these formulae, have been refined in recent years in an attempt to capture more closely real-world practical argumentation. In Elements of Argumentation, Philippe Besnard and Anthony Hunter introduce techniques for formalizing deductive argumentation in artificial intelligence, emphasizing emerging formalizations for practical argumentation. Besnard and Hunter discuss how arguments can be constructed, how key intrinsic and extrinsic factors can be identified, and how these analyses can be harnessed for formalizing argumentation for use in real-world problem analysis and decision making.

    The book focuses on a monological approach to argumentation, in which there is a set of possibly conflicting pieces of information (each represented by a formula) that has been collated by an agent or a pool of agents. The role of argumentation is to construct a collection of arguments and counterarguments pertaining to some particular claim of interest to be used for analysis or presentation.

    Elements of Argumentation is the first book to elucidate and formalize key elements of deductive argumentation. It will be a valuable reference for researchers in computer science and artificial intelligence and of interest to scholars in such fields as logic, philosophy, linguistics, and cognitive science.

  • Patrologia Orientalis, Vol. 7: I. Traités d'Isaï Le Docteur Et de Hnana d'Adiabéne Sur Les Martyrs, E Vendredi d'Or Et Les Rogations, Et Confession de ... II. Histoire Nestorienne (Chronique

    Excerpt from Patrologia Orientalis, Vol. 7: I. Traites d'Isai le Docteur Et de Hnana d'Adiabene sur les Martyrs, E Vendredi d'Or Et les Rogations, Et Confession de Foi a Reciter par les Eveques Nestoriens Avant l'Ordination; II. Histoire Nestorienne (Chronique de Seebt), Seconde Partie, Fasc. 1

    Les deux traites de Hnana et ses passages sur le commentaire du Nou veau Testament, conserves chez iso'dad de Hdattha, nous demontrent claire ment que c'est pure calomnie, de la part de Babai, d'attribuer ces opinions a Hnana. D'ailleurs c'est l'habitude de beaucoup d'ecrivains d'exagerer les erreurs des adversaires contre lesquels ils ecrivent, ou meme de leur attribuer des Opinions qu'ils n'ont jamais enseignees. Hnana refute toutes ces fausses opinions. Il parle de la liberte, de la resurrection des corps et d'autres verites, que lui nie Babai, en termes qui ne laissent aucun doute a cet egard.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • In-Game - Immersion to Incorporation

    An investigation of what makes digital games engaging to players and a reexamination of the concept of immersion.

    Digital games offer a vast range of engaging experiences, from the serene exploration of beautifully rendered landscapes to the deeply cognitive challenges presented by strategic simulations to the adrenaline rush of competitive team-based shoot-outs. Digital games enable experiences that are considerably different from a reader's engagement with literature or a moviegoer's experience of a movie. In In-Game, Gordon Calleja examines what exactly it is that makes digital games so uniquely involving and offers a new, more precise, and game-specific formulation of this involvement. One of the most commonly yet vaguely deployed concepts in the industry and academia alike is immersion--a player's sensation of inhabiting the space represented onscreen. Overuse of this term has diminished its analytical value and confused its meaning, both in analysis and design. Rather than conceiving of immersion as a single experience, Calleja views it as blending different experiential phenomena afforded by involving gameplay. He proposes a framework (based on qualitative research) to describe these phenomena: the player involvement model. This model encompasses two constituent temporal phases--the macro, representing offline involvement, and the micro, representing moment-to-moment involvement during gameplay--as well as six dimensions of player involvement: kinesthetic, spatial, shared, narrative, affective, and ludic. The intensified and internalized experiential blend can culminate in incorporation--a concept that Calleja proposes as an alternative to the problematic immersion. Incorporation, he argues, is a more accurate metaphor, providing a robust foundation for future research and design.

  • Mémoires de la Société d'Emulation Du Doubs, 1882, Vol. 7 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Memoires de la Societe d'Emulation du Doubs, 1882, Vol. 7

    M. Ernest Olivier lit un interessant travail sur la Faune du departement du Doubs, qui est retenu pour nos Memoires.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Traité Clinique Des Maladies de l'Enfance, Vol. 2: Leçons Professées À l'Hôpital Sainte-Eugénie; Affections Du Coeur; Rhumatisme; Chorée Coqueluche; ... Scarlatine; Fièvre Typhoïde (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traite Clinique des Maladies de l'Enfance, Vol. 2: Lecons Professees a l'Hopital Sainte-Eugenie; Affections du Coeur; Rhumatisme; Choree Coqueluche; Oreillons; Varicelle; Rougeole Scarlatine; Fievre Typhoide

    Les maladies du coeur chez l'enfant se divisent en deux groupes naturels: celles qui commencent avant la naissance, celles qui apparaissent apres elle les maladies congenitales, les maladies acquises. Ces deux groupes ont des traits tantot analogues, tantot profondement distincts, presque jamais identiques..

    La difference primordiale qui separe les maladies congenitales des maladies acquises est le degre d'anciennete; si bien que les lesions sont deja profondes dans les premieres, au moment ou elles deviennent accessibles a l'observateur, tandis que, le plus souvent, on voit naitre et se developper les secondes. Celles - la ont donc un caractere de fixite qui manque a celles - ci.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • White Heat Cold Logic - British Computer Art 1960- 1980

    The history of a pioneering era in computer-based art too often neglected by postwar art histories and institutions.

    Technological optimism, even utopianism, was widespread at midcentury; in Britain, Harold Wilson in 1963 promised a new nation "forged from the white heat of the technological revolution." In this heady atmosphere, pioneering artists transformed the cold logic of computing into a new medium for their art, and played a central role in connecting technology and culture. White Heat Cold Logic tells the story of these early British digital and computer artists--and fills in a missing chapter in contemporary art history.

    In this heroic period of computer art, artists were required to build their own machines, collaborate closely with computer scientists, and learn difficult computer languages. White Heat Cold Logic's chapters, many written by computer art pioneers themselves, describe the influence of cybernetics, with its emphasis on process and interactivity; the connections to the constructivist movement; and the importance of work done in such different venues as commercial animation, fine art schools, and polytechnics.

    The advent of personal computing and graphical user interfaces in 1980 signaled the end of an era, and today we do not have so many dreams of technological utopia. And yet our highly technologized and mediated world owes much to these early practitioners, especially for expanding our sense of what we can do with new technologies.

    Contributors
    Roy Ascott, Stephen Bell, Paul Brown, Stephen Bury, Harold Cohen, Ernest Edmonds, Maria Fernandez, Simon Ford, John Hamilton Frazer, Jeremy Gardiner, Charlie Gere, Adrian Glew, Beryl Graham, Stan Hayward, Grisham Howard, Richard Ihnatowicz, Nicholas Lambert, Malcolm Le Grice, Tony Longson, Brent MacGregor, George Mallen, Catherine Mason, Jasia Reichardt, Stephen A. R. Scrivener, Brian Reffin Smith, Alan Sutcliffe, Doron D. Swade, John Vince, Richard Wright, Aleksandar Zivanovic

  • Nouveau Manuel Pratique Et Complet Du Code Napoléon Expliqué Et MIS À La Portée de Toutes Les Intelligences: À l'Usage Des Familles, de la Propriété, ... Commerce Et de l'Industrie (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Nouveau Manuel Pratique Et Complet du Code Napoleon Explique Et Mis a la Portee de Toutes les Intelligences: A l'Usage des Familles, de la Propriete, de l'Agriculture, du Commerce Et de l'Industrie

    A la sollicitation d'un grand nombre de personnes qui desirent trouver reunis dans un seul volume tous les elements du droit, j'ai place, dans cette nouvelle edition, a la suite du Code Napoleo'n, le resume de mon Manuel pratique du Code de commerce, l'expose elementaire des autres Codes et l'analyse des lois les plus usuelles: l'utilite de cet ouvrage est ainsi beau coup augmentee.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Majority Judgment - Measuring, Ranking, and Electing

    An account of a new theory and method of voting, judging and ranking, majority judgment, shown to be superior to all other known methods.

    In Majority Judgment, Michel Balinski and Rida Laraki argue that the traditional theory of social choice offers no acceptable solution to the problems of how to elect, to judge, or to rank. They find that the traditional model--transforming the preference lists of individuals into a preference list of society--is fundamentally flawed in both theory and practice. Balinski and Laraki propose a more realistic model. It leads to an entirely new theory and method--majority judgment--proven superior to all known methods. It is at once meaningful, resists strategic manipulation, elicits honesty, and is not subject to the classical paradoxes encountered in practice, notably Condorcet's and Arrow's. They offer theoretical, practical, and experimental evidence--from national elections to figure skating competitions--to support their arguments. Drawing on insights from wine, sports, music, and other competitions, Balinski and Laraki argue that the question should not be how to transform many individual rankings into a single collective ranking, but rather, after defining a common language of grades to measure merit, how to transform the many individual evaluations of each competitor into a single collective evaluation of all competitors. The crux of the matter is a new model in which the traditional paradigm--to compare--is replaced by a new paradigm--to evaluate.

  • Siteless - 1001 Building Forms

    An attempt to free architecture from site and program constraints and to counter the profusion of ever bigger architecture books with ever smaller content.

    Some may call it the first manifesto of the twenty-first century, for it lays down a new way to think about architecture. Others may think of it as the last architectural treatise, for it provides a discursive container for ideas that would otherwise be lost. Whatever genre it belongs to, SITELESS is a new kind of architecture book that seems to have come out of nowhere. Its author, a young French architect practicing in Tokyo, admits he "didn't do this out of reverence toward architecture, but rather out of a profound boredom with the discipline, as a sort of compulsive reaction." What would happen if architects liberated their minds from the constraints of site, program, and budget? he asks. The result is a book that is saturated with forms, and as free of words as any architecture book the MIT Press has ever published.

    The 1001 building forms in SITELESS include structural parasites, chain link towers, ball bearing floors, corrugated corners, exponential balconies, radial facades, crawling frames, forensic housing--and other architectural ideas that may require construction techniques not yet developed and a relation to gravity not yet achieved. SITELESS presents an open-ended compendium of visual ideas for the architectural imagination to draw from. The forms, drawn freehand (to avoid software-specific shapes) but from a constant viewing angle, are presented twelve to a page, with no scale, order, or end to the series. After setting down 1001 forms in siteless conditions and embryonic stages, Blanciak takes one of the forms and performs a "scale test," showing what happens when one of these fantastic ideas is subjected to the actual constraints of a site in central Tokyo. The book ends by illustrating the potential of these shapes to morph into actual building proportions.

  • Beyond the Big Ditch - Politics, Ecology, and Infrastructure at the Panama Canal

    A historical and ethnographic study of the conflict between global transportation and rural development as the two intersect at the Panama Canal.

    In this innovative book, Ashley Carse traces the water that flows into and out from the Panama Canal to explain how global shipping is entangled with Panama's cultural and physical landscapes. By following container ships as they travel downstream along maritime routes and tracing rivers upstream across the populated watershed that feeds the canal, he explores the politics of environmental management around a waterway that links faraway ports and markets to nearby farms, forests, cities, and rural communities.

    Carse draws on a wide range of ethnographic and archival material to show the social and ecological implications of transportation across Panama. The Canal moves ships over an aquatic staircase of locks that demand an enormous amount of fresh water from the surrounding region. Each passing ship drains 52 million gallons out to sea--a volume comparable to the daily water use of half a million Panamanians.

    Infrastructures like the Panama Canal, Carse argues, do not simply conquer nature; they rework ecologies in ways that serve specific political and economic priorities. Interweaving histories that range from the depopulation of the U.S. Canal Zone a century ago to road construction conflicts and water hyacinth invasions in canal waters, the book illuminates the human and nonhuman actors that have come together at the margins of the famous trade route. 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of the Panama Canal. Beyond the Big Ditch calls us to consider how infrastructures are materially embedded in place, producing environments with winners and losers.

  • Interplay - Neoconceptual Art of the 1980s

    The first in-depth study of a group of artists known for their irony, their theoretical impulses, and their market success in the 1980s.

    Emerging from New York's East Village art scene of the 1980s, the so-called neo-geo artists were a loosely associated group that included the painters Ashley Bickerton, Peter Halley, Sherrie Levine, Allan McCollum, Philip Taaffe, and Meyer Vaisman and the sculptors Jeff Koons and Haim Steinbach. Labeled neo-geo for the abstract geometric motifs that characterized only some of their work, the movement was also known variously as simulationism, neoconceptualism, neo-pop, neominimalism, and postabstraction. In this, the first in-depth study of the group, Amy Brandt argues that neoconceptualism is the most precise name for their work. Brandt sees it as an art about art history, characterized by ironic adaptations of past artistic movements and styles, a tendency toward visual interplay, and a theoretical impulse driven by postmodern concerns with intertextuality, deconstruction, and poststructuralism.

    Brandt investigates the East Village art scene of the 1980s and argues that the neoconceptualists' theoretical orientation distinguished them from other artists of the era. She traces the divergence in art critics' responses to the group's work and charts their market success. Brandt examines in detail the references to art history found in the work; she explores the group's formal connections to pop, minimalism, and conceptualism; and she investigates the relationships between the neoconceptual artists and another loosely connected group of artists, the Pictures generation.

  • Designing Information Technology in the Postmodern Age - From Method to Metaphor

    Coyne examines the entire range of contemporary philosophical thinking-including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, pragmatism, phenomenology, critical theory, hermeneutics, and deconstruction-comparing them and showing how they differ in their consequences for design and development issues in electronic communications, computer representation, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and multimedia. Designing Information Technology in the Postmodern Age puts the theoretical discussion of computer systems and information technology on a new footing. Shifting the discourse from its usual rationalistic framework, Richard Coyne shows how the conception, development, and application of computer systems is challenged and enhanced by postmodern philosophical thought. He places particular emphasis on the theory of metaphor, showing how it has more to offer than notions of method and models appropriated from science. Coyne examines the entire range of contemporary philosophical thinking-including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, pragmatism, phenomenology, critical theory, hermeneutics, and deconstruction-comparing them and showing how they differ in their consequences for design and development issues in electronic communications, computer representation, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and multimedia. He also probes the claims made of information technology, including its presumptions of control, its so-called radicality, even its ability to make virtual worlds, and shows that many of these claims are poorly founded. Among the writings Coyne visits are works by Heidegger, Adorno, Benjamin, Gadamer, Derrida, Habermas, Rorty, and Foucault. He relates their views to information technology designers and critics such as Herbert Simon, Alan Kay, Terry Winograd, Hubert Dreyfus, and Joseph Weizenbaum. In particular, Coyne draws extensively from the writing of Martin Heidegger, who has presented one of the most radical critiques of technology to date.

  • Redundant Disk Arrays: Reliable, Parallel Secondary Storage

    Disk arrays, coupled with emerging small disk technology, promise to provide a badly needed increase in the performance of secondary storage systems. Because high failure rates arise with a large number of disks, however, simple redundancy schemes are used to ensure data reliability. This monograph investigates the data encoding, performance, and reliability of redundant disk arrays. Gibson reviews the performance advantages of stripping data across multiple disks, evaluates the performance lost to the maintenance of redundant data, provides evidence that disk lifetimes can be modelled as exponential random variables, and develops and applies analytic models of data reliability in redundant disk arrays suffering dependent failure modes and featuring on-line spare disks.

  • From Molecule to Metaphor - A Neural Theory of Language

    In From Molecule to Metaphor, Jerome Feldman proposes a theory of language and thought that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a human biological ability that can be studied as a function of the brain, as vision and motor control are studied. This theory, he writes, is a "bridging theory" that works from extensive knowledge at two ends of a causal chain to explicate the links between. Although the cognitive sciences are revealing much about how our brains produce language and thought, we do not yet know exactly how words are understood or have any methodology for finding out. Feldman develops his theory in computer simulations -- formal models that suggest ways that language and thought may be realized in the brain. Combining key findings and theories from biology, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, Feldman synthesizes a theory by exhibiting programs that demonstrate the required behavior while remaining consistent with the findings from all disciplines.

    After presenting the essential results on language, learning, neural computation, the biology of neurons and neural circuits, and the mind/brain, Feldman introduces specific demonstrations and formal models of such topics as how children learn their first words, words for abstract and metaphorical concepts, understanding stories, and grammar (including "hot-button" issues surrounding the innateness of human grammar). With this accessible, comprehensive book Feldman offers readers who want to understand how our brains create thought and language a theory of language that is intuitively plausible and also consistent with existing scientific data at all levels.

  • Scripting Reading Motions - The Codex and the Computer as Self-Reflexive Machines

    An exploration of what experimental literature in both print and programmable media tells us about the act of reading.

    In Scripting Reading Motions, Manuel Portela explores the expressive use of book forms and programmable media in experimental works of both print and electronic literature and finds a self-conscious play with the dynamics of reading and writing. Portela examines a series of print and digital works by Johanna Drucker, Mark Z. Danielewski, Rui Torres, Jim Andrews, and others, for the insights they yield about the semiotic and interpretive actions through which readers produce meaning when interacting with codes. Analyzing these works as embodiments and simulations of the motions of reading, Portela pays particular attention to the ways in which awareness of eye movements and haptic interactions in both print and electronic media feeds back onto the material and semantic layers of the works. These feedbacks, he argues, sustain self-reflexive loops that link the body of the reader to the embodied work. Readers' haptic actions and eye movements coinstantiate the object that they are reading.

    Portela discusses typographic and graphic marks as choreographic notations for reading movements; examines digital recreations of experimental print literary artifacts; considers reading motions in kinetic and generated texts; analyzes the relationship of bibliographic, linguistic, and narrative coding in Danielewski's novel-poem, Only Revolutions; and describes emergent meanings in interactive textual instruments. The expressive use of print and programmable media, Portela shows, offers a powerful model of the semiotic, interpretive, and affective operations embodied in reading processes.

    Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images found in the physical edition.

  • Traité d'Acoustique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traite d'Acoustique

    On a souvent demande, par quel hasard j'etais arrive a fai1e quelques decouvertes. Mais le hasard ne m'a jamais favorise; pour obtenir des succes, il m'afalla presque tou jours employer une perseverance opiniatre. Suivant le conseil de plusieurs personnes tres - estimables, il faut que j'ajoute ici quel ques traits concernant l'histoire de mes decouvertes. Celles - ci etant la suite de cir constances individuelles, je crois que ces circonstances pourront aussi interesser quel ques lecteurs.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Commentaires Et Lettres de Blaise de Monluc, Maréchal de France, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Commentaires Et Lettres de Blaise de Monluc, Marechal de France, Vol. 1

    Depuis cette epoque il prit part a toutes les guerres du regne de Francois Il assista successivement a la bataille de Pavie, a l'expedition de Naples en 1527, a la defense de' Marseille en 1536, au 51ege de Perpignan en 1542, aux campagnes d'italie que couronna, en 1544, la glorieuse bataille de Cerisolles, et a l'expedition de 1545 contre les Anglais.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Open Economy Macroeconomics in Developing Countries

    A comprehensive and rigorous text that shows how a basic open economy model can be extended to answer important macroeconomic questions that arise in emerging markets.

    This rigorous and comprehensive textbook develops a basic small open economy model and shows how it can be extended to answer many important macroeconomic questions that arise in emerging markets and developing economies, particularly those regarding monetary, fiscal, and exchange rate issues. Eschewing the complex calibrated models on which the field of international finance increasingly relies, the book teaches the reader how to think in terms of simple models and grasp the fundamentals of open economy macroeconomics.

    After analyzing the standard intertemporal small open economy model, the book introduces frictions such as imperfect capital markets, intertemporal distortions, and nontradable goods, into the basic model in order to shed light on the economy's response to different shocks. The book then introduces money into the model to analyze the real effects of monetary and exchange rate policy. It then applies these theoretical tools to a variety of important macroeconomic issues relevant to developing countries (and, in a world of continuing financial crisis, to industrial countries as well), including the use of a nominal interest rate as a main policy instrument, the relative merits of flexible and predetermined exchange rate regimes, and the targeting of "real anchors." Finally, the book analyzes in detail specific topics such as inflation stabilization, "dollarization," balance of payments crises, and, inspired by recent events, financial crises. Each chapter includes boxes with relevant empirical evidence and ends with exercises. The book is suitable for use in graduate courses in development economics, international finance, and macroeconomics.

  • J.R.R Tolkien

    This postcard collection contains 20 full colour illustrations by Tolkien - some well-known ones from The Hobbit, plus many other, lesser-known, works.

  • Decision Making Under Uncertainty - Theory and Application

    An introduction to decision making under uncertainty from a computational perspective, covering both theory and applications ranging from speech recognition to airborne collision avoidance.

    Many important problems involve decision making under uncertainty--that is, choosing actions based on often imperfect observations, with unknown outcomes. Designers of automated decision support systems must take into account the various sources of uncertainty while balancing the multiple objectives of the system. This book provides an introduction to the challenges of decision making under uncertainty from a computational perspective. It presents both the theory behind decision making models and algorithms and a collection of example applications that range from speech recognition to aircraft collision avoidance.

    Focusing on two methods for designing decision agents, planning and reinforcement learning, the book covers probabilistic models, introducing Bayesian networks as a graphical model that captures probabilistic relationships between variables; utility theory as a framework for understanding optimal decision making under uncertainty; Markov decision processes as a method for modeling sequential problems; model uncertainty; state uncertainty; and cooperative decision making involving multiple interacting agents. A series of applications shows how the theoretical concepts can be applied to systems for attribute-based person search, speech applications, collision avoidance, and unmanned aircraft persistent surveillance.

    Decision Making Under Uncertainty unifies research from different communities using consistent notation, and is accessible to students and researchers across engineering disciplines who have some prior exposure to probability theory and calculus. It can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in fields including computer science, aerospace and electrical engineering, and management science. It will also be a valuable professional reference for researchers in a variety of disciplines.

  • Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Gasconne, Vol. 2: Avec Racine Celte Ou Grecque de Chaque Mot Gascon Suivi Du Mot Latin Et Français (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Langue Gasconne, Vol. 2: Avec Racine Celte ou Grecque de Chaque Mot Gascon Suivi du Mot Latin Et Francais

    Dans la Preface de Las Belhados, nous exposions, que notre chere langue Gasconne, systematique ment proscrite depuis des siecles, etait encore par lee sauf des nuances, par quinze ou seize millions de bons Francais resolument bilingues.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Autonomous Robots - From Biological Inspiration to Implemental and Control

    Autonomous robots are intelligent machines capable of performing tasks in the world by themselves, without explicit human control. Examples range from autonomous helicopters to Roomba, the robot vacuum cleaner. In this book, George Bekey offers an introduction to the science and practice of autonomous robots that can be used both in the classroom and as a reference for industry professionals. He surveys the hardware implementations of more than 300 current systems, reviews some of their application areas, and examines the underlying technology, including control, architectures, learning, manipulation, grasping, navigation, and mapping. Living systems can be considered the prototypes of autonomous systems, and Bekey explores the biological inspiration that forms the basis of many recent developments in robotics. He also discusses robot control issues and the design of control architectures.

    After an overview of the field that introduces some of its fundamental concepts, the book presents background material on hardware, control (from both biological and engineering perspectives), software architecture, and robot intelligence. It then examines a broad range of implementations and applications, including locomotion (wheeled, legged, flying, swimming, and crawling robots), manipulation (both arms and hands), localization, navigation, and mapping. The many case studies and specific applications include robots built for research, industry, and the military, among them underwater robotic vehicles, walking machines with four, six, and eight legs, and the famous humanoid robots Cog, Kismet, ASIMO, and QRIO. The book concludes with reflections on the future of robotics -- the potential benefits as well as the possible dangers that may arise from large numbers of increasingly intelligent and autonomous robots.

  • The Price of Linguistic Productivity: How Children Learn to Break the Rules of Language

    An investigation of how children balance rules and exceptions when they learn languages.

    All languages have exceptions alongside overarching rules and regularities. How does a young child tease them apart within just a few years of language acquisition? In this book, drawing an economic analogy, Charles Yang argues that just as the price of goods is determined by the balance between supply and demand, the price of linguistic productivity arises from the quantitative considerations of rules and exceptions. The learner postulates a productive rule only if it results in a more efficient organization of language, with the number of exceptions falling below a critical threshold.

    Supported by a wide range of cases with corpus evidence, Yang's Tolerance Principle gives a unified account of many long-standing puzzles in linguistics and psychology, including why children effortlessly acquire rules of language that perplex otherwise capable adults. His focus on computational efficiency provides novel insight on how language interacts with the other components of cognition and how the ability for language might have emerged during the course of human evolution.

  • Voyage À Madagascar Et Aux Îles Comores (1823 À 1830), Vol. 2 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Voyage a Madagascar Et aux Iles Comores (1823 a 1830), Vol. 2

    L'armee du prince Ratef etait en grande par tie composee de sirondas, sur la fidelite des quels le roi des Havas pouvait compter, et qu'il avait choisis expres. Leurs chefs etaient char ses de surveiller le prince general, que la moindre imprudence eut perdu.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Autobiography of a Transgender Scientist

    A leading scientist describes his life, his gender transition, his scientific work, and his advocacy for gender equality in science.

    Ben Barres was known for his groundbreaking scientific work and for his groundbreaking advocacy for gender equality in science. In this book, completed shortly before his death from pancreatic cancer in December 2017, Barres (born in 1954) describes a life full of remarkable accomplishments--from his childhood as a precocious math and science whiz to his experiences as a female student at MIT in the 1970s to his female-to-male transition in his forties, to his scientific work and role as teacher and mentor at Stanford.

    Barres recounts his early life--his interest in science, first manifested as a fascination with the mad scientist in Superman; his academic successes; and his gender confusion. Barres felt even as a very young child that he was assigned the wrong gender. After years of being acutely uncomfortable in his own skin, Barres transitioned from female to male. He reports he felt nothing but relief on becoming his true self. He was proud to be a role model for transgender scientists.

    As an undergraduate at MIT, Barres experienced discrimination, but it was after transitioning that he realized how differently male and female scientists are treated. He became an advocate for gender equality in science, and later in life responded pointedly to Larry Summers's speculation that women were innately unsuited to be scientists. Privileged white men, Barres writes, "miss the basic point that in the face of negative stereotyping, talented women will not be recognized." At Stanford, Barres made important discoveries about glia, the most numerous cells in the brain, and he describes some of his work. "The most rewarding part of his job," however, was mentoring young scientists. That, and his advocacy for women and transgender scientists, ensures his legacy.

  • Africa′s Turn?

    Signs of hope in sub-Saharan Africa: modest but steady economic growth and the spread of democracy.

    By the end of the twentieth century, sub-Saharan Africa had experienced twenty-five years of economic and political disaster. While "economic miracles" in China and India raised hundreds of millions from extreme poverty, Africa seemed to have been overtaken by violent conflict and mass destitution, and ranked lowest in the world in just about every economic and social indicator. Working in Busia, a small Kenyan border town, economist Edward Miguel began to notice something different starting in 1997: modest but steady economic progress, with new construction projects, flower markets, shops, and ubiquitous cell phones. In Africa's Turn? Miguel tracks a decade of comparably hopeful economic trends throughout sub-Saharan Africa and suggests that we may be seeing a turnaround. He bases his hopes on a range of recent changes: democracy is finally taking root in many countries; China's successes have fueled large-scale investment in Africa; and rising commodity prices have helped as well. Miguel warns, though, that the growth is fragile. Violence and climate change could derail it quickly, and he argues for specific international assistance when drought and civil strife loom. Responding to Miguel, nine experts gauge his optimism. Some question the progress of democracy in Africa or are more skeptical about China's constructive impact, while others think that Miguel has underestimated the threats represented by climate change and population growth. But most agree that something new is happening, and that policy innovations in health, education, agriculture, and government accountability are the key to Africa's future.

    Contributors
    Olu Ajakaiye, Ken Banks, Robert Bates, Paul Collier, Rachel Glennerster, Rosamond Naylor, Smita Singh, David N. Weil, and Jeremy M. Weinstein

  • Abrégé Du Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, d'Après La Dernière Édition Publiée En 1835, Vol. 1: Contenant, Tous Les Mots Et Définitions Donnes ... Consacrés Par l'Usage; Les Étymologies;

    Excerpt from Abrege du Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, d'Apres la Derniere Edition Publiee en 1835, Vol. 1: Contenant, Tous les Mots Et Definitions Donnes par l'Academie; Un Certain Nombre de Mots Nouveaux Consacres par l'Usage; Les Etymologies; Les Principes de Grammaire Francaise; Extraits du Dictionnaire de l'Academie

    Ce besoin bien senti donne chaque jour naissance a une infinite de diction naires qui se croient destines a le satisfaire. Il ne nous convient pas de faire ici leur proces, ni d' expliquer comment ils ont manque leur but. Qu' il nous soit permis seulement de rappeler quelques -unes des conditions principales d' un pareil livre. En general, lorsque l'on compose aujourd' hui quelque ou vrage pour l'enseignement populaire, on nous semble plus preoccupe qu'il n'est juste de la question economique. La consideration du bon marche est sans contredit d'une grande importance lorsqu'il s'agit de repandre l'instruc tion dans des classes economes et laborieuses qui n'ont encore ni un gout assez vif de la science pour l'acheter volontiers par de grandes privations, ni des ressources assez abondantes pour ne point limiter beaucoup l'etendue des sacrifices qu'elles peuvent s' imposer. Toutefois un pareil service offert a l'humanite peut devenir par l'execution un peril comme un bienfait pour elle. Rien de plus souhaitable au peuple qu' une instruction saine et solide; rien de plus honorable au desinteressement de l'auteur que d'y attacher une seduc t10'n mnocente par l'appat du bon marche mais, si cette instruction est mauvaise, le vil prix n'est qu'un danger de plus. C'est ainsi que les notions inexactes incompletes, confuses, se propagent avec une effrayante facilite dans des esprits plus avides a raison meme de leur inexperience; c'est ainsi que les mauvaises semences menacent d'etouffer bientot, dans ce terrain encore vierge l'utile moisson promise a une meilleure culture.

    About the Publisher

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    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Organization Space: Landscapes, Highways, and Houses in America

    The dominant architectures in out culture of development consist of generic protocols for building offices, airports, houses and highways. For Keller Easterling these organizational formats are not merely the context of design efforts - they are the design. Bridging the gap between architecture and infrastructure, Easterling views architecture as part of an ecology of interrelationships and linkages, and she treats the expression of organizational character as part of the architectural endeavour. Easterling also makes the case that these organizational formats are improvizational and responsive to circumstantial change, to mistakes, anomalies and seemingly illogical market forces. By treating these irregularities opportunistically, she offers architects working within the customary development protocols new sites for making and altering space. By showing the reciprocal relations between systems of thinking and modes of designing, Easterling establishes unexpected congruencies between natural and built environments, virtual and physical systems, highway and communication networks, and corporate and spatial organizations. She frames her unconventional notion of site not in terms of singular entities, but in terms of relationships between multiple sites that are both individually and collectively adjustable.

  • Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa - Theory and Evidence

    An analysis of recent data on the economic behavior of market institutions in sub-Saharan Africa, with implications for future research and current policy.

    In Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa, Marcel Fafchamps synthesizes the results of recent surveys of indigenous market institutions in twelve countries, including Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, and Zimbabwe, and presents findings about economics exchange in Africa that have implications both for future research and current policy. Employing empirical data as well as theoretical models that clarify the data, Fafchamps takes as his unifying principle the difficulties of contract enforcement. Arguing that in an unpredictable world contracts are not always likely to be respected, he shows that contract agreements in sub-Saharan Africa are affected by the absence of large hierarchies (both corporate and governmental) and as a result must depend to a greater degree than in more developed economies on social networks and personal trust. Fafchamps considers policy recommendations as they apply to countries in three different stages of development: countries with undeveloped market institutions, like Ghana; countries at an intermediate stage, like Kenya; and countries with developed market institutions, like Zimbabwe.

    Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa caps ten years of personal research by the author. Fafchamps, in collaboration with such institutions as the Africa Division of the World Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute, participated in the surveys of manufacturing firms and agricultural traders that provide the empirical basis for the book. The result is a work that makes a significant contribution to research on the continuing economic stagnation of many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and is also largely accessible to researchers in other fields and policy professionals.

  • The Fabric of Space - Water, Modernity, and the Urban Imagination

    A study of water at the intersection of landscape and infrastructure in Paris, Berlin, Lagos, Mumbai, Los Angeles, and London.

    Water lies at the intersection of landscape and infrastructure, crossing between visible and invisible domains of urban space, in the tanks and buckets of the global South and the vast subterranean technological networks of the global North. In this book, Matthew Gandy considers the cultural and material significance of water through the experiences of six cities: Paris, Berlin, Lagos, Mumbai, Los Angeles, and London. Tracing the evolving relationships among modernity, nature, and the urban imagination, from different vantage points and through different periods, Gandy uses water as a lens through which to observe both the ambiguities and the limits of nature as conventionally understood.

    Gandy begins with the Parisian sewers of the nineteenth century, captured in the photographs of Nadar, and the reconstruction of subterranean Paris. He moves on to Weimar-era Berlin and its protection of public access to lakes for swimming, the culmination of efforts to reconnect the city with nature. He considers the threat of malaria in Lagos, where changing geopolitical circumstances led to large-scale swamp drainage in the 1940s. He shows how the dysfunctional water infrastructure of Mumbai offers a vivid expression of persistent social inequality in a postcolonial city. He explores the incongruous concrete landscapes of the Los Angeles River. Finally, Gandy uses the fictional scenario of a partially submerged London as the starting point for an investigation of the actual hydrological threats facing that city.

  • Combinatorics of Genome Rearrangements

    A comprehensive survey of a rapidly expanding field of combinatorial optimization, mathematically oriented but offering biological explanations when required.

    From one cell to another, from one individual to another, and from one species to another, the content of DNA molecules is often similar. The organization of these molecules, however, differs dramatically, and the mutations that affect this organization are known as genome rearrangements. Combinatorial methods are used to reconstruct putative rearrangement scenarios in order to explain the evolutionary history of a set of species, often formalizing the evolutionary events that can explain the multiple combinations of observed genomes as combinatorial optimization problems. This book offers the first comprehensive survey of this rapidly expanding application of combinatorial optimization. It can be used as a reference for experienced researchers or as an introductory text for a broader audience. Genome rearrangement problems have proved so interesting from a combinatorial point of view that the field now belongs as much to mathematics as to biology. This book takes a mathematically oriented approach, but provides biological background when necessary. It presents a series of models, beginning with the simplest (which is progressively extended by dropping restrictions), each constructing a genome rearrangement problem. The book also discusses an important generalization of the basic problem known as the median problem, surveys attempts to reconstruct the relationships between genomes with phylogenetic trees, and offers a collection of summaries and appendixes with useful additional information.

  • Democratic Experiments: Problematizing Nanotechnology and Democracy in Europe and the United States

    An examination of nanotechnology as a lens through which to study contemporary democracy in both theory and practice.

    In Democratic Experiments, Brice Laurent discusses the challenges that emerging technologies create for democracy today. He focuses on nanotechnology and its attendant problems, proposing nanotechnology as a lens through which to understand contemporary democracy in both theory and practice. Arguing that democracy is at stake where nanotechnology is defined as a problem, Laurent examines the sites where nanotechnology is discussed and debated by scientists, policymakers, and citizens. It is at these sites where the joint production of nanotechnology and the democratic order can be observed.

    Focusing on the United States, France, and Europe, and various international organizations, Laurent analyzes representations of nanotechnology in science museums, collective discussions in participatory settings, the making of categories such as "nanomaterials" or responsible innovation" in standardization and regulatory arenas, and initiatives undertaken by social movements. He contrasts American debates, in which the concern for public objectivity is central, with the French "state experiment," the European goal of harmonization, and the international concern with a global market. In France, public debate proceeded in response to public protest and encountered a radical critique of technological development; the United States experimented with an innovative approach to technology assessment. The European regulatory approach results in lengthy debates over political integration; the United States relies on the adversarial functioning of federal agencies. Because nanotechnology is a domain where concerns over anticipation and participation are pervasive, Laurent argues, nanotechnology--and science and technology studies more generally--provides a relevant focus for a renewed analysis of democracy.

  • Lettres, Instructions Et Mémoires de Marie Stuart, Reine d'Écosse, Vol. 2: Publiés Sur Les Originaux Et Les Manuscrits Du State Paper Office de ... Bibliothèques de l'Europe (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Lettres, Instructions Et Memoires De Marie Stuart, Reine D'ecosse, Vol. 2: Publies Sur Les Originaux Et Les Manuscrits Du State Paper Office De Londres Et Des Principales Archives Et Bibliotheques De L'europe

    Le 15 fevrier, Murray, qui avait quitte la cour la veille dc l'assas Sinat revient prendre sa place an Conseil.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • La Prose Métrique Dans La Correspondance de Cicéron: Thèse Présentée a la Faculté Des Lettres de l'Université de Paris (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Prose Metrique dans la Correspondance de Ciceron: These Presentee A la Faculte des Lettres de l'Universite de Paris

    Pour la disposition de ces tableaux et pour un certain nombre de remarques de detail, j'ai tire grand profit des conseils de mon maitre, M. Louis Havet, qui a lu ma these en manuscrit et avec qui j'ai eu souvent l'occasion de m'en entretenir. Il a ete pour moi un collaborateur plus qu'un juge et je l'en remercie tres sinceremeizt2. Si l'on trouve que ce travail n'est pas trop incomplet, c'est a lui surtout qu'il faut en reporter le merite.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Oeuvres de J. Racine, Vol. 2 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Oeuvres de J. Racine, Vol. 2

    Il y a six feuillets sans pagination, contenant le titre, l'epitre a Madame la Preface, et la liste des acteurs; et 95 pages suivies du privilege.

    About the Publisher

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    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Winning Together: The Natural Resource Negotiation Playbook

    Strategies for transboundary natural resource management; winner of Harvard Law School's Raiffa Award for best research of the year in negotiation and conflict resolution.

    Transboundary natural resource negotiations, often conducted in an atmosphere of entrenched mistrust, confrontation, and deadlock, can go on for decades. In this book, Bruno Verdini outlines an approach by which government, private sector, and nongovernmental stakeholders can overcome grievances, break the status quo, trade across differences, and create mutual gains in high-stakes water, energy, and environmental negotiations.

    Verdini examines two landmark negotiations between the United States and Mexico. The two cases--one involving conflict over shared hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico and the other involving disputes over the shared waters of the Colorado River--resulted in groundbreaking agreements in 2012, after decades of deadlock.

    Drawing on his extensive interviews with more than seventy high-ranking negotiators in the United States and Mexico--from presidents and ambassadors to general managers, technical experts, and nongovernmental advocates--Verdini offers detailed accounts from multiple points of view, on both sides of the border. He unpacks the negotiation, leadership, collaborative decision-making, and political communication strategies that made agreement possible.

    Building upon the theoretical and empirical findings, Verdini offers advice for practitioners on effective negotiation and dispute resolution strategies that avoid the presumption that there are not enough resources to go around, and that one side must win and the other must inevitably lose.

    This investigation is the winner of Harvard Law School's Howard Raiffa Award for best research of the year in negotiation, mediation, decision-making, and dispute resolution.

  • Le Cardinal Nicolas de Cues (1401-1464): L'Action, La Pensée (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Le Cardinal Nicolas de Cues (1401-1464): L'Action, la Pensee

    Dans cette vie si occupee, consacree tout entiere au service de l'eglise, la speculation philosophique et scientifique ne marque pas un arret Ou un repos elle n'est qu'une manifestation, dans un ordre special, de la meme activite conquerante qui la remplit. Nicolas de Ones ne fut pas un dilettante, comme tant d'autres genies aux quels fait songer la Renaissance. Il ne regarda point le plaisir que procure le savoir comme la fin de la connaissance; et s'il fut un homme universel l'universalite ne lui parut jamais devoir exclure l'unite chez lui, l'action explique la_pensee et la pensee explique l'action. Voila pourquoi on ne saurait bien le comprendre que dans une etude d'ensemble embrassant a la fois son activite exterieure et son activite plus proprement intellectuelle. Pareille etude n'a jamais ete tentee en France. En Allemagne, les ouvrages deja anciens de Dux (1847) et de Scharpfi (1871) ont considerable ment vieilli sans avoir ete remplaces. Il est temps, ai-je pense, de combler cette lacune, et de presenter aux historiens, aux philo sophes ou meme a quelques autres, un tableau de l'action et de la pensee de Cusan.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Oeuvres Complètes de M. Le Vicomte de Chateaubriand, Membre de l'Académie Francoise, Vol. 18: Atala (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Completes de M. Le Vicomte de Chateaubriand, Membre de l'Academie Francoise, Vol. 18: Atala

    Si vous vouliez, citoyen, me faire le plaisir de publier ma lettre, vous me rendriez un important service.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Regulating Code - Good Governance and Better Regulation in the Information Age

    The case for a smarter "prosumer law" approach to Internet regulation that would better protect online innovation, public safety, and fundamental democratic rights.

    Internet use has become ubiquitous in the past two decades, but governments, legislators, and their regulatory agencies have struggled to keep up with the rapidly changing Internet technologies and uses. In this groundbreaking collaboration, regulatory lawyer Christopher Marsden and computer scientist Ian Brown analyze the regulatory shaping of "code"--the technological environment of the Internet--to achieve more economically efficient and socially just regulation. They examine five "hard cases" that illustrate the regulatory crisis: privacy and data protection; copyright and creativity incentives; censorship; social networks and user-generated content; and net neutrality.

    The authors describe the increasing "multistakeholderization" of Internet governance, in which user groups argue for representation in the closed business-government dialogue, seeking to bring in both rights-based and technologically expert perspectives. Brown and Marsden draw out lessons for better future regulation from the regulatory and interoperability failures illustrated by the five cases. They conclude that governments, users, and better functioning markets need a smarter "prosumer law" approach. Prosumer law would be designed to enhance the competitive production of public goods, including innovation, public safety, and fundamental democratic rights.

  • Optimization for Machine Learning

    An up-to-date account of the interplay between optimization and machine learning, accessible to students and researchers in both communities.

    The interplay between optimization and machine learning is one of the most important developments in modern computational science. Optimization formulations and methods are proving to be vital in designing algorithms to extract essential knowledge from huge volumes of data. Machine learning, however, is not simply a consumer of optimization technology but a rapidly evolving field that is itself generating new optimization ideas. This book captures the state of the art of the interaction between optimization and machine learning in a way that is accessible to researchers in both fields.
    Optimization approaches have enjoyed prominence in machine learning because of their wide applicability and attractive theoretical properties. The increasing complexity, size, and variety of today's machine learning models call for the reassessment of existing assumptions. This book starts the process of reassessment. It describes the resurgence in novel contexts of established frameworks such as first-order methods, stochastic approximations, convex relaxations, interior-point methods, and proximal methods. It also devotes attention to newer themes such as regularized optimization, robust optimization, gradient and subgradient methods, splitting techniques, and second-order methods. Many of these techniques draw inspiration from other fields, including operations research, theoretical computer science, and subfields of optimization. The book will enrich the ongoing cross-fertilization between the machine learning community and these other fields, and within the broader optimization community.

  • La Magie Assyrienne: Étude Suivie de Textes Magiques, Transcrits, Traduits Et Commentés (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Magie Assyrienne: Etude Suivie de Textes Magiques, Transcrits, Traduits Et Commentes

    La vie des anciens Egyptiens semble avoir ete dominee par l'idee dela mort. Leur preoccupation de l'an dela etait si vive et si constante qu'elle a laisse partout son empreinte. L'architecture funeraire, produit naturel des speculations sur la vie future, a pris sur les rives du Nil un deve10ppe ment auquel peut-etre nul autre n'est comparable, et la litterature eschatologique forme, par le nombre comme par l'importance des documents conserves, un des groupes les plus considerables de textes offerts aux meditations des egypt010goes. Au contraire, parmi les textes deja si nom breux quenous a livres le sol de l'assyrie et de la Babylo nie, il n'enest pas un 4 au moins de ceux qui sont publies qui soitproprement consacre aux ceremonies funebres, pas un dmt l'objet direct et special soit d'exposer une theorie sur la condition de l'homme apres la mort. Nous n'avons rim d'analogue au Rituel funeraire egyptien, ou au Livre de Morts. La Descente d'iltaraue Enfers, le texte assyrien le plus important que nous possedions sur le se jour des norte, n'est rien moins qu'un traite didactique sur l'autremonde. C'est une histoire edifiante, inventee ou reprise pwr expliquer et justifier les ceremonies annuelles en l'honneur de Tammuz, et inviter les mortels a ne pas les negli;er; la description des enfers, ou Ietar penetre pour en amener son amant, n'est qu'un accessoire episo dique du recit.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • La Névrose Révolutionnaire: La Contagion de la Peur; La Folie Sadique; Persécuteurs Et Persécutés; Les Femmes Devant l'Échafaud; Vandales Et ... Le Théatre Sans-Culottisé; La Névr

    Excerpt from La Nevrose Revolutionnaire: La Contagion de la Peur; La Folie Sadique; Persecuteurs Et Persecutes; Les Femmes Devant l'Echafaud; Vandales Et Iconoclastes; Les Extravagances de la Mode; Le Tutoiement Egalitaire; Le Theatre Sans-Culottise; La Nevrose Religieuse, Etc., Etc

    Il y a parfois, disons - le, dans son erudition un peu de fievre. C'est un chasseur qui tire au juge. Mais quoi! Le fusil est bon et le gibier porte au tableau est nombreux.

    On pourra discuter, par exemple, certaines idees de cet ouvrage, la Nevrose Revolutionnaire, et je le ferais volontiers, si une preface n'etait pas un peu une sorte de presentation on n'en saurait mecon naitre la valeur, l'interet anecdotique a la fois et psychologique. M. Cabanes et son collaborateur, M. Le Dr Ness, n'ont pas voulu, je pense, ecrire une histoire de la Revolution francaise, meme au point de vue psycho-pathologique. Ils ont voulu etudier.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Concerto Opus 36 Mib Maj. --- Clarinette/Piano

    Excerpt from Interstate Commerce Commission Reports, Vol. 44: Decisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission of the United States; March, 1917, to May, 1917

    Cases disposed of without printed report, with table Supplementslreparation orders Table of commodities.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Lord of the Ring, tome 1 : Fellowship of Ring (en anglais)

    Continuing the story begun in The Hobbit, this is the first part of Tolkien's epic masterpiece, The Lord of the Rings, featuring a striking black cover based on Tolkien's own design, the definitive text, and a detailed map of Middle-earth. Sauron, the Dark Lord, has gathered to him all the Rings of Power - the means by which he intends to rule Middle-earth. All he lacks in his plans for dominion is the One Ring - the ring that rules them all - which has fallen into the hands of the hobbit, Bilbo Baggins. In a sleepy village in the Shire, young Frodo Baggins finds himself faced with an immense task, as his elderly cousin Bilbo entrusts the Ring to his care. Frodo must leave his home and make a perilous journey across Middle-earth to the Cracks of Doom, there to destroy the Ring and foil the Dark Lord in his evil purpose. Part of a set of three paperbacks, this popular edition is once again available in its classic black livery designed by Tolkien himself.

  • Sympathy for the Traitor: A Translation Manifesto

    An engaging and unabashedly opinionated examination of what translation is and isn't.

    For some, translation is the poor cousin of literature, a necessary evil if not an outright travesty--summed up by the old Italian play on words, traduttore, traditore (translator, traitor). For others, translation is the royal road to cross-cultural understanding and literary enrichment. In this nuanced and provocative study, Mark Polizzotti attempts to reframe the debate along more fruitful lines. Eschewing both these easy polarities and the increasingly abstract discourse of translation theory, he brings the main questions into clearer focus: What is the ultimate goal of a translation? What does it mean to label a rendering "faithful"? (Faithful to what?) Is something inevitably lost in translation, and can something also be gained? Does translation matter, and if so, why? Unashamedly opinionated, both a manual and a manifesto, his book invites usto sympathize with the translator not as a "traitor" but as the author's creative partner.

    Polizzotti, himself a translator of authors from Patrick Modiano to Gustave Flaubert, explores what translation is and what it isn't, and how it does or doesn't work. Translation, he writes, "skirts the boundaries between art and craft, originality and replication, altruism and commerce, genius and hack work." In Sympathy for the Traitor, he shows us how to read not only translations but also the act of translation itself, treating it not as a problem to be solved but as an achievement to be celebrated--something, as Goethe put it, "impossible, necessary, and important."

  • Armorial de la Noblesse Du Périgord, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Armorial de la Noblesse du Perigord, Vol. 1

    Il en est de meme de celles qui, a une epoque plus rapprochee de nous, ont paye leur tribut de gloire au pa ys, soit dans les affaires de l'etat, soit sur les champs de bataille et a qui la Restauration etles gouvernements qui lui ont succede ont decerne, pour services rendus, des titres ou lettres de noblesse.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Politics of Adoption - Gender and the Making of French Citizenship

    An argument that French adoption policies reflect and enforce the state's notions of gender, parenthood, and citizenship.

    In May 2013, after months of controversy, France legalized same-sex marriage and adoption by homosexual couples. Obstacles to adoption and parenting equality remain, however--many of them in the form of cultural and political norms reflected and expressed in French adoption policies. In The Politics of Adoption, Bruno Perreau describes the evolution of these policies. In the past thirty years, Perreau explains, political and intellectual life in France have been dominated by debates over how to preserve "Frenchness," and these debates have driven policy making. Adoption policies, he argues, link adoption to citizenship, reflecting and enforcing the postcolonial state's notions of parenthood, gender, and Frenchness.

    After reviewing the complex history of adoption, Perreau examines French political debates over adoption, noting, among other things, that intercountry adoptions stirred far less controversy than the difference between the sexes in an adopting couple. He also discusses judicial action on adoption; child welfare agencies as gatekeepers to parenthood (as defined by experts); the approval process from the viewpoints of social workers and applicants; and adoption's link to citizenship, and its use as a metaphor for belonging.

    Adopting a Foucaultian perspective, Perreau calls the biopolitics of adoption "pastoral" it manages the individual for the good of the collective "flock"; it considers itself outside politics; and it considers not so much the real behavior of individuals as an allegorical representation of them. His argument sheds new light on American debates on bioethics, identity, and citizenship.

  • Your Everyday Art World

    A critic takes issue with the art world's romanticizing of networks and participatory projects, linking them to the values of a globalized, neoliberal economy.

    Over the past twenty years, the network has come to dominate the art world, affecting not just interaction among art professionals but the very makeup of the art object itself. The hierarchical and restrictive structure of the museum has been replaced by temporary projects scattered across the globe, staffed by free agents hired on short-term contracts, viewed by spectators defined by their predisposition to participate and make connections. In this book, Lane Relyea tries to make sense of these changes, describing a general organizational shift in the art world that affects not only material infrastructures but also conceptual categories and the construction of meaning.

    Examining art practice, exhibition strategies, art criticism, and graduate education, Relyea aligns the transformation of the art world with the advent of globalization and the neoliberal economy. He analyzes the new networked, participatory art world--hailed by some as inherently democratic--in terms of the pressures of part-time temp work in a service economy, the calculated stockpiling of business contacts, and the anxious duty of being a "team player" at work. Relyea calls attention to certain networked forms of art--including relational aesthetics, multiple or fictive artist identities, and bricolaged objects--that can be seen to oppose the values of neoliberalism rather than romanticizing and idealizing them. Relyea offers a powerful answer to the claim that the interlocking functions of the network--each act of communicating, of connecting, or practice--are without political content.

  • The Storm of Creativity

    The stages of the creative process--from "unlearning" to beginning again--seen through examples from the practice of artists, architects, poets, and others.

    Although each instance of creativity is singular and specific, Kyna Leski tells us, the creative process is universal. Artists, architects, poets, inventors, scientists, and others all navigate the same stages of the process in order to discover something that does not yet exist. All of us must work our way through the empty page, the blank screen, writer's block, confusion, chaos, and doubt. In this book, Leski draws from her observations and experiences as a teacher, student, maker, writer, and architect to describe the workings of the creative process.

    Leski sees the creative process as being like a storm; it slowly begins to gather and take form until it overtakes us--if we are willing to let it. It is dynamic, continually in motion; it starts, stops, rages and abates, ebbs and flows. In illustrations that accompany each chapter, she maps the arc of the creative process by tracing the path of water droplets traveling the stages of a storm.

    Leski describes unlearning, ridding ourselves of preconceptions; only when we realize what we don't know can we pose the problem that we need to solve. We gather evidence--with notebook jottings, research, the collection of objects--propelling the process. We perceive and conceive; we look ahead without knowing where we are going; we make connections. We pause, retreat, and stop, only to start again. To illustrate these stages of the process, Leski draws on examples of creative practice that range from Paul Klee to Steve Jobs, from the discovery of continental drift to the design of Antoni Gaudi's Sagrada Familia.

    Creativity, Leski tells us, is a path with no beginning or end; it is ongoing. This revelatory view of the creative process will be an essential guide for anyone engaged in creative discovery.

    The Creative Process
    Unlearning
    Problem Making
    Gathering and Tracking
    Propelling
    Perceiving and Conceiving
    Seeing Ahead
    Connecting
    Pausing
    Continuing

  • Virtual Economies - Design and Analysis

    How the basic concepts of economics -- including markets, institutions, and money -- can be used to create and analyze economies based on virtual goods.

    In the twenty-first-century digital world, virtual goods are sold for real money. Digital game players happily pay for avatars, power-ups, and other game items. But behind every virtual sale, there is a virtual economy, simple or complex. In this book, Vili Lehdonvirta and Edward Castronova introduce the basic concepts of economics into the game developer's and game designer's toolkits. Lehdonvirta and Castronova explain how the fundamentals of economics -- markets, institutions, and money -- can be used to create or analyze economies based on artificially scarce virtual goods. They focus on virtual economies in digital games, but also touch on serious digital currencies such as Bitcoin as well as virtual economies that emerge in social media around points, likes, and followers. The theoretical emphasis is on elementary microeconomic theory, with some discussion of behavioral economics, macroeconomics, sociology of consumption, and other social science theories relevant to economic behavior.

    Topics include the rational choice model of economic decision making; information goods versus virtual goods; supply, demand, and market equilibrium; monopoly power; setting prices; and externalities. The book will enable developers and designers to create and maintain successful virtual economies, introduce social scientists and policy makers to the power of virtual economies, and provide a useful guide to economic fundamentals for students in other disciplines.

  • Privacy on the Ground - Driving Corporate Behavior in the United States and Europe

    An examination of corporate privacy management in the United States, Germany, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom, identifying international best practices and making policy recommendations.

    Barely a week goes by without a new privacy revelation or scandal. Whether by hackers or spy agencies or social networks, violations of our personal information have shaken entire industries, corroded relations among nations, and bred distrust between democratic governments and their citizens. Polls reflect this concern, and show majorities for more, broader, and stricter regulation--to put more laws "on the books." But there was scant evidence of how well tighter regulation actually worked "on the ground" in changing corporate (or government) behavior--until now.

    This intensive five-nation study goes inside corporations to examine how the people charged with protecting privacy actually do their work, and what kinds of regulation effectively shape their behavior. And the research yields a surprising result. The countries with more ambiguous regulation--Germany and the United States--had the strongest corporate privacy management practices, despite very different cultural and legal environments. The more rule-bound countries--like France and Spain--trended instead toward compliance processes, not embedded privacy practices. At a crucial time, when Big Data and the Internet of Things are snowballing, Privacy on the Ground helpfully searches out the best practices by corporations, provides guidance to policymakers, and offers important lessons for everyone concerned with privacy, now and in the future.

  • Précis de l'Organisation, Ou Mémoire Sur Les États Provinciaux (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Precis de l'Organisation, ou Memoire sur les Etats Provinciaux

    Tout ce qui a trait a l'humanite, tient en femble par une chaine commune par une forte d'aflinite.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Eye, Retina and Visual System of the Mouse

    A comprehensive guide to current research, reflecting recent technical breakthroughs that have established the usefulness of the mouse model as part of a bilateral exchange between experimental and clinical research.

    Recent years have seen a burst of studies on the mouse eye and visual system, fueled in large part by the relatively recent ability to produce mice with precisely defined changes in gene sequence. Mouse models have contributed to a wide range of scientific breakthroughs for a number of ocular and neurological diseases and have allowed researchers to address fundamental issues that were difficult to approach with other experimental models. This comprehensive guide to current research captures the first wave of studies in the field, with fifty-nine chapters by leading scholars that demonstrate the usefulness of mouse models as a bridge between experimental and clinical research. The opening chapters introduce the mouse as a species and research model, discussing such topics as the mouse's evolutionary history and the mammalian visual system. Subsequent sections explore more specialized subjects, considering optics, psychophysics, and the visual behaviors of mice; the organization of the adult mouse eye and central visual system; the development of the mouse eye (including comparisons to human development); the development and plasticity of retinal projections and visuotopic maps; mouse models for human eye disease (including glaucoma and cataracts); and the application of advanced genomic technologies (including gene therapy and genetic knockouts) to the mouse visual system. Readers of this unique reference will see that the study of mouse models has already demonstrated real translational prowess in vision research.

  • Monna Vanna: Drame Lyrique En Quatre Actes Et Cinq Tableaux (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Monna Vanna: Drame Lyrique en Quatre Actes Et Cinq Tableaux

    Une salle dans le palais de Guido Colonna. On apercoit par une des fenetres ouvertes la campagne pisane. Au lever du rideau, on entend au dehors gronder l'emeute rumeurs, cris, coups de feu.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • NSK from Kapital to Capital - Neue Slowenische Kunst--an Event of the Final Decade of Yugoslavia

    The generously illustrated, lavishly documented story of NSK (Neue Slowenische Kunst), the eastern European art collective present at the last revolution of the twentieth century.

    This book is the generously illustrated, lavishly documented, critically narrated story of one of the most significant art collectives of the late twentieth century.

    In 1984, three groups of artists in post-Tito Yugoslavia--the music and multimedia group Laibach, the visual arts group Irwin, and the theater group Scipion Nasice Sisters Theater--came together to form the Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK) art collective.

    Adopting the symbols, codes, appearances, and discourses of fascism, nationalism, state power, socialist-realist, and avant-garde art, and pushing the strategies of overidentification and subversive affirmation to their limits, NSK exposed the common foundations of various regimes, systems, and ideologies, while affirming that "art and totalitarianism are not mutually exclusive."

    Employing music, video, film, exhibitions, writing, graphic design, architecture, theater, and public relations to probe the aesthetic possibilities of declining socialism and proliferating capitalism, NSK introduced an idiosyncratic version of postmodernism (the Retro-Avant-Garde) into the globalizing cultural sphere.

    Combining primary documents, period artifacts, critical essays, and contextual notes, NSK from Kapital to Capital documents NSK's collective practice during the final decade of Yugoslavia--from the first (and banned) Laibach concert (1980) in a small proletarian mining town in Slovenia to the series of projects launched by individual NSK groups entitled Kapital (1991-92). This illuminating chronicle of NSK's work and its reception is produced in conjunction with the first major museum exhibition devoted to NSK. Designed by Novi Kolektivizem (New Collectivism), the graphic design section of NSK, the cover of each individual copy of the book is printed with a custom detail; no two covers exactly are the same.

    Copublished with Moderna Galerija / Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    Contributors
    Eda Cufer, Goran Dordevic, Slavoj Zizek, Marina Grzinic, Rastko Mocnik, Marina Grzinic, Lev Kreft, Tomaz Mastnak, Mladen Dolar, Chrissie Iles, Boris Groys, Inke Arns, Alexei Monroe, Catherine Wood, Daniel Ricardo Quiles, Anthony Gardner, Barbara Borcic, Alexei Yurchak, Dejan Krsic, and others

    Exhibition
    Moderna galerija, Ljubljana: 12 May-17 August 2015
    Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven: March-August, 2016
    Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Moscow: Fall 2016

  • Writing and Unwriting (Media) Art History - Erkki Kurenniemi in 2048

    A critical mapping of the multiplicities of Finnish artist and technology pioneer Erkki Kurenniemi--composer of electronic music, experimental filmmaker, inventor, collector, futurologist.

    Over the past forty years, Finnish artist and technology pioneer Erkki Kurenniemi (b. 1941) has been a composer of electronic music, experimental filmmaker, computer animator, roboticist, inventor, and futurologist. Kurenniemi is a hybrid--a scientist-humanist-artist. Relatively unknown outside Nordic countries until his 2012 Documenta 13 exhibition, "In 2048," Kurenniemi may at last be achieving international recognition. This book offers an excavation, a critical mapping, and an elaboration of Kurenniemi's multiplicities.

    The contributors describe Kurenniemi's enthusiastic, and rather obsessive, recording of everyday life and how this archiving was part of his process; his exploratory artistic practice, with productive failure an inherent part of his method; his relationship to scientific and technological developments in media culture; and his work in electronic and digital music, including his development of automated composition systems and his "video-organ," DIMI-O. A "Visual Archive," a section of interviews with the artist, and a selection of his original writings (translated and published for the first time) further document Kurenniemi's achievements. But the book is not just about one artist in his time; it is about emerging media arts, interfaces, and archival fever in creative practices, read through the lens of Kurenniemi.

  • Sonic Warfare - Sound, Affect, and the Ecology of Fear

    Sound can be deployed to produce discomfort, express a threat, or create an ambience of fear or dread--to produce a bad vibe. Sonic weapons of this sort include the "psychoacoustic correction" aimed at Panama strongman Manuel Noriega by the U.S. Army and at the Branch Davidians in Waco by the FBI, sonic booms (or "sound bombs") over the Gaza Strip, and high-frequency rat repellants used against teenagers in malls. At the same time, artists and musicians generate intense frequencies in the search for new aesthetic experiences and new ways of mobilizing bodies in rhythm. In Sonic Warfare, Steve Goodman explores these uses of acoustic force and how they affect populations. Traversing philosophy, science, fiction, aesthetics, and popular culture, he maps a (dis)continuum of vibrational force, encompassing police and military research into acoustic means of crowd control, the corporate deployment of sonic branding, and the intense sonic encounters of sound art and music culture. Goodman concludes with speculations on the not yet heard--the concept of unsound, which relates to both the peripheries of auditory perception and the unactualized nexus of rhythms and frequencies within audible bandwidths

  • Les Évangiles Apocryphes: Traduits Et Annotés d'Après l'Édition de J. C. Thilo (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Evangiles Apocryphes: Traduits Et Annotes d'Apres l'Edition de J. C. Thilo

    Nous allons maintenant donner sur l'ensemble de la collection quelques details de bibliographie; quant a cette portion de nos recherches. Nous lui avons donne des soins particuliers, d'abord afin de faciliter les investigations des personnes qui voudraient ap profondir Ce que nous avons du nous borner 'a enleu rer, et ensuite parce que la bibliographie, beaucoup trop souvent negligee, est un excellent instrument de travail, une science bien plus difficile qu'on ne croit, et dont l'importance est chaque jour mieux sentie.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Critical Issues in Taxation and Development

    Experts analyze the policy challenges of taxation in developing countries, including corruption, tax evasion, and ineffective political structures.

    Many developing countries find it difficult to raise the revenue required to provide such basic public services as education, health care, and infrastructure. Complicating the policy challenges of taxation in developing countries are issues that most developed countries do not face, including widespread corruption, tax evasion and tax avoidance, and ineffective political structures. In this volume, experts investigate crucial challenges confronted by developing countries in raising revenue.

    After a comprehensive and insightful overview, each chapter uses modern empirical methods to study a single critical issue essential to understanding the effects of taxes on development. Topics addressed include the effect of taxation on foreign direct investment; forms of corruption, tax evasion, and tax avoidance that are specific to developing countries; and issues related to political structure, including the negative effects of fiscal decentralization on the effectiveness of developmental aid and the relationship between democracy and taxation in Asian, Latin American, and European Union countries that have recently experienced both political and economic transitions.

    Contributors
    Clemens Fuest, Timothy Goodspeed, Shafik Hebous, Michael Keen, Christian Lessmann, Boryana Madzharova, Giorgia Maffini, Gunther Markwardt, Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, Paola Profeta, Riccardo Puglisi, Nadine Riedel, Simona Scabrosetti, Johannes Stroebel, Mirco Tonin, Arthur van Benthem, Li Zhang, George Zodrow

  • Rational Action - The Sciences of Policy in Britain and America, 1940-1960

    The evolution of a set of fields--including operations research and systems analysis--intended to improve policymaking and explore the nature of rational decision-making.

    During World War II, the Allied military forces faced severe problems integrating equipment, tactics, and logistics into successful combat operations. To help confront these problems, scientists and engineers developed new means of studying which equipment designs would best meet the military's requirements and how the military could best use the equipment it had on hand. By 1941 they had also begun to gather and analyze data from combat operations to improve military leaders' ordinary planning activities. In Rational Action, William Thomas details these developments, and how they gave rise during the 1950s to a constellation of influential new fields--which he terms the "sciences of policy"--that included operations research, management science, systems analysis, and decision theory.

    Proponents of these new sciences embraced a variety of agendas. Some aimed to improve policymaking directly, while others theorized about how one decision could be considered more rational than another. Their work spanned systems engineering, applied mathematics, nuclear strategy, and the philosophy of science, and it found new niches in universities, in businesses, and at think tanks such as the RAND Corporation. The sciences of policy also took a prominent place in epic narratives told about the relationships among science, state, and society in an intellectual culture preoccupied with how technology and reason would shape the future. Thomas follows all these threads to illuminate and make new sense of the intricate relationships among scientific analysis, policymaking procedure, and institutional legitimacy at a crucial moment in British and American history.

  • Finite State Machines in Hardware - Theory and Design (with VHDL and SystemVerilog)

    A comprehensive guide to the theory and design of hardware-implemented finite state machines, with design examples developed in both VHDL and SystemVerilog languages.

    Modern, complex digital systems invariably include hardware-implemented finite state machines. The correct design of such parts is crucial for attaining proper system performance. This book offers detailed, comprehensive coverage of the theory and design for any category of hardware-implemented finite state machines. It describes crucial design problems that lead to incorrect or far from optimal implementation and provides examples of finite state machines developed in both VHDL and SystemVerilog (the successor of Verilog) hardware description languages.

    Important features include: extensive review of design practices for sequential digital circuits; a new division of all state machines into three hardware-based categories, encompassing all possible situations, with numerous practical examples provided in all three categories; the presentation of complete designs, with detailed VHDL and SystemVerilog codes, comments, and simulation results, all tested in FPGA devices; and exercise examples, all of which can be synthesized, simulated, and physically implemented in FPGA boards. Additional material is available on the book's Website.

    Designing a state machine in hardware is more complex than designing it in software. Although interest in hardware for finite state machines has grown dramatically in recent years, there is no comprehensive treatment of the subject. This book offers the most detailed coverage of finite state machines available. It will be essential for industrial designers of digital systems and for students of electrical engineering and computer science.

  • Oeuvres Complètes de Saint Augustin, Vol. 10: Traduites Pour La Première Fois En Français; Sermons Sur Les Psaumes (Suite Et Fin), Traités Sur Saint Jean (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Completes de Saint Augustin, Vol. 10: Traduites pour la Premiere Fois en Francais; Sermons sur les Psaumes (Suite Et Fin), Traites sur Saint Jean

    Toi, de maniere cependant a demeurer en lui-meme il est descendu vers toi, afin de devenir pour toi la vallee des pleurs il est demeure en lui-meme, afin d'etre pour toi une montagne a gravir. Etvoila dit Isaie, que dans les derniers jours se manifestera la montagne du Seigneur, dominant le som met des montagnes C'est la qu'il faut nous elever. Mais parce que l'on parle des montagnes, loin de toi toute pensee terrestre, toute hauteur visible et quand il est ques tion de pierre ou de rocher, ne te figure point quelque c0rps dur, non plus que la ferocite quand on parle de lion, ni l'animal de l'e table quand il est question d'agneau. Le Christ en lui - meme n'est rien de tout cela, et il s'est fait tout cela pour toi. C'est d'ici-bas qu'il faut s'elever, c'est jusque-la qu'il faut monter; de son exemple a sa divinite. Il est devenu ton modele dans ses abaissements et ceux qui n'ont point voulu s'elever de cette vallee des pleurs, ont senti le poids de son bras. Ils voulaient s'elever a contre - temps, ils revaient de grands honneurs, sans penser a la voie de l'humilite. Que votre charite comprenne ceci, mes freres. Deux disciples du Sauveur demandaient a s'asseoir aux cotes de Jesus, l'un a sa droite, l'autre a sa gauche Jesus vit qu'ils renversaient l'ordre, qu'ils etaient prematurement ambitieux des hon heurs, tandis qu'il leur fallait d'abord ap prendre a s'humilier avant d'etre eleves, et il leur dit: Pouvez - vous boire le calice que je boirai moi-meme Car dans cette val lee des larmes il devait boire le calice de sa passion mais eux, sans faire attentional'hu milite du Christ, ne voulaient comprendre que sa grandeur. Il les rappelle dans la voie comme des hommes qui s'egarent, non pour leur refuser ce qu'ils desiraient, mais pour leur montrer par ou ils doivent y arriver.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Art of Naming

    From Tyrannosaurus rex to Heteropoda davidbowie: scientific naming as a joyful and creative act.

    Tyrannosaurus rex. Homo sapiens. Heteropoda davidbowie. Behind each act of scientific naming is a story. In this entertaining and illuminating book, Michael Ohl considers scientific naming as a joyful and creative act. There are about 1.8 million discovered and named plant and animal species, and millions more still to be discovered. Naming is the necessary next step after discovery; it is through the naming of species that we perceive and understand nature. Ohl explains the process, with examples, anecdotes, and a wildly varied cast of characters. He describes the rules for scientific naming; the vernacular isn't adequate. These rules--in standard binomial nomenclature, the generic name followed by specific name--go back to Linnaeus; but they are open to idiosyncrasy and individual expression. A lizard is designated Barbaturex morrisoni (in honor of the Doors' Jim Morrison, the Lizard King); a member of the horsefly family Scaptia beyonceae. Ohl, a specialist in "winged things that sting," confesses that among the many wasp species he has named is Ampulex dementor, after the dementors in the Harry Potter novels. Scientific names have also been deployed by scientists to insult other scientists, to make political statements, and as expressions of romantic love: "I shall name this beetle after my beloved wife."

    The Art of Naming takes us on a surprising and fascinating journey, in the footsteps of the discoverers of species and the authors of names, into the nooks and crannies and drawers and cabinets of museums, and through the natural world of named and not-yet-named species.

  • Design and Destiny - Jewish and Christian Perspectives on Human Germline Modification

    Scholars discuss the genetic modification of embryonic cells from the viewpoints of traditional Jewish and Christian teaching, considering both the possible therapeutic benefits of this technology and moral concerns about its implementation.

    We are approaching the day when advances in biotechnology will allow parents to "design" a baby with the traits they want. The continuing debate over the possibilities of genetic engineering has been spirited, but so far largely confined to the realms of bioethics and public policy. Design and Destiny approaches the question in religious terms, discussing human germline modification (the genetic modification of the embryonic cells that become the eggs or sperm of a developing organism) from the viewpoints of traditional Christian and Jewish teaching. The contributors, leading religious scholars and writers, call our attention not to technology but to humanity, reflecting upon the meaning and destiny of human life in a technological age. Many of these scholars argue that religious teaching can support human germline modification implemented for therapeutic reasons, although they offer certain moral conditions that must be met.

    The essays offer a surprising variety of opinions, including a discussion of Judaism's traditional presumption in favor of medicine, an argument that Catholic doctrine could accept germline modification if it is therapeutic for the embryo, an argument implying that "traditional" Christian teaching permits germline modification whether for therapy or enhancement, and a "classical" Protestant view that germline modification should be categorically opposed.

    Contributors
    Lisa Sowle Cahill, Nigel M. de S. Cameron, Ronald Cole-Turner, Amy Michelle DeBaets, Celia Deane-Drummond, Elliot Dorff, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., Thomas A. Shannon, James J. Walter

  • Mathematics for Economics 3e

    A new edition of a comprehensive undergraduate mathematics text for economics students.

    This text offers a comprehensive presentation of the mathematics required to tackle problems in economic analyses. To give a better understanding of the mathematical concepts, the text follows the logic of the development of mathematics rather than that of an economics course. The only prerequisite is high school algebra, but the book goes on to cover all the mathematics needed for undergraduate economics. It is also a useful reference for graduate students. After a review of the fundamentals of sets, numbers, and functions, the book covers limits and continuity, the calculus of functions of one variable, linear algebra, multivariate calculus, and dynamics. To develop the student's problem-solving skills, the book works through a large number of examples and economic applications. This streamlined third edition offers an array of new and updated examples. Additionally, lengthier proofs and examples are provided on the book's website. The book and the web material are cross-referenced in the text. A student solutions manual is available, and instructors can access online instructor's material that includes solutions and PowerPoint slides. Visit http: //mitpress.mit.edu/math_econ3 for complete details.

  • Grammaire Du Vieil-Irlandais: Phonétique, Morphologie, Syntaxe (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Grammaire du Vieil-Irlandais: Phonetique, Morphologie, Syntaxe

    La litterature du-vieil - irlandais, sortie tout entiere des monasteres, est en majeure partie une litterature religieuse. Ce caractere special tient aux circonstances historiques dans lesquelles elle s'est developpee.'

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Bibliometrics and Research Evaluation: Uses and Abuses

    Why bibliometrics is useful for understanding the global dynamics of science but generate perverse effects when applied inappropriately in research evaluation and university rankings.

    The research evaluation market is booming. "Ranking," "metrics," "h-index," and "impact factors" are reigning buzzwords. Government and research administrators want to evaluate everything--teachers, professors, training programs, universities--using quantitative indicators. Among the tools used to measure "research excellence," bibliometrics--aggregate data on publications and citations--has become dominant. Bibliometrics is hailed as an "objective" measure of research quality, a quantitative measure more useful than "subjective" and intuitive evaluation methods such as peer review that have been used since scientific papers were first published in the seventeenth century. In this book, Yves Gingras offers a spirited argument against an unquestioning reliance on bibliometrics as an indicator of research quality. Gingras shows that bibliometric rankings have no real scientific validity, rarely measuring what they pretend to.

    Although the study of publication and citation patterns, at the proper scales, can yield insights on the global dynamics of science over time, ill-defined quantitative indicators often generate perverse and unintended effects on the direction of research. Moreover, abuse of bibliometrics occurs when data is manipulated to boost rankings. Gingras looks at the politics of evaluation and argues that using numbers can be a way to control scientists and diminish their autonomy in the evaluation process. Proposing precise criteria for establishing the validity of indicators at a given scale of analysis, Gingras questions why universities are so eager to let invalid indicators influence their research strategy.

  • Glossaire Du Patois de la Suisse Romande (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Glossaire du Patois de la Suisse Romande

    On rencontrera aussi quelques etymologies grecques un peu risquees; les memes scrupules nous ont eu gage a les conserver pour la plupart.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Gravity's Kiss: The Detection of Gravitational Waves

    Scientists have been trying to confirm the existence of gravitational waves for fifty years. Then, in September 2015, came a "very interesting event" (as the cautious subject line in a physicist's email read) that proved to be the first detection of gravitational waves. In Gravity's Kiss, Harry Collins -- who has been watching the science of gravitational wave detection for forty-three of those fifty years and has written three previous books about it -- offers a final, fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of one of the most remarkable scientific discoveries ever made. Predicted by Einstein in his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves carry energy from the collision or explosion of stars. Dying binary stars, for example, rotate faster and faster around each other until they merge, emitting a burst of gravitational waves. It is only with the development of extraordinarily sensitive, highly sophisticated detectors that physicists can now confirm Einstein's prediction. This is the story that Collins tells. Collins, a sociologist of science who has been embedded in the gravitational wave community since 1972, traces the detection, the analysis, the confirmation, and the public presentation and the reception of the discovery -- from the first email to the final published paper and the response of professionals and the public. Collins shows that science today is collaborative, far-flung (with the physical location of the participants hardly mattering), and sometimes secretive, but still one of the few institutions that has integrity built into it.

  • New Earth Politics: Essays from the Anthropocene

    Prominent scholars and practitioners consider the role of global environmental politics in the face of increasing environmental stress.

    Humanity's collective impact on the Earth is vast. The rate and scale of human-driven environmental destruction is quickly outstripping our political and social capacities for managing it. We are in effect creating an Earth 2.0 on which the human signature is everywhere, a "new earth" in desperate need of humane and insightful guidance. In this volume, prominent scholars and practitioners in the field of global environmental politics consider the ecological and political realities of life on the new earth, and probe the field's deepest and most enduring questions at a time of increasing environmental stress. Arranged in complementary pairs, the essays in this volume include reflections on environmental pedagogy, analysis of new geopolitical realities, reflections on the power of social movements and international institutions, and calls for more compelling narratives to promote environmental action.

    At the heart of the volume is sustained attention to the role of traditional scholarly activities in a world confronting environmental disaster. Some contributors make the case that it is the scholar's role to provide activists with the necessary knowledge and tools; others argue for more direct engagement and political action. All the contributors confront the overriding question: What is the best use of their individual and combined energies, given the dire environmental reality?

    Contributors
    Erik Assadourian, Frank Biermann, Wil Burns, Ken Conca, Peter Dauvergne, Daniel Deudney, Navroz Dubash, Richard Falk, Joyeeta Gupta, Maria Ivanova, Peter Jacques, Sikina Jinnah, Karen T. Litfin, Michael F. Maniates, Elizabeth Mendenhall, Simon Nicholson, Kate O'Neill, Judith Shapiro, Paul Wapner, Oran R. Young

  • Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World

    A guide to understanding the inner workings and outer limits of technology and why we should never assume that computers always get it right.

    In Artificial Unintelligence, Meredith Broussard argues that our collective enthusiasm for applying computer technology to every aspect of life has resulted in a tremendous amount of poorly designed systems. We are so eager to do everything digitally--hiring, driving, paying bills, even choosing romantic partners--that we have stopped demanding that our technology actually work. Broussard, a software developer and journalist, reminds us that there are fundamental limits to what we can (and should) do with technology. With this book, she offers a guide to understanding the inner workings and outer limits of technology--and issues a warning that we should never assume that computers always get things right.

    Making a case against technochauvinism--the belief that technology is always the solution--Broussard argues that it's just not true that social problems would inevitably retreat before a digitally enabled Utopia. To prove her point, she undertakes a series of adventures in computer programming. She goes for an alarming ride in a driverless car, concluding "the cyborg future is not coming any time soon"; uses artificial intelligence to investigate why students can't pass standardized tests; deploys machine learning to predict which passengers survived the Titanic disaster; and attempts to repair the U.S. campaign finance system by building AI software. If we understand the limits of what we can do with technology, Broussard tells us, we can make better choices about what we should do with it to make the world better for everyone.

  • Living with Complexity

    Why we don't really want simplicity, and how we can learn to live with complexity.

    If only today's technology were simpler! It's the universal lament, but it's wrong. In this provocative and informative book, Don Norman writes that the complexity of our technology must mirror the complexity and richness of our lives. It's not complexity that's the problem, it's bad design. Bad design complicates things unnecessarily and confuses us. Good design can tame complexity.

    Norman gives us a crash course in the virtues of complexity. Designers have to produce things that tame complexity. But we too have to do our part: we have to take the time to learn the structure and practice the skills. This is how we mastered reading and writing, driving a car, and playing sports, and this is how we can master our complex tools.

    Complexity is good. Simplicity is misleading. The good life is complex, rich, and rewarding -- but only if it is understandable, sensible, and meaningful.

  • And: Conjunction Reduction Redux

    A bold argument that "and" always means "&," the truth-functional sentential connective.

    In this book, Barry Schein argues that "and" is always the sentential logical connective with the same, one, meaning. "And" always means "&," across the varied constructions in which it is tokened in natural language. Schein examines the constructions that challenge his thesis, and shows that the objections disappear when these constructions are translated into Eventish, a neo-Davidsonian event semantics, and, enlarged with Cinerama Semantics, a vocabulary for spatial orientation and navigation. Besides rescuing "and" from ambiguity, Eventish and Cinerama Semantics solve general puzzles of grammar and meaning unrelated to conjunction, revealing the book's central thesis in the process: aspects of meaning mistakenly attributed to "and" are discovered to reflect neighboring structures previously unseen and unacknowledged.

    Schein argues that Eventish and Cinerama Semantics offer a fundamental revision to clause structure and what aspects of meaning are represented therein. Eventish is distinguished by four features: supermonadicity, which enlarges verbal decomposition so that every argument relates to its own event; descriptive event anaphora, which replaces simple event variables with silent descriptive pronouns; adverbialization, which interposes adverbials derived from the descriptive content of every DP; and AdrPs, which replace all NPs with Address Phrases that locate what nominals denote within scenes or frames of reference.

    With 'And, ' Schein rehabilitates an old rule of transformational, generative grammar, answering the challenges to it exhaustively and meticulously.

  • Mémoires Touchant La Vie Et Les Écrits de Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Dame de Bourbilly, Marquise de Sévigné: Durnt Le Ministère Du Cardinal Mazarin Et La Jeunesse de Louis XIV (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Memoires Touchant la Vie Et les Ecrits de Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Dame de Bourbilly, Marquise de Sevigne Durnt le Ministere du Cardinal Mazarin Et la Jeunesse de Louis XIV

    Louer, Muse historique, t. II, liv. VI, p. 17, lettre en date du 30 janvier 1655. Ibid., p. 6 et 12. Motteville, t. XXXIX p. 369.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • From Web to Workplace - Designing Open Hypermedia Systems

    Kaj Gronbaek and Randall H. Trigg present a set of principles for the design of open hypermedia systems and provide concrete implications of these principles for issues ranging from data structures to architectures and system integration, and for settings as diverse as the World Wide Web and the workplace.

    In this book Kaj Gronbaek and Randall H. Trigg present a set of principles for the design of open hypermedia systems and provide concrete implications of these principles for issues ranging from data structures to architectures and system integration, and for settings as diverse as the World Wide Web and the workplace.The principles, which cover both hypermedia system processing and data structures, reflect results from decades of hypermedia research, including the popular Dexter hypertext reference model and the authors own extended object-oriented version of the Dexter model. One important principle is the notion of links as first-class objects outside the data. Emerging systems such as HyperWave, Microcosm, and Devise Hypermedia apply this principle to extend the capabilities of the Web. The authors also discuss the management of incomplete and dangling links, time-based media including video and sound, support for collaboration and shared hypermedia structures, worldwide distribution, and integration of third-party applications in open hypermedia systems.

  • Modernism in Serbia - The Elusive Margins of Belgrade Architecture 1919-1941

    The first comprehensive study of the modern movement in Serbian architecture.

    Modernism in Serbia is the first comprehensive account of an almost forgotten body of work that once defined regional modernism at its best. The book reconstructs the story of Serbian modernism as a local history within a major movement and views the buildings designed in Belgrade in the 1920s and 1930s as part of a larger cultural phenomenon. Because so many of the buildings discussed are disintegrating or have been destroyed or altered beyond recognition, the book serves not only as a documentary and critical study but also as a preservation resource. Most of the photographs and plans have never been published outside of Serbia, if at all.

    In restoring this work to its rightful place in the history of modern architecture, the book also sheds new light on a number of other stories. These include the influence of Le Corbusier and of the Yugoslav avant-garde movement Zenitism and the impact of international modern movements on the theoretical underpinnings of Serbian modernism. One of the subplots follows the story of the Group of Architects of the Modern Movement in Belgrade and its four founding members, Milan Zlokovic, Branislav Kojic, Jan Dubovy, and Dusan Babic. Through an examination of their work and that of other modern architects, most notably Dragisa Brasovan and Nikola Dobrovic, the book discusses the identity of Serbian modernism as it was established in the period from 1925 to 1940. The book also identifies those buildings that represent the purest examples of Serbian modernism and analyzes the qualities that make them quintessentially local forms while part of the larger modernist movement.

    Modernism in Serbia is a co-publication of the Harvard Design School and MIT Press.

  • Semantics & Syntax in Lexical Functional Grammar - The Resource Logic Approach

    This introduction to and overview of the glue approach is the first book to bring together the research of the major contributors to the field.

    A new, deductive approach to the syntax-semantics interface integrates two mature and successful lines of research: logical deduction for semantic composition and the Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) approach to the analysis of linguistic structure. It is often referred to as the glue approach because of the role of logic in gluing meanings together.

    The glue approach has attracted significant attention from, among others, logicians working in the relatively new and active field of linear logic; linguists interested in a novel deductive approach to the interface between syntax and semantics within a nontransformational, constraint-based syntactic framework; and computational linguists and computer scientists interested in an approach to semantic composition that is grounded in a conceptually simple but powerful computational framework.This introduction to and overview of the glue approach is the first book to bring together the research of the major contributors to the field.

    Contributors
    Richard Crouch, Mary Dalrymple, John Fry, Vineet Gupta, Mark Johnson, Andrew Kehler, John Lamping, Dick Oehrle, Fernando Pereira, Vijay Saraswat, Josef van Genabith

  • Oeuvres Badines, Complettes Du Comte de Caylus, Avec Figures, Vol. 11: Cette Partie Contient Plusieurs Historiettes Et Ouvrages Critiques Et Facétieux ... Au Comte de Caylus (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres Badines, Complettes du Comte de Caylus, Avec Figures, Vol. 11: Cette Partie Contient Plusieurs Historiettes Et Ouvrages Critiques Et Facetieux Qui Ont Ete Attribues au Comte de Caylus

    Les Chats, de M. De Menerit' ne font pas l'un des moindres ornemena de ce Recueil. Cette charmante apologie et! Un chef d'oeuvre d'efprir de delicaoefl'd: Semblable un peintre habile l'auteur flatte fon original falls nuire a la refiema blance; il n'emer aucun des traits de l'objet qu'il veut peindre mais il fait ingenieufement les prefenter fous un jour avantageux Gt les rendre aimables iufques dans leurs defauts. On fait que M. De Moncrif etoit de la fociete de ces mef fleurs, qu'il a en part a plufieurs des pieces qu'elle eu convenue de publier fous le nom du comte de Caylus. On imprime a la fuite des Chats quelques poefies, telles que l'epitaphe d'un chat, par Dubellay une tragedie lyrique de madame Deshoulieres, ou les chats font interlocuteurs.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Emergence - Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

    Emergence, largely ignored just thirty years ago, has become one of the liveliest areas of research in both philosophy and science. Fueled by advances in complexity theory, artificial life, physics, psychology, sociology, and biology and by the parallel development of new conceptual tools in philosophy, the idea of emergence offers a way to understand a wide variety of complex phenomena in ways that are intriguingly different from more traditional approaches. This reader collects for the first time in one easily accessible place classic writings on emergence from contemporary philosophy and science. The chapters, by such prominent scholars as John Searle, Stephen Weinberg, William Wimsatt, Thomas Schelling, Jaegwon Kim, Robert Laughlin, Daniel Dennett, Herbert Simon, Stephen Wolfram, Jerry Fodor, Philip Anderson, and David Chalmers, cover the major approaches to emergence. Each of the three sections ("Philosophical Perspectives," "Scientific Perspectives," and "Background and Polemics") begins with an introduction putting the chapters into context and posing key questions for further exploration. A bibliography lists more specialized material, and an associated website (http: //mitpress.mit.edu/emergence) links to downloadable software and to other sites and publications about emergence.

    ContributorsP. W. Anderson, Andrew Assad, Nils A. Baas, Mark A. Bedau, Mathieu S. Capcarrere, David Chalmers, James P. Crutchfield, Daniel C. Dennett, J. Doyne Farmer, Jerry Fodor, Carl Hempel, Paul Humphreys, Jaegwon Kim, Robert B. Laughlin, Bernd Mayer, Brian P. McLaughlin, Ernest Nagel, Martin Nillson, Paul Oppenheim, Norman H. Packard, David Pines, Steen Rasmussen, Edmund M. A. Ronald, Thomas Schelling, John Searle, Robert S. Shaw, Herbert Simon, Moshe Sipper, Stephen Weinberg, William Wimsatt, and Stephen Wolfram.

  • The Paris of Henri IV: Architecture and Urbanism

    "King Henri IV of France . . . was not interested in courtly splendor, or books, or the arts; he was notoriously averse to spending money, even on his mistresses. But when it came to embellishing Paris, nothing was too good for him. Henri first entered the city as its sovereign after several sieges and half a century of civil wars, What he found was a decaying and ravaged medieval hodge-podge. By the time he died, in 1610, he had transformed it into one of the great European capitals. Just how he did this is the fascinating (and still relevant) story that Hilary Ballon tells in her admirably documented book." --Olivier Bernier, "Wall Street Journal" "This delightful book elegantly documents Henri IV's architectural programs of 1605-10 . . . and helps us understand the surprisingly gentle humanity and charm that those urban groupings possess." -- "The New Yorker" The Louvre, the Place Royale (now the Place des Vosges), the Place and rue Dauphine, the Pont Neuf, and the Ho pital Saint Louis were part of a building program initiated by Henri IV that would be unmatched in Paris for more than two centuries. Drawing on previously untapped notarial archives in Paris's Minutier central, Hilary Ballon provides a rich and original account of the crucial period between 1605 and 1610 when Paris was transformed from a medieval city decimated by war and neglect into a modern capital. An Architectural History Foundation Book

  • Total Modernity and the Avant-Garde in Twentieth - Minglu Gao

    A groundbreaking book that describes a distinctively Chinese avant-gardism and a modernity that unifies art, politics, and social life.

    To the extent that Chinese contemporary art has become a global phenomenon, it is largely through the groundbreaking exhibitions curated by Gao Minglu: "China/Avant-Garde" (Beijing, 1989), "Inside Out: New Chinese Art" (Asia Society, New York, 1998), and "The Wall: Reshaping Contemporary Chinese Art" (Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 2005) among them. As the first Chinese writer to articulate a distinctively Chinese avant-gardism and modernity--one not defined by Western chronology or formalism--Gao Minglu is largely responsible for the visibility of Chinese art in the global art scene today.

    Contemporary Chinese artists tend to navigate between extremes, either embracing or rejecting a rich classical tradition. Indeed, for Chinese artists, the term "modernity" refers not to a new epoch or aesthetic but to a new nation--modernityinextricably connects politics to art. It is this notion of "total modernity" that forms the foundation of the Chinese avant-garde aesthetic, and of this book. Gao examines the many ways Chinese artists engaged with this intrinsic total modernity, including the '85 Movement, political pop, cynical realism, apartment art, maximalism, and the museum age, encompassing the emergenceof local art museums and organizations as well as such major events as the Shanghai Biennial. He describes the inner logic of the Chinese context while locating the art within the framework of a worldwide avant-garde. He vividly describes the Chinese avant-garde's embrace of a modernity that unifies politics, aesthetics, and social life, blurring the boundaries between abstraction, conception, and representation. Lavishly illustrated with color images throughout, this book will be a touchstone for all considerations of Chinese contemporary art.

  • Éléments Et Notions Pratiques de Droit: Organisation Politique, Administrative Et Judiciaire de la France Continentale; Élections, Incapacités, ... Civile, l'Instruction Criminelle, Le Jury; Dr

    Excerpt from Elements Et Notions Pratiques de Droit: Organisation Politique, Administrative Et Judiciaire de la France Continentale; Elections, Incapacites, Rehabilitations; Notions sur les Juridictions, la Procedure Civile, l'Instruction Criminelle, le Jury; Droit Civil: Elements Et Principes Generaux

    Ce simple manuel, sans pretention scientifique, s'adresse a tous ceux qui, sans pouvoir se livrer a une etude complete du Droit, tiennent cependant a ne pas l'ignorer. Les nombreux ouvrages juridiques, tant theoriques que pratiques, depuis les simples manuels d'etudiants jusqu'aux grands traites doctrinaux et aux encyclopedies de jurisprudence ne leur sont pas acces sibles ils n'y trouveraient qu obscurite et confusion, faute de pouvoir suivre des developpements qui sup posent a tout instant la connaissance des principes theoriques.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Good Reception: Teens, Teachers, and Mobile Media in a Los Angeles High School

    A year in the life of a ninth-grade English class shows how participatory culture and mobile devices can transform learning in schools.

    Schools and school districts have one approach to innovation: buy more technology. In Good Reception, Antero Garcia describes what happens when educators build on the ways students already use technology outside of school to help them learn in the classroom. As a teacher in a public high school in South Central Los Angeles, Garcia watched his students' nearly universal adoption of mobile devices. Whether recent immigrants from Central America or teens who had spent their entire lives in Los Angeles, the majority of his students relied on mobile devices to connect with family and friends and to keep up with complex social networks. Garcia determined to discover how these devices and student predilection for gameplay, combined with an evolving "culture of participation," could be used in the classroom.

    Garcia charts a year in the life of his ninth-grade English class, first surveying mobile media use on campus and then documenting a year-long experiment in creating a "wireless critical pedagogy" by incorporating mobile media and games in classroom work. He describes the design and implementation of "Ask Anansi," an alternate reality game that allows students to conduct inquiry-based research around questions that interest them (including "Why is the food at South Central High School so bad?"). Garcia cautions that the transformative effect on education depends not on the glorification of devices but on teacher support and a trusting teacher-student relationship.

  • Architectural Robotics: Ecosystems of Bits, Bytes, and Biology

    How a built environment that is robotic and interactive becomes an apt home to our restless, dynamic, and increasingly digital society.

    The relationship of humans to computers can no longer be represented as one person in a chair and one computer on a desk. Today computing finds its way into our pockets, our cars, our appliances; it is ubiquitous--an inescapable part of our everyday lives. Computing is even expanding beyond our devices; sensors, microcontrollers, and actuators are increasingly embedded into the built environment. In Architectural Robotics, Keith Evan Green looks toward the next frontier in computing: interactive, partly intelligent, meticulously designed physical environments. Green examines how these "architectural robotic" systems will support and augment us at work, school, and home, as we roam, interconnect, and age.

    Green tells the stories of three projects from his research lab that exemplify the reconfigurable, distributed, and transfigurable environments of architectural robotics. The Animated Work Environment is a robotic work environment of shape-shifting physical space that responds dynamically to the working life of the people within it; home+ is a suite of networked, distributed "robotic furnishings" integrated into existing domestic and healthcare environments; and LIT ROOM offers a simulated environment in which the physical space of a room merges with the imaginary space of a book, becoming "a portal to elsewhere."

    How far beyond workstations, furniture, and rooms can the environments of architectural robotics stretch? Green imagines scaled-up neighborhoods, villages, and metropolises composed of physical bits, digital bytes, living things, and their hybrids. Not global but local, architectural robotics grounds computing in a capacious cyber-physical home.

  • Au Seuil de l'Apocalypse: Pour Faire Suite Au Mendiant Ingrat, a Mon Journal; A Quatre ANS de Captivité À Cochons-Sur-Marne a l'Invendable, Au Vieux ... de l'Absolu, 1913-1915 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Au Seuil de l'Apocalypse: Pour Faire Suite au Mendiant Ingrat, A Mon Journal; A Quatre Ans de Captivite a Cochons-sur-Marne A l'Invendable, au Vieux de la Montagne Et au Pelerin de l'Absolu, 1913-1915

    Quelle bonne journee nous avons eue ensemble! Tu ne sais pas quelle Impression claire' ai eue de vos ames qui me sont apparues belles, fortes et brulantes! Comme je les aime, ces cheres ames! Celle de ton mari est d' une simplicite heroique. C'est vraiment le monstre qui, de sa vision surnaturelle, voit et juge toutes choses et ren verse l'ordre apparent du pauvre monde. Comme il m'ap parait grand et cher a Dieu!

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Self-Organizing Social Mind

    A proposal that the basic mental models used to structure social interaction result from self-organization in brain activity.

    In The Self-Organizing Social Mind, John Bolender proposes a new explanation for the forms of social relations. He argues that the core of social-relational cognition exhibits beauty--in the physicist's sense of the word, associated with symmetry. Bolender describes a fundamental set of patterns in interpersonal cognition, which account for the resulting structures of social life in terms of their symmetries and the breaking of those symmetries. He further describes the symmetries of the four fundamental social relations as ordered in a nested series akin to what one finds in the formation of a snowflake or spiral galaxy. Symmetry breaking organizes the neural activity generating the cognitive models that structure our social relationships.

    Bolender's primary claim is that there exists a social pattern generator analogous to the central pattern generators associated with locomotion in many animal species. Spontaneous symmetry breaking structures the activity of the social pattern generator just as it does in central pattern generators.

    Bolender's hypothesis that relational cognition results from self-organization is entirely novel, distinct from other theories that describe sociality in terms of evolution or environment. It presents a picture of social-relational cognition as resembling something inorganic. In doing so it reveals deep connections among cognition, biology, and the inorganic world. One can go too far, he acknowledges, in taking a solely dynamical view of the mind; the mind's innate functional complexity must be due to natural selection. But this does not mean that every simple mental feature is the result of natural selection. By noting a descending symmetry subgroup chain at the core of relational cognition, Bolender takes the first step in an important investigation.

  • The Ringtone Dialectic - Economy and Cultural Form

    The rise and fall of the ringtone industry and its effect on mobile entertainment, music, television, film, and politics.

    A decade ago, the customizable ringtone was ubiquitous. Almost any crowd of cell phone owners could produce a carillon of tinkly, beeping, synthy, musicalized ringer signals. Ringtones quickly became a multi-billion-dollar global industry and almost as quickly faded away. In The Ringtone Dialectic, Sumanth Gopinath charts the rise and fall of the ringtone economy and assesses its effect on cultural production.

    Gopinath describes the technical and economic structure of the ringtone industry, considering the transformation of ringtones from monophonic, single-line synthesizer files to polyphonic MIDI files to digital sound files and the concomitant change in the nature of capital and rent accumulation within the industry. He discusses sociocultural practices that seemed to wane as a result of these shifts, including ringtone labor, certain forms of musical notation and representation, and the creation of musical and artistic works quoting ringtones. Gopinath examines "declines," "reversals," and "revivals" of cultural forms associated with the ringtone and its changes, including the Crazy Frog fad, the use of ringtones in political movements (as in the Philippine "Gloriagate" scandal), the ringtone's narrative function in film and television (including its striking use in the films of the Chinese director Jia Zhangke), and the ringtone's relation to pop music (including possible race and class aspects of ringtone consumption). Finally, Gopinath considers the attempt to rebrand ringtones as "mobile music" and the emergence of cloud computing.

  • Machine Learning for Data Streams: with Practical Examples in MOA

    A hands-on approach to tasks and techniques in data stream mining and real-time analytics, with examples in MOA, a popular freely available open-source software framework.

    Today many information sources--including sensor networks, financial markets, social networks, and healthcare monitoring--are so-called data streams, arriving sequentially and at high speed. Analysis must take place in real time, with partial data and without the capacity to store the entire data set. This book presents algorithms and techniques used in data stream mining and real-time analytics. Taking a hands-on approach, the book demonstrates the techniques using MOA (Massive Online Analysis), a popular, freely available open-source software framework, allowing readers to try out the techniques after reading the explanations.

    The book first offers a brief introduction to the topic, covering big data mining, basic methodologies for mining data streams, and a simple example of MOA. More detailed discussions follow, with chapters on sketching techniques, change, classification, ensemble methods, regression, clustering, and frequent pattern mining. Most of these chapters include exercises, an MOA-based lab session, or both. Finally, the book discusses the MOA software, covering the MOA graphical user interface, the command line, use of its API, and the development of new methods within MOA. The book will be an essential reference for readers who want to use data stream mining as a tool, researchers in innovation or data stream mining, and programmers who want to create new algorithms for MOA.

  • Traité Des Variations de la Colonne Vertébrale de l'Homme: Et de Leur Signification Au Point de Vue de l'Anthropologie Zoologique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Traite des Variations de la Colonne Vertebrale de l'Homme: Et de Leur Signification au Point de Vue de l'Anthropologie Zoologique

    Au total, j'ai donc fait paraitre jusqu'ici sept volumes sur les variations anatomiques humaines, dont un en collaboration.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Power Density - A Key to Understanding Energy Sources and Uses

    The first systematic, quantitative appraisal of power density, offering detailed reviews of power densities of renewable energy flows, fossil fuels, and all common energy uses.

    "There's no author whose books I look forward to more than Vaclav Smil."
    -- Bill Gates

    In this book, Vaclav Smil argues that power density is a key determinant of the nature and dynamics of energy systems. Any understanding of complex energy systems must rely on quantitative measures of many fundamental variables. Power density -- the rate of energy flux per unit of area -- is an important but largely overlooked measure. Smil provides the first systematic, quantitative appraisal of power density, offering detailed reviews of the power densities of renewable energy flows, fossil fuels, thermal electricity generation, and all common energy uses.

    Smil shows that careful quantification, critical appraisals, and revealing comparisons of power densities make possible a deeper understanding of the ways we harness, convert, and use energies. Conscientious assessment of power densities, he argues, proves particularly revealing when contrasting the fossil fuel--based energy system with renewable energy conversions.

    Smil explains that modern civilization has evolved as a direct expression of the high power densities of fossil fuel extraction. He argues that our inevitable (and desirable) move to new energy arrangements involving conversions of lower-density renewable energy sources will require our society -- currently dominated by megacities and concentrated industrial production -- to undergo a profound spatial restructuring of its energy system.

  • ReThinking a Lot - The Design and Culture of Parking

    There are an estimated 600,000,000 passenger cars in the world, and that number is increasing every day. So too is Earth's supply of parking spaces. In some cities, parking lots cover more than one-third of the metropolitan footprint. It's official: we have paved paradise and put up a parking lot. In ReThinking a Lot, Eran Ben-Joseph shares a different vision for parking's future. Parking lots, he writes, are ripe for transformation. After all, their design and function has not been rethought since the 1950s. With this book, Ben-Joseph pushes the parking lot into the twenty-first century. Ben-Joseph shows that parking lots can be aesthetically pleasing, environmentally and architecturally responsible, and used for something other than car storage. He introduces us to some of the many alternative and nonparking purposes that parking lots have served -- from RV campgrounds to stages for "Shakespeare in the Parking Lot." He shows us parking lots that are lushly planted with trees and flowers and beautifully integrated with the rest of the built environment. With purposeful design, Ben-Joseph argues, parking lots could be significant public places, contributing as much to their communities as great boulevards, parks, or plazas. For all the acreage they cover, parking lots have received scant attention. It's time to change that; it's time to rethink the lot.

  • The AI Advantage: How to Put the Artificial Intelligence Revolution to Work

    Cutting through the hype, a practical guide to using artificial intelligence for business benefits and competitive advantage.

    In The AI Advantage, Thomas Davenport offers a guide to using artificial intelligence in business. He describes what technologies are available and how companies can use them for business benefits and competitive advantage. He cuts through the hype of the AI craze--remember when it seemed plausible that IBM's Watson could cure cancer?--to explain how businesses can put artificial intelligence to work now, in the real world. His key recommendation: don't go for the "moonshot" (curing cancer, or synthesizing all investment knowledge); look for the "low-hanging fruit" to make your company more efficient.

    Davenport explains that the business value AI offers is solid rather than sexy or splashy. AI will improve products and processes and make decisions better informed--important but largely invisible tasks. AI technologies won't replace human workers but augment their capabilities, with smart machines to work alongside smart people. AI can automate structured and repetitive work; provide extensive analysis of data through machine learning ("analytics on steroids"), and engage with customers and employees via chatbots and intelligent agents. Companies should experiment with these technologies and develop their own expertise.

    Davenport describes the major AI technologies and explains how they are being used, reports on the AI work done by large commercial enterprises like Amazon and Google, and outlines strategies and steps to becoming a cognitive corporation. This book provides an invaluable guide to the real-world future of business AI.

    A book in the Management on the Cutting Edge series, published in cooperation with MIT Sloan Management Review.

  • Hanan al-Cinema - Affections for the Moving Image

    An examination of experimental cinema and media art from the Arabic-speaking world that explores filmmakers' creative and philosophical inventiveness in trying times.

    In this book, Laura Marks examines one of the world's most impressive, and affecting, bodies of independent and experimental cinema from the last twenty-five years: film and video works from the Arabic-speaking world. Some of these works' creative strategies are shared by filmmakers around the world; others arise from the particular economic, social, political, and historical circumstances of Arab countries, whose urgency, Marks argues, seems to demand experiment and invention.

    Grounded in a study of infrastructures for independent and experimental media art in the Arab world and a broad knowledge of hundreds of films and videos, Hanan al-Cinema approaches these works thematically. Topics include the nomadism of the highway, nostalgia for '70s radicalism, a romance with the archive, algorithmic and glitch media, haptic and networked space, and cinema of the body. Marks develops an aesthetic of enfolding and unfolding to elucidate the different ways that cinema can make events perceptible, seek connections among them, and unfold in the bodies and thoughts of audiences.

    The phrase Hanan al-cinema expresses the way movies sympathize with the world and the way audiences feel affection for, and are affected by, them. Marks's clear and expressive writing conveys these affections in works by such internationally recognized artists and filmmakers as Akram Zaatari, Elia Suleiman, Hassan Khan, Mounir Fatmi, and Joana Hadjithomas and Khalil Joreige, and others who should be better known.

  • Les Paysans de la Normandie Orientale, Pays de Caux, Bray, Vexin Normand, Vallée de la Seine: Étude Géographique (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Paysans de la Normandie Orientale, Pays de Caux, Bray, Vexin Normand, Vallee de la Seine: Etude Geographique

    C'est a un point de vue geographique qu'on s'est place dans cette etude d'economie agraire. La geographie n'est - elle pas essentiel lement l'analyse des rapports qui lient tout organisme au milieu physique? De meme qu'elle examine les conditions d'existence d'une espece vegetale ou d'une colonie corallienne, elle veut savoir comment le paysan gagne sa vie. Comment les populations rurales se sont - elles attachees au sol qui les nourrit? Comment ont - elles conquis leurs champs sur les forets ou les marecages? Quel est le systeme de culture qui caracterise telle ou telle region? Le labou reur doit - il completer par l'industrie domestique le revenu de son domaine? Quelle est la proportion des cultivateurs proprietaires, des fermiers, des journaliers? De la grande ou de la petite exploi tation? Quelles sont la densite de la population, sa repartition, sa vitalite? Emigre - t-elle vers les villes, depuis quand et pourquoi? Voila quelques - uns des problemes dont il appartient a la geogra phie de poursuivre la solution, rapprochant dans sa synthese les travaux des agronomes de Ceux des economistes, degageant parmi les faits sociaux ceux qui s'expliquent par l'action du sol et du climat, par les diversites de la technique et de la production agri coles.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Technology and the Making of the Netherlands - The Age of Contested Modernization, 1890-1970

    An account of the trajectory of modernization through technology in the Netherlands.

    This study offers both an account of twentieth-century technology in the Netherlands and a view of Dutch history through the lens of technology. It describes the trajectory of modernization through technology in certain characteristically Dutch contexts--including the omnipresence of water, the pervasiveness of urbanization coupled with a high-tech agricultural sector, and the legacy of colonialism--but at the same time makes it clear that Dutch struggles over technology choices, infrastructure development, mass production, and the role of government are comparable to the experience of any Western industrialized country.

    The book, which synthesizes findings originally presented in a series of seven volumes published in the Netherlands, uses the idea of contested modernization as an overarching concept through which to understand Dutch technological history. The modernizers of Dutch society--including engineers, management consultants, architects, and others--did not always agree on how to modernize; moreover, the unruliness of specific practices often derailed or redirected implementation. Tensions between top-down and bottom-up modernization, and between scale-enlargement and more flexible arrangements of mutual coordination and cooperation shaped Dutch history.

    The chapters examine such topics as attempts to create an industrial nation, materially connected through infrastructure; the conflicts that came with the arrival of mass production and the emergence of a consumer society; and land-use planning in a low-lying country.

  • Haunted Bauhaus: Occult Spirituality, Gender Fluidity, Queer Identities, and Radical Politics

    An investigation of the irrational and the unconventional currents swirling behind the Bauhaus's signature sleek surfaces and austere structures.

    The Bauhaus (1919-1933) is widely regarded as the twentieth century's most influential art, architecture, and design school, celebrated as the archetypal movement of rational modernism and famous for bringing functional and elegant design to the masses. In Haunted Bauhaus, art historian Elizabeth Otto liberates Bauhaus history, uncovering a movement that is vastly more diverse and paradoxical than previously assumed. Otto traces the surprising trajectories of the school's engagement with occult spirituality, gender fluidity, queer identities, and radical politics. The Bauhaus, she shows us, is haunted by these untold stories.

    The Bauhaus is most often associated with a handful of famous artists, architects, and designers--notably Paul Klee, Walter Gropius, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and Marcel Breuer. Otto enlarges this narrow focus by reclaiming the historically marginalized lives and accomplishments of many of the more than 1,200 Bauhaus teachers and students (the so-called Bauhausler), arguing that they are central to our understanding of this movement. Otto reveals Bauhaus members' spiritual experimentation, expressed in double-exposed "spirit photographs" and enacted in breathing exercises and nude gymnastics; their explorations of the dark sides of masculinity and emerging female identities; the "queer hauntology" of certain Bauhaus works; and the role of radical politics on both the left and the right--during the school's Communist period, when some of the Bauhausler put their skills to work for the revolution, and, later, into the service of the Nazis.

    With Haunted Bauhaus, Otto not only expands our knowledge of a foundational movement of modern art, architecture, and design, she also provides the first sustained investigation of the irrational and the unconventional currents swirling behind the Bauhaus's signature sleek surfaces and austere structures. This is a fresh, wild ride through the Bauhaus you thought you knew.

  • La Sainte Bible Polyglotte, Vol. 7: Contenant Le Texte Hébreu Original, Le Texte Grec Des Septante, Le Texte Latin de la Vulgate Et La Traduction ... Des Septante Et de la Vulgate; Les Quatre

    Excerpt from La Sainte Bible Polyglotte, Vol. 7: Contenant le d104e Hebreu Original, le d104e Grec des Septante, le d104e Latin de la Vulgate Et la Traduction Francaise de l'Abbe Glaire, Avec les Differences de l'Hebreu, des Septante Et de la Vulgate; Les Quatre Evangiles-les Actes des Apotres

    Les caracteres de cet Evangile s'accordent sur tous les points avec le temoi guage de la tradition. On ne peut s'empecher de reconnaitre, en le lisant, que l'auteur etait Juif, qu'il avait ete temoin des faits, qu'il ecrivait pour les Juifs de Palestine, 51 une epoque peu eloignee de la mort du Sauveur, enfin qu'il avait bien le caractere et les dispositions que devait avoir saint Matthieu.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Late-talking Children - A Symptom or a Stage?

    What parents need to know about the causes and treatment of children's late talking: how to avoid misdiagnoses, navigate the educational system, and more.

    When children are late in hitting developmental milestones, parents worry. And no delay causes more parental anxiety than late talking, which is associated in many parents' minds with such serious conditions as autism and severe intellectual disability. In fact, as children's speech expert Stephen Camarata points out in this enlightening book, children are late in beginning to talk for a wide variety of reasons. For some children, late talking may be a symptom of other, more serious, problems; for many others, however, it may simply be a stage with no long-term complications.

    Camarata describes in accessible language what science knows about the characteristics and causes of late talking. He explains that late talking is only one of a constellation of autism symptoms. Although all autistic children are late talkers, not all late-talking children are autistic.

    Camarata draws on more than twenty-five years of professional experience diagnosing and treating late talkers--and on his personal experience of being a late talker himself and having a late-talking son. He provides information that will help parents navigate the maze of doctors, speech therapists, early childhood services, and special education; and he describes the effect that late talking may have on children's post-talking learning styles.

  • Polyphonic Minds: Music of the Hemispheres

    An exploration of polyphony and the perspective it offers on our own polyphonic brains.

    Polyphony--the interweaving of simultaneous sounds--is a crucial aspect of music that has deep implications for how we understand the mind. In Polyphonic Minds, Peter Pesic examines the history and significance of "polyphonicity"--of "many-voicedness"--in human experience. Pesic presents the emergence of Western polyphony, its flowering, its horizons, and the perspective it offers on our own polyphonic brains.

    When we listen to polyphonic music, how is it that we can hear several different things at once? How does a single mind experience those things as a unity (a motet, a fugue) rather than an incoherent jumble? Pesic argues that polyphony raises fundamental issues for philosophy, theology, literature, psychology, and neuroscience--all searching for the apparent unity of consciousness in the midst of multiple simultaneous experiences.

    After tracing the development of polyphony in Western music from ninth-century church music through the experimental compositions of Glenn Gould and John Cage, Pesic considers the analogous activity within the brain, the polyphonic "music of the hemispheres" that shapes brain states from sleep to awakening. He discusses how neuroscientists draw on concepts from polyphony to describe the "neural orchestra" of the brain. Pesic's story begins with ancient conceptions of God's mind and ends with the polyphonic personhood of the human brain and body. An enhanced e-book edition allows the sound examples to be played by a touch.

  • An Economist in the Real World - The Art of Policymaking in India

    An economist's perspective on the nuts and bolts of economic policymaking, based on his experience as the Chief Economic Adviser in India.

    In December 2009, the economist Kaushik Basu left the rarefied world of academic research for the nuts and bolts of policymaking. Appointed by the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, to be chief economic adviser (CEA) to the Government of India, Basu--a theorist, with special interest in development economics, and a professor of economics at Cornell University--discovered the complexity of applying economic models to the real world. Effective policymaking, Basu learned, integrates technical knowledge with political awareness. In this book, Basu describes the art of economic policymaking, viewed through the lens of his two and a half years as CEA.

    Basu writes from a unique perspective--neither that of the career bureaucrat nor that of the traditional researcher. Plunged into the deal-making, non-hypothetical world of policymaking, Basu suffers from a kind of culture shock and views himself at first as an anthropologist or scientist, gathering observations of unfamiliar phenomena. He addresses topics that range from the macroeconomic--fiscal and monetary policies--to the granular--designing grain auctions and policies to assure everyone has access to basic food. Basu writes about globalization and India's period of unprecedented growth, and he reports that at a dinner hosted by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, President Obama joked to him, "You should give this guy some tips"--"this guy" being Timothy Geithner. Basu describes the mixed success of India's anti-poverty programs and the problems of corruption, and considers the social norms and institutions necessary for economic development. India is, Basu argues, at an economics crossroad. As CEA from 2009 to 2012, he was present at the creation of a potential economic powerhouse.

  • The Bubble Economy - Is Sustainable Growth Possible?

    Why the global economy has become increasingly unstable, and how financial "de-carbonization" could break the pattern of bubble-driven wealth destruction.

    The global economy has become increasingly, perhaps chronically, unstable. Since 2008, we have heard about the housing bubble, subprime mortgages, banks "too big to fail," financial regulation (or the lack of it), and the European debt crisis. Wall Street has discovered that it is more profitable to make money from other people's money than by investing in the real economy, which has limited access to capital--resulting in slow growth and rising inequality. What we haven't heard much about is the role of natural resources--energy in particular--as drivers of economic growth, or the connection of "global warming" to the economic crisis. In The Bubble Economy, Robert Ayres--an economist and physicist--connects economic instability to the economics of energy.

    Ayres describes, among other things, the roots of our bubble economy (including the divergent influences of Senator Carter Glass--of the Glass-Steagall Law--and Ayn Rand); the role of energy in the economy, from the "oil shocks" of 1971 and 1981 through the Iraq wars; the early history of bubbles and busts; the end of Glass-Steagall; climate change; and the failures of austerity.

    Finally, Ayres offers a new approach to trigger economic growth. The rising price of fossil fuels (notwithstanding "fracking") suggests that renewable energy will become increasingly profitable. Ayres argues that government should redirect private savings and global finance away from home ownership and toward "de-carbonization"--investment in renewables and efficiency. Large-scale investment in sustainability will achieve a trifecta: lowering greenhouse gas emissions, stimulating innovation-based economic growth and employment, and offering long-term investment opportunities that do not depend on risky gambling strategies with derivatives.

  • Les Trésors Du Cornélius À Lapide, Vol. 3: Extraits de Ses Commentaires Sur l'Écriture Sainte, a l'Usage Des Prédicateurs Des Communautés Et Des Familles Chrétiennes (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Les Tresors du Cornelius a Lapide, Vol. 3: Extraits de Ses Commentaires sur l'Ecriture Sainte, A l'Usage des Predicateurs des Communautes Et des Familles Chretiennes

    Voulez - vous savoir ce qu'est le coeur et l'ame de tel ou tel homme? Pretez l'oreille a ses paroles car la bouche parle de l'abondance du coeur E a: abundantia cordis os Zoquitur Ut supra).

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Listening in the Field: Recording and the Science of Birdsong

    The transformation of sound recording into a scientific technique in the study of birdsong, as biologists turned wildlife sounds into scientific objects.

    Scientific observation and representation tend to be seen as exclusively visual affairs. But scientists have often drawn on sensory experiences other than the visual. Since the end of the nineteenth century, biologists have used a variety of techniques to register wildlife sounds. In this book, Joeri Bruyninckx describes the evolution of sound recording into a scientific technique for studying the songs and calls of wild birds and asks, what it means to listen to animal voices as a scientist.

    The practice of recording birdsong took shape at the intersection of popular entertainment and field ornithology, turning recordings into objects of investigation and popular fascination. Shaped by the technologies and interests of amateur naturalism and music teaching, radio broadcasting and gramophone production, hobby electronics and communication engineering, birdsong recordings traveled back and forth between scientific and popular domains, to appear on gramophone recordings, radio broadcasts, and movie soundtracks.

    Bruyninckx follows four technologies--the musical score, the electric microphone, the portable magnetic tape recorder, and the sound
    spectrograph--through a cultural history of field recording and scientific listening. He chronicles a period when verbal descriptions, musical notations, and onomatopoeic syllables represented birdsong and shaped a community of listeners; later electric recordings struggled with notions of fidelity, realism, objectivity, and authenticity; scientists, early citizen scientists, and the recording industry negotiated recording exchange; and trained listeners complemented the visual authority of spectrographic laboratory analyses. This book reveals a scientific process fraught with conversions, between field and laboratory, sound and image, science and its various audiences.

  • Reset Modernity!

    Texts and images document the disconnection between modernity and ecological crisis: do we need to reset modernity's operating system?

    Modernity has had so many meanings and tries to combine so many contradictory sets of attitudes and values that it has become impossible to use it to define the future. It has ended up crashing like an overloaded computer. Hence the idea is that modernity might need a sort of reset. Not a clean break, not a "tabula rasa," not another iconoclastic gesture, but rather a restart of the complicated programs that have been accumulated, over the course of history, in what is often called the "modernist project." This operation has become all the more urgent now that the ecological mutation is forcing us to reorient ourselves toward an experience of the material world for which we don't seem to have good recording devices.

    Reset Modernity! is organized around six procedures that might induce the readers to reset some of those instruments. Once this reset has been completed, readers might be better prepared for a series of new encounters with other cultures. After having been thrown into the modernist maelstrom, those cultures have difficulties that are just as grave as ours in orienting themselves within the notion of modernity. It is not impossible that the course of those encounters might be altered after modernizers have reset their own way of recording their experience of the world.

    At the intersection of art, philosophy, and anthropology, Reset Modernity! has assembled close to sixty authors, most of whom have participated, in one way or another, in the Inquiry into Modes of Existence initiated by Bruno Latour. Together they try to see whether such a reset and such encounters have any practicality. Much like the two exhibitions Iconoclash and Making Things Public, this book documents and completes what could be called a "thought exhibition: " Reset Modernity! held at ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe from April to August 2016. Like the two others, this book, generously illustrated, includes contributions, excerpts, and works from many authors and artists.

    Contributors
    Jamie Allen, Terence Blake, Johannes Bruder, Dipesh Chakrabarty, Philip Conway, Michael Cuntz, Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, Didier Debaise, Gerard de Vries, Philippe Descola, Vinciane Despret, Jean-Michel Frodon, Martin Giraudeau, Sylvain Gouraud, Lesley Green, Martin Guinard-Terrin, Clive Hamilton, Graham Harman, Antoine Hennion, Andres Jaque, Pablo Jensen, Bruno Karsenti, Sara Keel, Oleg Kharkhordin, Joseph Leo Koerner, Eduardo Kohn, Bruno Latour, Christophe Leclercq, Vincent-Antonin Lepinay, James Lovelock, Patrice Maniglier, Claudia Mareis, Claude Marzotto, Kyle McGee, Lorenza Mondada, Pierre Montebello, Stephen Muecke, Cyril Neyrat, Cormac O'Keeffe, Hans Ulrich Obrist, P3G, John Palmesino, Nicolas Prignot, Donato Ricci, Ann-Sofi Ronnskog, Maia Sambonet, Henning Schmidgen, Isabelle Stengers, Hanna Svensson, Thomas Thwaites, Nynke van Schepen, Consuelo Vasquez, Peter Weibel, Richard White, Aline Wiame, Jan Zalasiewicz

    Exhibition
    April 10, 2016-August 21, 2016
    ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe

    Edited by Bruno Latour with Christophe Leclerc
    Copublished with ZKM Center for Art and Media, Karlsruhe

  • Stabat Mater Opus 58 --- Chant(SATB)/Piano

    Excerpt from Manual of the Corporation of the City of New-York, for the Year 1844-5

    IT is with pleasure that the Compiler volume of the Manual has been enabled to present it to the Municipal Authorities and the Public at a much earlier period than the preceding numbers.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Greening Berlin - The Co-Production of Science, Politics, and Urban Nature

    How plant and animal species conservation became part of urban planning in Berlin, and how the science of ecology contributed to this change.

    Although nature conservation has traditionally focused on the countryside, issues of biodiversity protection also appear on the political agendas of many cities. One of the emblematic examples of this now worldwide trend has been the German city of Berlin, where, since the 1970s, urban planning has been complemented by a systematic policy of "biotope protection"--at first only in the walled city island of West Berlin, but subsequently across the whole of the reunified capital. In Greening Berlin, Jens Lachmund uses the example of Berlin to examine the scientific and political dynamics that produced this change.

    After describing a tradition of urban greening in Berlin that began in the late nineteenth century, Lachmund details the practices of urban ecology and nature preservation that emerged in West Berlin after World War II and have continued in post-unification Berlin. He tells how ecologists and naturalists created an ecological understanding of urban space on which later nature-conservation policy was based. Lachmund argues that scientific change in ecology and the new politics of nature mutually shaped or "co-produced" each other under locally specific conditions in Berlin. He shows how the practices of ecologists coalesced with administrative practices to form an institutionally embedded and politically consequential "nature regime."

    Lachmund's study sheds light not only on the changing place of nature in the modern city but also on the political use of science in environmental conflicts, showing the mutual formation of science, politics, and nature in an urban context.

  • Société de Médecine Légale de France, 1889, Vol. 10: Bulletin (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Societe de Medecine Legale de France, 1889, Vol. 10: Bulletin

    Le Ministre de l'instruction publique, des Cultes et des Beaux - Arts est charge de l'execution du present decret.

    Fait a Versailles, le 22 janvier 1874. Signe Marechal DE mac - mahon.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Eternal Letter - Two Millennia of the Classical Roman Capital

    A generously illustrated examination of the enduring influence of and many variations on the classical Roman capital letter.

    The fiftieth anniversary of Helvetica, the most famous of all sans serif typefaces, was celebrated with an excitement unusual in the staid world of typography and culminated in the release of the first movie ever made starring a typeface. Yet Helvetica's fifty-year milestone pales in comparison with the two thousandth anniversary in 2014 of Trajan's Column and its famous inscription--the preeminent illustration of the classical Roman capital letter. For, despite the modern ascendance of the sans serif, serif typefaces, most notably Times Roman, still dominate printed matter and retain a strong presence in screen-based communication. The Eternal Letter is a lavishly illustrated examination of the enduring influence of, and many variations on, the classical Roman capital letter.

    The Eternal Letter offers a series of essays by some of the most highly regarded practitioners in the fields of typography, lettering, and stone carving. They discuss the subtleties of the classical Roman capital letter itself, different iterations of it over the years, and the work of famous typographers and craftsmen. The essays cover such topics as efforts to calculate a geometric formulation of the Trajan letters; the recalculation of their proportions by early typefounders; the development and astonishing popularity of Adobe Trajan; type and letter designs by Father Edward M. Catich, Frederic W. Goudy, Eric Gill, Jan van Krimpen, Hermann Zapf, Matthew Carter, and others; the influence of Trajan in Russia; and three generations of lettercarvers at the John Stevens Shop in Newport, Rhode Island. Essays about modern typefaces--including Matinia, Senatus, and Penumbra--are contributed by the designers of these typefaces.

    Contributors
    John and Nicholas Benson, Frank E. Blokland, Matthew Carter, Ewan Clayton, Lance Hidy, Jost Hochuli, Jonathan Hoefler, Richard Kindersley, Scott-Martin Kosofsky, Gerry Leonidas, Martin Majoor, Steve Matteson, Gregory MacNaughton, James Mosley, Tom Perkins, Yves Peters, Ryan L. Roth, Werner Schneider, Paul Shaw, Julian Waters, Maxim Zhukov

  • Oeuvres de Jean Racine, Vol. 4: Avec Des Commentaires (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from OEuvres de Jean Racine, Vol. 4: Avec des Commentaires

    Vantage d'avoir fait connoitre qu'il n'entendoit point assez Euripide pour en apprecier le merite.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Oeuvres Complètes de Jacques-Henri-Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Vol. 3: Études de la Nature (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Oeuvres Completes de Jacques-Henri-Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Vol. 3: Etudes de la Nature

    Nous trouvons de frequents exemples de consonnances dans la nature. Les nuages de l'horizon imitent souvent sur la mer les formes des montagnes et les aspects de la terre au point que les marins les plus expe rimentes s'y trompent quelquefois. Les eaux refletent, dans leur sein mobile les cieux, les collines et les forets. Les echos des ro chers repetent, a leur tour, les murmures des eaux. Un jour, me promenant, au pays de Caux, le long de la mer et considerant les reflets du rivage dans le sein des eaux, je fus fort etonne d'entendre bruire d'autres flots derriere moi. Je me tournai et je n'a percus qu'une haute falaise escarpee, dont les echos repetaient le bruit des vagues. Cette.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Technology Choices - Why Occupations Differ in Their Embrace of New Technology

    An analysis of the occupational factors that shape the technology choices made by people who perform the same type of work.

    Why do people who perform largely the same type of work make different technology choices in the workplace? An automotive design engineer working in India, for example, finds advanced information and communication technologies essential, allowing him to work with far-flung colleagues; a structural engineer in California relies more on paper-based technologies for her everyday work; and a software engineer in Silicon Valley operates on multiple digital levels simultaneously all day, continuing after hours on a company-supplied home computer and network connection. In Technology Choices, Diane Bailey and Paul Leonardi argue that occupational factors--rather than personal preference or purely technological concerns--strongly shape workers' technology choices.

    Drawing on extensive field work--a decade's worth of observations and interviews in seven engineering firms in eight countries--Bailey and Leonardi challenge the traditional views of technology choices: technological determinism and social constructivism. Their innovative occupational perspective allows them to explore how external forces shape ideas, beliefs, and norms in ways that steer individuals to particular technology choices--albeit in somewhat predictable and generalizable ways. They examine three relationships at the heart of technology choices: human to technology, technology to technology, and human to human. An occupational perspective, they argue, helps us not only to understand past technology choices, but also to predict future ones.

  • Pomologie de la France, Ou Histoire Et Description de Tous Les Fruits Cultivés En France Et Admis Par Le Congrés Pomologique, Vol. 1: Institué Par La ... Ouvrage Publié Avec Le Concours Des Société

    Excerpt from Pomologie de la France, ou Histoire Et Description de Tous les Fruits Cultives en France Et Admis par le Congres Pomologique, Vol. 1: Institue par la Societe Imperiale d'Horticulture Pratique du Rhone; Ouvrage Publie Avec le Concours des Societes d'Agriculture Et d'Horticulture Francaises

    Il a sem ble opportun cependant d'ajouter un developpement faisant connaitre l'origine du Congres, sa raison d'etre, son but et les moyens adoptes pour atteindre ce but.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Learning from Las Vegas

    A fascimile edition of the long-out-of-print large-format edition designed by design icon Muriel Cooper.

    Upon its publication by the MIT Press in 1972, Learning from Las Vegas was immediately influential and controversial. The authors made an argument that was revolutionary for its time--that the billboards and casinos of Las Vegas were worthy of architectural attention--and offered a challenge for contemporary architects obsessed with the heroic and monumental. The physical book itself, designed by MIT's iconic designer Muriel Cooper, was hailed as a masterpiece of modernist design, but the book's design struck the authors as too monumental for a text that praised the ugly and ordinary over the heroic and monumental. The MIT Press published a revised version in 1977--a modest paperback that the authors felt was more in keeping with the argument of the book--and the original Cooper-designed book fell out of print and became a highly sought-after collectors' item; it now sells for thousands of dollars in the rare book market, while the author-redesigned paperback has remained continuously in print at a price affordable to students. Now, decades after the original hardcover edition sold out, the MIT Press is publishing a facsimile edition of the original large-format Cooper-designed edition of Learning from Las Vegas, complete with translucent glassine wrap. This edition also features a spirited preface by Denise Scott Brown, looking back on the creation of the book and explaining her and Robert Venturi's reservations about the original design.

    Learning from Las Vegas begins with the Las Vegas Strip and proceeds to Ugly and Ordinary Architecture, or the Decorated Shed, on symbolism in architecture and the iconography of urban sprawl. As Scott Brown says in her introduction, the book "upended sacred cows ... would not bad-mouth bad taste, and redefined architectural research."

  • The Treason of Isengard

    The second part of The History of The Lord of the Rings, an enthralling account of the writing of the Book of the Century which contains many additional scenes and includes the unpublished Epilogue in its entirety. The Treason of Isengard continues the account of the creation of The Lord of the Rings started in the earlier volume, The Return of the Shadow. It races the great expansion of the tale into new lands and peoples south and east of the Misty Mountains: the emerence of Lothlorien, of Ents, of the Riders of Rohan, and of Saruman the White in the fortress of Isengard. In brief outlines and pencilled drafts dashed down on scraps of paper are seen the first entry of Galadriel, the earliest ideas of the history of Gondor, and the original meeting of Aragorn and Eowyn, its significance destined to be wholly transformed. The book also contains a full account of the original map which was to be the basis of the emerging geography of Middle-earth. This series of fascinating books has now been repackaged to complement the distinctive and classic style of the `black cover' A-format paperbacks of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales.

  • Looking for Bruce Conner

    In a career that spanned five decades, most of them spent in San Francisco, Bruce Conner (1933--2008) produced a unique body of work that refused to be contained by medium or style. Whether making found-footage films, hallucinatory ink-blot graphics, enigmatic collages, or assemblages from castoffs, Conner took up genres as quickly as he abandoned them. In this first book-length study of Conner's enormously influential but insufficiently understood career, Kevin Hatch explores Conner's work as well as his position on the geographical, cultural, and critical margins.

    Generously illustrated with many color images of Conner's works, Looking for Bruce Conner proceeds in roughly chronological fashion, from Conner's notorious assemblages (BLACK DAHLIA and RATBASTARD among them) through his experimental films (populated by images from what Conner called "the tremendous, fantastic movies going in my head from all the scenes I'd seen"), his little-known graphic work, and his collage and inkblot drawings.

  • The Silmarillion

    Central to Tolkien's work, this book is the story of the first age: the foundations of the world of Middle-Earth and its peoples before the great events recorded in "The Hobbit" and "The Lord of the Rings".

  • La Sainte Bible (Texte Latin Et Traduction Française), Vol. 1: Commentée d'Après La Vulgate, Et Les Textes Originaux, À l'Usage Des Séminaires Et Du Clergé (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from La Sainte Bible (d104e Latin Et Traduction Francaise), Vol. 1: Commentee d'Apres la Vulgate, Et les d104es Originaux, a l'Usage des Seminaires Et du Clerge

    Quoique destines plus directement aux ecclesiastiques, nos volumes s'adressent cependant aussi aux la1ques instruits qui ont du gout pour les etudes scripturaires.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Bleak Houses - Disappointment and Failure in Architecture

    Why some architects fail to realize their ideal buildings, and what architecture critics can learn from novelists.

    The usual history of architecture is a grand narrative of soaring monuments and heroic makers. But it is also a false narrative in many ways, rarely acknowledging the personal failures and disappointments of architects. In Bleak Houses, Timothy Brittain-Catlin investigates the underside of architecture, the stories of losers and unfulfillment often ignored by an architectural criticism that values novelty, fame, and virility over fallibility and rejection.

    As architectural criticism promotes increasingly narrow values, dismissing certain styles wholesale and subjecting buildings to a Victorian litmus test of "real" versus "fake," Brittain-Catlin explains the effect this superficial criticality has had not only on architectural discourse but on the quality of buildings. The fact that most buildings receive no critical scrutiny at all has resulted in vast stretches of ugly modern housing and a pervasive public illiteracy about architecture.

  • Drawing Physics: 2,600 Years of Discovery from Thales to Higgs

    Drawings and short essays offer engaging and accessible explanations of key ideas in physics, from triangulation to relativity and beyond.

    Humans have been trying to understand the physical universe since antiquity. Aristotle had one vision (the realm of the celestial spheres is perfect), and Einstein another (all motion is relativistic). More often than not, these different understandings begin with a simple drawing, a pre-mathematical picture of reality. Such drawings are a humble but effective tool of the physicist's craft, part of the tradition of thinking, teaching, and learning passed down through the centuries. This book uses drawings to help explain fifty-one key ideas of physics accessibly and engagingly. Don Lemons, a professor of physics and author of several physics books, pairs short, elegantly written essays with simple drawings that together convey important concepts from the history of physical science.

    Lemons proceeds chronologically, beginning with Thales' discovery of triangulation, the Pythagorean monocord, and Archimedes' explanation of balance. He continues through Leonardo's description of "earthshine" (the ghostly glow between the horns of a crescent moon), Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and Newton's cradle (suspended steel balls demonstrating by their collisions that for every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction). Reaching the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Lemons explains the photoelectric effect, the hydrogen atom, general relativity, the global greenhouse effect, Higgs boson, and more. The essays place the science of the drawings in historical context--describing, for example, Galileo's conflict with the Roman Catholic Church over his teaching that the sun is the center of the universe, the link between the discovery of electrical phenomena and the romanticism of William Wordsworth, and the shadow cast by the Great War over Einstein's discovery of relativity.

    Readers of Drawing Physics with little background in mathematics or physics will say, "Now I see, and now I understand."

  • Speculative Everything - Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming

    How to use design as a tool to create not only things but ideas, to speculate about possible futures.

    Today designers often focus on making technology easy to use, sexy, and consumable. In Speculative Everything, Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby propose a kind of design that is used as a tool to create not only things but ideas. For them, design is a means of speculating about how things could be--to imagine possible futures. This is not the usual sort of predicting or forecasting, spotting trends and extrapolating; these kinds of predictions have been proven wrong, again and again. Instead, Dunne and Raby pose "what if" questions that are intended to open debate and discussion about the kind of future people want (and do not want).

    Speculative Everything offers a tour through an emerging cultural landscape of design ideas, ideals, and approaches. Dunne and Raby cite examples from their own design and teaching and from other projects from fine art, design, architecture, cinema, and photography. They also draw on futurology, political theory, the philosophy of technology, and literary fiction. They show us, for example, ideas for a solar kitchen restaurant; a flypaper robotic clock; a menstruation machine; a cloud-seeding truck; a phantom-limb sensation recorder; and devices for food foraging that use the tools of synthetic biology. Dunne and Raby contend that if we speculate more--about everything--reality will become more malleable. The ideas freed by speculative design increase the odds of achieving desirable futures.

  • Playing with Sound - A Theory of Interacting with Sound and Music in Video Games

    An examination of the player's experience of sound in video games and the many ways that players interact with the sonic elements in games.

    In Playing with Sound, Karen Collins examines video game sound from the player's perspective. She explores the many ways that players interact with a game's sonic aspects--which include not only music but also sound effects, ambient sound, dialogue, and interface sounds--both within and outside of the game. She investigates the ways that meaning is found, embodied, created, evoked, hacked, remixed, negotiated, and renegotiated by players in the space of interactive sound in games.

    Drawing on disciplines that range from film studies and philosophy to psychology and computer science, Collins develops a theory of interactive sound experience that distinguishes between interacting with sound and simply listening without interacting. Her conceptual approach combines practice theory (which focuses on productive and consumptive practices around media) and embodied cognition (which holds that our understanding of the world is shaped by our physical interaction with it).

    Collins investigates the multimodal experience of sound, image, and touch in games; the role of interactive sound in creating an emotional experience through immersion and identification with the game character; the ways in which sound acts as a mediator for a variety of performative activities; and embodied interactions with sound beyond the game, including machinima, chip-tunes, circuit bending, and other practices that use elements from games in sonic performances.

  • Specimen Science: Ethics and Policy Implications

    Legal, regulatory, and ethical perspectives on balancing social benefit and human autonomy in research using human biospecimens.

    Advances in medicine often depend on the effective collection, storage, research use, and sharing of human biological specimens and associated data. But what about the sources of such specimens? When a blood specimen is drawn from a vein in your arm, is that specimen still you? Is it your property, intellectual or otherwise? Should you be allowed not only to consent to its use in research but also to specify under what circumstances it may be used? These and other questions are at the center of a vigorous debate over the use of human biospecimens in research. In this book, experts offer legal, regulatory, and ethical perspectives on balancing social benefit and human autonomy in biospecimen research.

    After discussing the background to current debates as well as several influential cases, including that of Henrietta Lacks, the contributors consider the rights, obligations, risks, and privacy of the specimen source; different types of informed consent under consideration (broad, blanket, and specific); implications for special patient and researcher communities; and the governance of biospecimen repositories and the responsibilities of investigators.

    Contributors
    Rebecca A. Anderson, Heide Aungs, Avery Avrakotos, Mark Barnes, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Benjamin Berkman, Barbara E. Bierer, Mark A. Borreliz, Jeffrey R. Botkin, Dan Brock, Ellen Wright Clayton, I. Glenn Cohen, Lisa Eckstein, Barbara J. Evans, Emily Chi Fogler, Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Pamela Gavin, Aaron J. Goldenberg, Christine Grady, Kate Gallin Heffernan, Marylana Saadeh Helou, Sara Chandros Hull, Elisa A. Hurley, Steven Joffe, Erin P. Johnson, Julie Kaneshiro, Aaron S. Kesselheim, Isaac Kohane, David Korn, Russell Korobkin, Bernard Lo, Geoffrey Lomax, Kimberly Hensle Lowrance, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Bradley A. Malin, Karen J. Maschke, Eric M. Meslin, P. Pearl O'Rourke, Quinn T. Ostrom, David Peloquin, Rebecca Pentz, Jane Perlmutter, Ivor Pritchard, Suzanne M. Rivera, Erin Rothwell, Andrew P. Rusczek, Rachel E. Sachs, Carol Weil, David Wendler, Benjamin Wilfond, Susan M. Wolf

  • The Prosperity of Vice - A Worried View of Economics

    How violence, rather than peace, has historically accompanied prosperity; and why emerging nations seem poised to repeat the tragic history of the industrialized world.

    What happened yesterday in the West is today being repeated on a global scale. Industrial society is replacing rural society: millions of peasants in China, India, and elsewhere are leaving the countryside and going to the city. New powers are emerging and rivalries are exacerbated as competition increases for control of raw materials. Contrary to what believers in the "clash of civilizations" maintain, the great risk of the twenty-first century is not a confrontation between cultures but a repetition of history. In The Prosperity of Vice, the influential French economist Daniel Cohen shows that violence, rather than peace, has been the historical accompaniment to prosperity. Peace in Europe came only after the barbaric wars of the twentieth century, not as the outcome of economic growth. What will happen this time for today's eagerly Westernizing emerging nations?

    Cohen guides us through history, describing the European discovery of the "philosopher's stone" the possibility of perpetual growth. But the consequences of addiction to growth are dire in an era of globalization. If a billion Chinese consume a billion cars, the future of the planet is threatened. But, Cohen points out, there is another kind of globalization: the immaterial globalization enabled by the Internet. It is still possible, he argues, that the cyber-world will create a new awareness of global solidarity. It even may help us accomplish a formidable cognitive task, as immense as that realized during the Industrial Revolution--one that would allow us learn to live within the limits of a solitary planet.

  • Memory and Movies - What Films Can Teach Us about Memory

    How popular films from Memento to Slumdog Millionaire can help us understand how memory works.

    In the movie Slumdog Millionaire, the childhood memories of a young game show contestant trigger his correct answers. In Memento, the amnesiac hero uses tattoos as memory aids. In Away from Her, an older woman suffering from dementia no longer remembers who her husband is. These are compelling films that tell affecting stories about the human condition. But what can these movies teach us about memory? In this book, John Seamon shows how examining the treatment of memory in popular movies can shed new light on how human memory works.

    After explaining that memory is actually a diverse collection of independent systems, Seamon uses examples from movies to offer an accessible, nontechnical description of what science knows about memory function and dysfunction. In a series of lively encounters with numerous popular films, he draws on Life of Pi and Avatar, for example, to explain working memory, used for short-term retention. He describes the process of long-term memory with examples from such films as Cast Away and Groundhog Day; The Return of Martin Guerre, among other movies, informs his account of how we recognize people; the effect of emotion on autobiographical memory is illustrated by The Kite Runner, Titanic, and other films; movies including Born on the Fourth of July and Rachel Getting Married illustrate the complex pain of traumatic memories. Seamon shows us that movies rarely get amnesia right, often using strategically timed blows to the protagonist's head as a way to turn memory off and then on again (as in Desperately Seeking Susan). Finally, he uses movies including On Golden Pond and Amour to describe the memory loss that often accompanies aging, while highlighting effective ways to maintain memory function.

  • Characteristics of Games

    Understanding games--whether computer games, card games, board games, or sports--by analyzing certain common traits.

    Characteristics of Games offers a new way to understand games: by focusing on certain traits--including number of players, rules, degrees of luck and skill needed, and reward/effort ratio--and using these characteristics as basic points of comparison and analysis. These issues are often discussed by game players and designers but seldom written about in any formal way. This book fills that gap. By emphasizing these player-centric basic concepts, the book provides a framework for game analysis from the viewpoint of a game designer. The book shows what all genres of games--board games, card games, computer games, and sports--have to teach each other. Today's game designers may find solutions to design problems when they look at classic games that have evolved over years of playing.

    Characteristics of Games--written by three of the most prominent game designers working today--will serve as an essential reference for game designers and game players curious about the inner workings of games. It includes exercises (which can also serve as the basis for discussions) and examples chosen from a wide variety of games. There are occasional mathematical digressions, but these can be skipped with no loss of continuity. Appendixes offer supplementary material, including a brief survey of the two main branches of mathematical game theory and a descriptive listing of each game referred to in the text.

  • Subject to Display - Reframing Race in Contemporary Installation Art

    An exploration of the visual culture of "race" through the work of five contemporary artists who came to prominence during the 1990s.

    Over the past two decades, artists James Luna, Fred Wilson, Amalia Mesa-Bains, Pepon Osorio, and Renee Green have had a profound impact on the meaning and practice of installation art in the United States. In Subject to Display, Jennifer Gonzalez offers the first sustained analysis of their contribution, linking the history and legacy of race discourse to innovations in contemporary art. Race, writes Gonzalez, is a social discourse that has a visual history. The collection and display of bodies, images, and artifacts in museums and elsewhere is a primary means by which a nation tells the story of its past and locates the cultures of its citizens in the present.

    All five of the American installation artists Gonzalez considers have explored the practice of putting human subjects and their cultures on display by staging elaborate dioramas or site-specific interventions in galleries and museums; in doing so, they have created powerful social commentary of the politics of space and the power of display in settings that mimic the very spaces they critique. These artists' installations have not only contributed to the transformation of contemporary art and museum culture, but also linked Latino, African American, and Native American subjects to the broader spectrum of historical colonialism, race dominance, and visual culture. From Luna's museum installation of his own body and belongings as "artifacts" and Wilson's provocative juxtapositions of museum objects to Mesa-Bains's allegorical home altars, Osorio's condensed spaces (bedrooms, living rooms; barbershops, prison cells) and Green's genealogies of cultural contact, the theoretical and critical endeavors of these artists demonstrate how race discourse is grounded in a visual technology of display.

  • 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School

    This is a book that students of architecture will want to keep in the studio and in their backpacks. It is also a book they may want to keep out of view of their professors, for it expresses in clear and simple language things that tend to be mystified in the classroom. These 101 concise lessons in design, drawing, and presentation-from the basics of "How to Draw a Line" to the complexities of color theory-provide a much-needed primer in architectural literacy, making concrete what often is left nebulous or open-ended in the architecture curriculum. Written by an architect and instructor who wished such a book existed when he was a student, 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School provides valuable guideposts for navigating the design studio. Architecture graduates-from young designers to experienced practitioners-will turn to the book as well, for this is also a guide back to basics for anyone facing a complex design problem.

  • Design, When Everybody Designs - An Introduction to Design for Social Innovation

    The role of design, both expert and nonexpert, in the ongoing wave of social innovation toward sustainability.

    In a changing world everyone designs: each individual person and each collective subject, from enterprises to institutions, from communities to cities and regions, must define and enhance a life project. Sometimes these projects generate unprecedented solutions; sometimes they converge on common goals and realize larger transformations. As Ezio Manzini describes in this book, we are witnessing a wave of social innovations as these changes unfold--an expansive open co-design process in which new solutions are suggested and new meanings are created.

    Manzini distinguishes between diffuse design (performed by everybody) and expert design (performed by those who have been trained as designers) and describes how they interact. He maps what design experts can do to trigger and support meaningful social changes, focusing on emerging forms of collaboration. These range from community-supported agriculture in China to digital platforms for medical care in Canada; from interactive storytelling in India to collaborative housing in Milan. These cases illustrate how expert designers can support these collaborations--making their existence more probable, their practice easier, their diffusion and their convergence in larger projects more effective. Manzini draws the first comprehensive picture of design for social innovation: the most dynamic field of action for both expert and nonexpert designers in the coming decades.

  • Public Servants: Art and the Crisis of the Common Good

    Essays, dialogues, and art projects that illuminate the changing role of art as it responds to radical economic, political, and global shifts.

    How should we understand the purpose of publicly engaged art in the twenty-first century, when the very term "public art" is largely insufficient to describe such practices?

    Concepts such as "new genre public art," "social practice," or "socially engaged art" may imply a synergy between the role of art and the role of government in providing social services. Yet the arts and social services differ crucially in terms of their methods and metrics. Socially engaged artists need not be aligned (and may often be opposed) to the public sector and to institutionalized systems. In many countries, structures of democratic governance and public responsibility are shifting, eroding, and being remade in profound ways--driven by radical economic, political, and global forces. According to what terms and through what means can art engage with these changes?

    This volume gathers essays, dialogues, and art projects--some previously published and some newly commissioned--to illuminate the ways the arts shape and reshape a rapidly changing social and governmental landscape. An artist portfolio section presents original statements and projects by some of the key figures grappling with these ideas.

  • Dictionnaire de Littérature, Vol. 3: Dans Lequel on Traite de Tout Ce Qui a Rapport À l'Eloquence, À La Poësie Et Aux Belles-Lettres, Et Dans Lequel ... Doit Observer Dans Tous Les Ouvrages d'Esprit

    Excerpt from Dictionnaire de Litterature, Vol. 3: Dans Lequel On Traite de Tout ce Qui A Rapport a l'Eloquence, a la Poesie Et aux Belles-Lettres, Et dans Lequel On Ensiegne la Marche Et les Regles qu'On Doit Observer dans Tous les Ouvrages d'Esprit

    Les vers du Roi de Frufi?e a Barge: (ont une veritable Palinodie, le Poere leur a donne ce titre ils commencent ainii.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Mental Time Travel: Episodic Memory and Our Knowledge of the Personal Past

    Drawing on current research in psychology, a new philosophical account of remembering as imagining the past.

    In this book, Kourken Michaelian builds on research in the psychology of memory to develop an innovative philosophical account of the nature of remembering and memory knowledge. Current philosophical approaches to memory rest on assumptions that are incompatible with the rich body of theory and data coming from psychology. Michaelian argues that abandoning those assumptions will result in a radically new philosophical understanding of memory. His novel, integrated account of episodic memory, memory knowledge, and their evolution makes a significant step in that direction.

    Michaelian situates episodic memory as a form of mental time travel and outlines a naturalistic framework for understanding it. Drawing on research in constructive memory, he develops an innovative simulation theory of memory; finding no intrinsic difference between remembering and imagining, he argues that to remember is to imagine the past. He investigates the reliability of simulational memory, focusing on the adaptivity of the constructive processes involved in remembering and the role of metacognitive monitoring; and he outlines an account of the evolution of episodic memory, distinguishing it from the forms of episodic-like memory demonstrated in animals.

    Memory research has become increasingly interdisciplinary. Michaelian's account, built systematically on the findings of empirical research, not only draws out the implications of these findings for philosophical theories of remembering but also offers psychologists a framework for making sense of provocative experimental results on mental time travel.

  • The Atlas of New Librarianship

    An essential guide to a librarianship based not on books and artifacts but on knowledge and learning.

    Libraries have existed for millennia, but today the library field is searching for solid footing in an increasingly fragmented (and increasingly digital) information environment. What is librarianship when it is unmoored from cataloging, books, buildings, and committees? In The Atlas of New Librarianship, R. David Lankes offers a guide to this new landscape for practitioners. He describes a new librarianship based not on books and artifacts but on knowledge and learning; and he suggests a new mission for librarians: to improve society through facilitating knowledge creation in their communities. The vision for a new librarianship must go beyond finding library-related uses for information technology and the Internet; it must provide a durable foundation for the field. Lankes recasts librarianship and library practice using the fundamental concept that knowledge is created though conversation. New librarians approach their work as facilitators of conversation; they seek to enrich, capture, store, and disseminate the conversations of their communities. To help librarians navigate this new terrain, Lankes offers a map, a visual representation of the field that can guide explorations of it; more than 140 Agreements, statements about librarianship that range from relevant theories to examples of practice; and Threads, arrangements of Agreements to explain key ideas, covering such topics as conceptual foundations and skills and values. Agreement Supplements at the end of the book offer expanded discussions. Although it touches on theory as well as practice, the Atlas is meant to be a tool: textbook, conversation guide, platform for social networking, and call to action.

    Copublished with the Association of College & Research Libraries.

  • Making Democracy Fun - How Game Design Can Empower Citizens and Transform Politics

    Drawing on the tools of game design to fix democracy.

    Anyone who has ever been to a public hearing or community meeting would agree that participatory democracy can be boring. Hours of repetitive presentations, alternatingly alarmist or complacent, for or against, accompanied by constant heckling, often with no clear outcome or decision. Is this the best democracy can offer? In Making Democracy Fun, Josh Lerner offers a novel solution for the sad state of our deliberative democracy: the power of good game design. What if public meetings featured competition and collaboration (such as team challenges), clear rules (presented and modeled in multiple ways), measurable progress (such as scores and levels), and engaging sounds and visuals? These game mechanics would make meetings more effective and more enjoyable--even fun.

    Lerner reports that institutions as diverse as the United Nations, the U.S. Army, and grassroots community groups are already using games and game-like processes to encourage participation. Drawing on more than a decade of practical experience and extensive research, he explains how games have been integrated into a variety of public programs in North and South America. He offers rich stories of game techniques in action, in children's councils, social service programs, and participatory budgeting and planning. With these real-world examples in mind, Lerner describes five kinds of games and twenty-six game mechanics that are especially relevant for democracy. He finds that when governments and organizations use games and design their programs to be more like games, public participation becomes more attractive, effective, and transparent. Game design can make democracy fun--and make it work.

  • The Well-Played Game - A Player`s Philosophy

    The return of a classic book about games and play that illuminates the relationship between the well-played game and the well-lived life.

    In The Well-Played Game, games guru Bernard De Koven explores the interaction of play and games, offering players--as well as game designers, educators, and scholars--a guide to how games work. De Koven's classic treatise on how human beings play together, first published in 1978, investigates many issues newly resonant in the era of video and computer games, including social gameplay and player modification. The digital game industry, now moving beyond its emphasis on graphic techniques to focus on player interaction, has much to learn from The Well-Played Game.

    De Koven explains that when players congratulate each other on a "well-played" game, they are expressing a unique and profound synthesis that combines the concepts of play (with its associations of playfulness and fun) and game (with its associations of rule-following). This, he tells us, yields a larger concept: the experience and expression of excellence. De Koven--affectionately and appreciatively hailed by Eric Zimmerman as "our shaman of play"--explores the experience of a well-played game, how we share it, and how we can experience it again; issues of cheating, fairness, keeping score, changing old games (why not change the rules in pursuit of new ways to play?), and making up new games; playing for keeps; and winning. His book belongs on the bookshelves of players who want to find a game in which they can play well, who are looking for others with whom they can play well, and who have discovered the relationship between the well-played game and the well-lived life.

  • Traité Des Assurances Et Des Contrats a la Grosse d'Émérigon, Conféré Et MIS En Rapport Avec Le Nouveau Code de Commerce Et La Jurisprudence, Vol. 2: ... Et Des Noms de Chaque Partie d'Un Navire

    Excerpt from Traite des Assurances Et des Contrats A la Grosse d'Emerigon, Confere Et Mis en Rapport Avec le Nouveau Code de Commerce Et la Jurisprudence, Vol. 2: Suivi d'un Vocabulaire des Termes de Marine Et des Noms de Chaque Partie d'un Navire

    Valin meme, sur l'art. 47, titre des assurances, comme on vient de le voir plus haut dans le texte, ne trouve cette clause juste que lorsqu'elle est appliquee au transport des vivres et effets comestibles de ports en ports, etc.; et il pense qu'elle peut porter au crime.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Shattered Self - The End of Natural Evolution

    Throughout history, we have selected and manipulated the genomes of plants, animals, and even ourselves. Until now, however, such control could be exerted only at the level of the entire organism. Scientific and technological advances now allow us to manipulate genomes directly at the level of single genes and their constituents, with a speed and precision that far exceed what natural evolution has been able to achieve over the past 3.5 billion years. These advances open new possibilities for medicine, biotechnology, and society as a whole. We already have in vitro fertilization and animal cloning; in the future human cloning and the exploitation of embryonic stem cells, among other capabilities, may be routine. At the same time, we are developing machines that will surpass the human brain in raw computing power and building an interconnected world of information-processing devices that makes science fiction pale in comparison. In this book Baldi explores what it is about these phenomena that makes us so uneasy-the shattering of the human self as we know it. Through evolution our brains have been wired to provide us with an inner sense of self, a feeling that each of us is a unique individual delimited by precise boundaries. We have also been wired to reproduce ourselves in a certain way. Baldi argues that this self-centered view of the world is scientifically wrong. Its past success lies in its being an adequate model during our evolutionary bootstrapping: a world without molecular biotechnology, human cloning, and the Internet. Eventually we must come to terms with the fact that genomes, computations, and mind are fluid, continuous entities, in both space and time. The boundary between the self and the world has begun to blur and ultimately may evaporate entirely. Baldi offers not predictions but an open-eyed exploration of our current state of knowledge and the possibilities that lie ahead.

  • Pseudoscience: The Conspiracy Against Science

    Case studies, personal accounts, and analysis show how to recognize and combat pseudoscience in a post-truth world.

    In a post-truth, fake news world, we are particularly susceptible to the claims of pseudoscience. When emotions and opinions are more widely disseminated than scientific findings, and self-proclaimed experts get their expertise from Google, how can the average person distinguish real science from fake? This book examines pseudoscience from a variety of perspectives, through case studies, analysis, and personal accounts that show how to recognize pseudoscience, why it is so widely accepted, and how to advocate for real science.

    Contributors examine the basics of pseudoscience, including issues of cognitive bias; the costs of pseudoscience, with accounts of naturopathy and logical fallacies in the anti-vaccination movement; perceptions of scientific soundness; the mainstream presence of "integrative medicine," hypnosis, and parapsychology; and the use of case studies and new media in science advocacy.

    Contributors
    David Ball, Paul Joseph Barnett, Jeffrey Beall, Mark Benisz, Fernando Blanco, Ron Dumont, Stacy Ellenberg, Kevin M. Folta, Christopher French, Ashwin Gautam, Dennis M. Gorman, David H. Gorski, David K. Hecht, Britt Marie Hermes, Clyde F. Herreid, Jonathan Howard, Seth C. Kalichman, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Arnold Kozak, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Emilio Lobato, Steven Lynn, Adam Marcus, Helena Matute, Ivan Oransky, Chad Orzel, Dorit Reiss, Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter, Kavin Senapathy, Dean Keith Simonton, Indre Viskontas, John O. Willis, Corrine Zimmerman

  • Principles of Data Mining.

    The first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science, and statistics.

    The growing interest in data mining is motivated by a common problem across disciplines: how does one store, access, model, and ultimately describe and understand very large data sets? Historically, different aspects of data mining have been addressed independently by different disciplines. This is the first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science, and statistics.

    The book consists of three sections. The first, foundations, provides a tutorial overview of the principles underlying data mining algorithms and their application. The presentation emphasizes intuition rather than rigor. The second section, data mining algorithms, shows how algorithms are constructed to solve specific problems in a principled manner. The algorithms covered include trees and rules for classification and regression, association rules, belief networks, classical statistical models, nonlinear models such as neural networks, and local "memory-based" models. The third section shows how all of the preceding analysis fits together when applied to real-world data mining problems. Topics include the role of metadata, how to handle missing data, and data preprocessing.

  • Revue de Métaphysique Et de Morale, 1920, Vol. 27 (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Revue de Metaphysique Et de Morale, 1920, Vol. 27

    C'est a Reinhold qu'appartient d'abord, pour la transformation du Kantisme en ce sens, l'initiative la plus decidee. Son adhesion a la philosophie de Kant s etait d'abord manifestee par une sorte d'ex pose populaire, par ses Lettres sur la philosophie kantienne. Appele a pro fesser a Iena en 1787, il eprouva que comprendre le Kantisme assez profondement pour l'enseigner etait d'une difficulte presque aussi grande que l'initiation premiere, et sa reflexion d'alors lui fit decouvrir que, si le Kantisme etait bien la verite, l'unique verite, il avait cependant un defaut grave, quietait de manquer du fonde ment reel dont il avait besoin pour s'assurer completenient'oule Versuch einer neuen Theorie des menschlichen Vorstellungsvermvgens ou il essayait de remedier pour son compte a ce defaut. Par cette oeuvre, il pretendait fournir la Metaphysique a laquelle Kant, avec sa Critique, n'avait donne que des Prolegomenes. Ou il mar quait avec une nettete particuliere sa relation a Kant, c'etait dans son ecrit Ueber das Verballniss der Theorie des Vorstellungsver moyens zur'kritik der reinen Vernunft, paru dans les Beitrage zur Iierichligung bisheriger Misverstandnisee der P_hilosopher_e (1790.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • Oeuvres Complètes de J. Racine, Vol. 7: Avec Une Vie de l'Auteur Et Un Examen de Chacun de Ses Ouvrages (Classic Reprint)

    Excerpt from Oeuvres Completes de J. Racine, Vol. 7: Avec une Vie de l'Auteur Et un Examen de Chacun de Ses Ouvrages

    L'annee 1662 est celle que Racine passa entierement 'a Uzes, chez son oncle le vicaire general il avait vingt - deux ans lorsqu'il se livrait a ce travail sur les deux grands poetes grecs. Il est certain que ces annees passees a Uzes furent laborieuses, et nous avons dans ces notes un specimen de ces fortes etudes par lesquelles l'eleve de Port - Royal se preparait aux oeuvres poetiques qu'il meditait deja, car, des son sejour a Uzes, il parait avoir ebauche la tragedie des Freres ennemis.

    About the Publisher

    Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

    This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

  • The Processes of Life - An Introduction to Molecular Biology

    A brief and accessible introduction to molecular biology for students and professionals who want to understand this rapidly expanding field.

    Recent research in molecular biology has produced a remarkably detailed understanding of how living things operate. Becoming conversant with the intricacies of molecular biology and its extensive technical vocabulary can be a challenge, though, as introductory materials often seem more like a barrier than an invitation to the study of life. This text offers a concise and accessible introduction to molecular biology, requiring no previous background in science, aimed at students and professionals in fields ranging from engineering to journalism--anyone who wants to get a foothold in this rapidly expanding field. It will be particularly useful for computer scientists exploring computational biology. A reader who has mastered the information in The Processes of Life is ready to move on to more complex material in almost any area of contemporary biology.

  • Visual Cortex and Deep Networks: Learning Invariant Representations

    A mathematical framework that describes learning of invariant representations in the ventral stream, offering both theoretical development and applications.

    The ventral visual stream is believed to underlie object recognition in primates. Over the past fifty years, researchers have developed a series of quantitative models that are increasingly faithful to the biological architecture. Recently, deep learning convolution networks--which do not reflect several important features of the ventral stream architecture and physiology--have been trained with extremely large datasets, resulting in model neurons that mimic object recognition but do not explain the nature of the computations carried out in the ventral stream. This book develops a mathematical framework that describes learning of invariant representations of the ventral stream and is particularly relevant to deep convolutional learning networks.

    The authors propose a theory based on the hypothesis that the main computational goal of the ventral stream is to compute neural representations of images that are invariant to transformations commonly encountered in the visual environment and are learned from unsupervised experience. They describe a general theoretical framework of a computational theory of invariance (with details and proofs offered in appendixes) and then review the application of the theory to the feedforward path of the ventral stream in the primate visual cortex.

  • Energy, Economic Growth, and Geopolitical Future - Eight Long-Range Scenarios

    Eight varied scenarios, integrating a quantitative model and qualitative analysis, that examine the interplay of three key drivers over the next four decades.

    This book presents eight varied scenarios of possible global futures, emphasizing the interconnectedness of three drivers of change: energy prices, economic growth, and geopolitics. Other published global future scenarios focus on only one of these factors, viewing, for example, economic growth as unaffected by energy prices or energy prices in isolation from geopolitical conditions. In this book, Evan Hillebrand and Stacy Closson offer a new approach to scenario construction that acknowledges the codependence of these key drivers and integrates qualitative analysis with a quantitative model.

    The eight scenarios represent possible combinations of high or low energy prices, strong or weak economic growth, and global harmony or disharmony across three time periods: the 2010s, 2020 to 2040, and 2040 to 2050. The "Regional Mercantilism" scenario, for example, envisions high energy prices, weak economic growth, and global disharmony. To impose numerical consistency across scenarios, Hillebrand and Closson employ the International Futures (IFs) model developed by Barry Hughes. (Interested readers can download this interactive model to alter or build scenarios themselves.) Assessing the probability of each scenario, they conclude that increased U.S. energy supply and the sustainability of the Chinese growth miracle are the most significant drivers over the next forty years.

  • Empirical Asset Pricing: Models and Methods

    An introduction to the theory and methods of empirical asset pricing, integrating classical foundations with recent developments.

    This book offers a comprehensive advanced introduction to asset pricing, the study of models for the prices and returns of various securities. The focus